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Landforms and Oceans Presentation
 

Landforms and Oceans Presentation

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Landforms and Oceans Presentation Landforms and Oceans Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • LANDFORMS AND OCEANS Science Standard 5-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of features, processes, and changes in Earth's land and oceans.
  • 5-3.1 Explain how natural processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and floods) affect Earth's oceans and land in constructive and destructive ways.
  • What are constructive forces?
  • Constructive forces are processes that create or build up landforms.
  • What are destructive forces?
  • Destructive forces are processes that destroy or wear down landforms.
  • What are some examples of landforms?
  • pinker.wjh.harvard.edu/.../Grand%20Canyon.htm
  • gsbwww.uchicago.edu/.../porcupines.html
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  • Two Forces • Constructive: Building up an existing landform or forming a new one This building is being CONSTRUCTED. •Destructive: Changing or destroying an existing landform. This building is being DESTRUCTED.
  • What are natural processes? How do they affect land and oceans?
  • Weathering This is a destructive force and can be chemical or physical. It causes the surface of the earth to dissolve, decompose, and break into smaller pieces.
  • Weathering • Weathering: A slow, destructive process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces called sediment.
  • Erosion This is a destructive force. It is the movement of sediments and soil by wind, water, and gravity.
  • Erosion • The movement of materials away from one place. • Erosion is destructive.
  • Erosion Tune: "Jingle Bells" Running down a hill Or coming down as snow, Water causes much Erosion, this we know. Wave action moves the beach. A river carves the land. Everywhere that water goes, It Carries dirt or sand.    Chorus: Oh, wind and rain, snow and ice, Water running free; These all cause land to erode With changes we can see. Wind and rain, snow and ice, Water running free; These all cause land to erode With changes we can see .    Wind blowing in a gale, Or as gentle as a breeze, Wears the rock away, And carries sand with ease. A hurricane last year, And glaciers long ago, Are ways that natural forces use To change the earth we know. (Repeat Chorus)
  • Deposition This is a constructive force. It builds up new land by dropping or depositing sediments via water, wind, or ice.
  • Landslide This is a destructive force. This is a mass movement of land due to gravity. Landslides even occur in the ocean on the continental slope.
  • Landslide Landslides can cause buildings to fall, or power and gas lines to break.
  • Volcanic Eruption This is a constructive force. During an eruption, melted rock rises from deep within the earth and reaches the surface. They can also occur under the oceans.
  • Volcanic Eruption Seamounts are volcanoes that are built up under the ocean.
  • Earthquake This is a destructive force. Earthquakes are vibrations or a shaking of the ground caused by energy that is released from the Earth’s crust.
  • Earthquake Earthquakes under the ocean can cause huge waves (tsunamis) that cause great damage if they come ashore.
  • Flood This is both a destructive force and a constructive force. Floods occur when a large amount of water covers land that is normally dry. Rapid erosion can take place, but new sediment is left behind when the water recedes.
  • 5-3.2 Illustrate the geologic landforms of the ocean floor: *continental shelf *continental slope *mid-ocean ridge *rift zone *trench *ocean basin
  • Journey to Bottom of the Ocean
  • We will begin our journey where land meets the ocean. Do you know where we are? Yes. At the beach. Beaches are the fastest changing part of the ocean. They change with every wave.
  • Continental Shelf • The continental shelf is where the edge of the continent slopes down from the shore into the ocean. • It is the part of the continent located under water. • It is not the deepest part of the ocean.
  • Continental Slope • The continental slope is a steep drop-off at the edge of the shelf. • It drops to the bottom of the ocean floor, making the water much deeper.
  • Mid-Ocean Ridges • A mountain range on the ocean floor. • Some of these mountains are volcanic. • Volcanic mountains that ARE NOT found on the mid-ocean ridges are called seamounts.
  • For more information on the ridges, visit http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/MiOc/Mid-Ocean-Ridges.html
  • Rift Zone • In the center of the highest part of the midocean ridge is a narrow trench called a rift. • Underwater volcanic activity that adds mountains to either side of the mid-ocean ridge occurs at the rift zone.
  • Ocean Trench • The ocean trench is a steep sided canyon or deep narrow valley in the bottom of the ocean. • Trenches are the deepest part of the ocean basin and deeper than any valley found on land.
  • Ocean Basin • The ocean basin is located on either side of the mid-ocean ridge. • It is made up of low hills and flat plains. • The flat area of the basin is called the abyssal plains. • This is where seamounts are generally formed.
  • Seamount • These are volcanic mountains not formed on the mid-ocean ridge.
  • 5-3.3 Compare continental and oceanic landforms.
  • Earth is made of solid land. Some of the land is located above Earth’s water and some is located below the oceans.
  • Explain how landforms above the oceans are similar to those found below the oceans.
  • Continental Landform Oceanic Landform Canyon Trench Valley Rift Volcano Seamount Mountain range Mid-ocean ridge Low hills or plains Ocean basin and abyssal plain
  • 5-3.4 Explain how waves, currents, tides, and storms affect the geologic features of the ocean shore zone (including beaches, barrier islands, estuaries, and inlets).
  • Beaches http://www.virtualtourist.com/travel/North_America/United_States_of_America/South_Carolina/Charleston864816/Things_To_Do-Charleston-Beaches-BR-1.html
  • The shoreline, or coast, is the area where the land meets the ocean. Some shorelines are rocky. Shorelines made of sand are called beaches. Shorelines are always changing because of wind and water.
  • Waves can wear away the land and expose a rocky shore or the waves can deposit sand along the shore and form a beach. If the waves reach the beach at an angle, the sand is moved along the coast.
  • Currents, called longshore currents, along the shoreline can move sand from one location to another.
  • Tides can bring in sand, shells, and ocean sediments at high tide and leave them behind when the tide goes out.
  • Barrier Islands www.dnr.sc.gov/.../river/stewardship_gallery.htm
  • Islands are pieces of land surrounded by water on all sides. Islands with sandy beaches are called barrier islands.
  • These barrier islands are naturally occurring and function to protect the mainland from the effects of waves on its shore. As the waves deposit sand on the beaches, the shapes of the barrier islands change.
  • Currents can move the sand from one end of the island to the other.
  • Estuaries serc.carleton.edu/.../northinlet/index.html
  • All rivers flow into the oceans. The area where a river meets the ocean is known as an estuary. Estuaries have a mixture of freshwater and saltwater.
  • Waves can deposit sand in the estuaries. At high tide ocean water brings in sediments and sea life that feed and nourish life in the estuary.
  • Inlets www.ncsu.edu/.../sc/hunting2/hunting2.html
  • Inlets are the water-filled spaces between the barrier islands.
  • As the tides change, the amount of water in the inlet will change.
  • Ocean currents and storms can change the shape of an inlet opening.
  • Large storms, for example hurricanes, can also cause massive destruction to the shape of the beaches, barrier islands, estuaries, and inlets because they produce high waves and heavy winds.
  • 5-3.5 Compare the movement of water by waves, currents, and tides.
  • Volcanoes And Earthquakes This map shows how volcanoes and earthquakes occur along tectonic plate boundaries. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/teachers/activities/2515_vesuvius.html
  • http://www.mos.org/oceans/planet/features.html
  • Resources Magic School Bus Blows Its Top, The. Scholastic. 1995. unitedstreaming. 13 September 2006 <http://www.unitedstreaming.com/> (23:56)