peer-to-peer oppotunities

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A short tour about peer-to-peer applications, and their opportunities, in Jan 2008. Attendees were members of a "research and development cluster" on multimedia and networking

A short tour about peer-to-peer applications, and their opportunities, in Jan 2008. Attendees were members of a "research and development cluster" on multimedia and networking

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  • 1. Peer-to-Peer Introduction to a New Set of Opportunities Gwendal Simon Department of Computer Science TELECOM Bretagne Jan. 2008
  • 2. 2/ 17 Birth Context : Napster Shutdown Server • early adopters are addicted • early majority is just joining 0 1 2 3 4 5 • legal perspectives are dark Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 3. 2/ 17 Birth Context : Napster Shutdown Server • early adopters are addicted • early majority is just joining 0 1 2 3 4 5 • legal perspectives are dark 15 04 03 Gnutella : Serverless Napster 13 02 00 01 • simple but bad idea 11 09 12 19 • just a piece of software 07 06 14 05 • viral bazaar diffusion 18 16 10 08 17 Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 4. 2/ 17 Birth Context : Napster Shutdown Server • early adopters are addicted • early majority is just joining 0 1 2 3 4 5 • legal perspectives are dark 15 04 03 Gnutella : Serverless Napster 13 02 00 01 • simple but bad idea 11 09 12 19 • just a piece of software 07 06 14 05 • viral bazaar diffusion 18 16 10 08 17 Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 5. 3/ 17 Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 6. 4/ 17 Peer-to-Peer is not only File Sharing . . .but also large-scale legal applications : • where peers just have to be introduced : phone, storage. . . • where server become bottleneck : broadcasting. . . • where nobody should be responsible : virtual world, forums. . . Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 7. 4/ 17 Peer-to-Peer is not only File Sharing . . .but also large-scale legal applications : • where peers just have to be introduced : phone, storage. . . • where server become bottleneck : broadcasting. . . • where nobody should be responsible : virtual world, forums. . . Attractive Issues : no governance, nor understanding • academic : what exactly is scalable ? • developers : is the Bazaar consistent ? • users : what is the value when I contribute ? Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 8. 5/ 17 Part I Is there any Opportunity in the Bazaar ? Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 9. 6/ 17 Motivations network empirical law value per user global value broadcast (TV) Sarnoff 1 n one-to-one (phone) Metcalfe n n2 peer-to-peer Reed 2n 2n Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 10. 6/ 17 Motivations network empirical law value per user global value broadcast (TV) Sarnoff 1 n one-to-one (phone) Metcalfe n n2 peer-to-peer Reed 2n 2n Stirring up a community is the actual challenge : • aggregate a vast population • incite them to contribute ⇒ joining an existing community may be far easier (1047 projects referenced in Sourceforge) Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 11. 7/ 17 Yahoo’s Gnutella Developer Forum "a forum for active Gnutella developers without distractions" • developers from a company hosting an "official" client • independent open-source developers • just some curious guys. . . Emerging usage : normalization forum • protocol update, feature proposal, idea exchanges • Collateral usage : innovation center • feedback from users : chunk swarming • external opportunities : URN by Bitzi • technical development : bootstrap, NAT traversal Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 12. 8/ 17 Innovator’s Dilemma Cooperative or competitive behavior ? • actors are competitors : have to differentiate • the value is in Gnutella usefulness : have to cooperate Conciliate gain for the user and progressive adoption • no innovation should require full agreement • for most innovations, gain grows with the number of adopters • individual innovations (e.g. ergonomics) allow differentiating Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 13. 9/ 17 Business Opportunity A complex ecosystem : • leery of market economy : • bazaar culture implies free software • contributors are reluctant to pay • but attractive : • several millions of active users • a technophile population of online influencers Requires a hook mixing technical expertise and social understanding • out of the peer-to-peer system • but in the peer-to-peer activities Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 14. 10/ 17 Part II When Academic Studies Become Reality Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 15. 11/ 17 Peer-to-Peer Fundamentals 28 10 15 07 30 27 17 12 04 26 18 03 01 29 25 06 09 21 13 31 16 00 19 22 11 23 02 05 08 14 24 20 Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 16. 11/ 17 Peer-to-Peer Fundamentals 28 10 15 07 30 27 17 12 04 26 18 03 01 29 25 06 09 21 13 31 16 00 19 22 11 23 02 05 08 14 24 20 → each peer chooses some direct neighbors among all peers =⇒ it creates an overlay Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 17. 11/ 17 Peer-to-Peer Fundamentals 28 10 15 07 30 27 17 12 04 26 18 03 01 29 25 06 09 21 13 31 16 00 19 22 11 23 02 05 08 14 24 20 → each peer chooses some direct neighbors among all peers =⇒ it creates an overlay Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 18. 12/ 17 Few Mature Works Scientists have focused on few services : • diffusion of large files (bit-torrent) • distributed hash tables (DHT) : • store a pair (key, resource) in the system • give the key, retrieve the related resource • if a resource has been stored, it must be accessible Attractive implementations for controlled network : • server farm : managing a vast amount of resources • content delivery network (CDN) : pushing contents • network of boxes : the new eldorado Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 19. 13/ 17 DHT Principles (Chord) 16 19 18 14 13 20 12 21 10 23 09 08 25 07 06 28 04 30 02 31 01 32 00 33 63 37 39 57 41 44 47 50 Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 20. 13/ 17 DHT Principles (Chord) 16 19 18 14 13 20 12 21 10 23 09 08 25 07 06 28 04 i + 24 i + 23 30 02 31 01 32 00 33 63 i + 25 37 39 57 41 44 47 50 Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 21. 13/ 17 DHT Principles (Chord) 16 19 18 14 13 20 12 21 10 23 09 08 25 07 06 28 16 → 50 04 02 → 06 30 02 31 01 32 50 → 02 00 33 63 37 39 57 41 44 47 50 Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 22. 14/ 17 Business opportunities Any cost reduction on existing services ? • one overlay per need : initial development may be costly • decreasing server cost : gain for large-scale systems But new services are possible : • lightweight and immediately worldwide • relying on networking skills Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 23. 15/ 17 Part III Conclusive Thoughts Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 24. 16/ 17 I&R activities on peer-to-peer Few projects claim studying peer-to-peer : • Solipsis : a bazaar peer-to-peer virtual world • P2P-images : a industrial peer-to-peer streaming system However many academic skills on peer-to-peer in Bretagne : • computer sciences : world-class teams at IRISA and Telecom Bretagne • social and human sciences : M@rsouin gathers high-level institutes Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 25. 17/ 17 A Shift Along with Web2.0 trend : • capturing money requires complex models • empower a community → beta web-based eye-candy • both technical and social wow effect Also a deep scientific trend : • toward “one billion computers per human” • balancing power between edges and core network Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer
  • 26. 17/ 17 A Shift Along with Web2.0 trend : • capturing money requires complex models • empower a community → beta web-based eye-candy • both technical and social wow effect Also a deep scientific trend : • toward “one billion computers per human” • balancing power between edges and core network Few possible projects : • self-administered network : distributed package management • mixed reality : distributed “1.5 life” • tangible gifts : distributed Wikipedia Gwendal Simon : Peer-to-Peer