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130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh
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130707 Agrarian crisis and way forward Andhra Pradesh

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  • 1. Agrarian Crisis and Farmers Suicides in AP Centre for Sustainable Agriculture and AP Rytu Swarajya Vedhika 1995-2012
  • 2. Crisis in Indian Agriculture • Andhra Pradesh recorded the first major spate of farmers suicides 1986 when more than 100 farmers committed suicide in Guntur and Prakasham districts with failure of cotton due to high white fly incidence • Second major spate of farmers suicides were seen in 1997-99 when cotton crop failed in Warangal, Karimnagar districts due to high incidence of bollworms. More than 3,000 farmers were reported to have end their lives • Third major spate of farmers suicides were started in 2004 with more than 2500 suicides were reported and this time it was all kinds of farmers. • Since 1995 Maharashtra also started reported farmers suicides particularly from Vidharba region which is largely cotton growing in rainfed areas
  • 3. What does governments say? • Governments tend to deny the problem and attribute other reasons for the tragedy • As a long term strategy governments talk about low carrying capacity of agriculture and moving people out of agriculture (Draft Agril Policy, Govt of AP, 1999) • Privatising extension and market services withdrawl of government from providing basic services (Draft Agril Policy, Govt of AP, 1999, Approach Paper to AP Agril, Ashok Gulati 2008) • Technological solutions like synthetic pyrethroids or Bt cotton • Crop diversification to high value crops (Draft Agril Policy, Govt of AP, 1999, Approach Paper to AP Agril, Ashok Gulati 2008)
  • 4. What does census say? (40.87%) (27.74 %) (39.64 %) (22.52 %) (43.04 %) (16.47 %) (68.61 %) (62.16 %) (59.51 %) • In last one decade 13,68,012 people have left farming and most of them became agriculture workers • This is on average 375/day
  • 5. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Farmers suicides in India No. of suicides Source: NCRB 1995-2012 Total 2,84,694 in 18 years http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  • 6. The table only includes States whose annual averages have risen or fallen by over 100 farm farm suicides between the to periods. It also treats Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh as one unit for data purposes. Source: NCRB Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Reports 1995-2012 Average (2004-12) Average (1995-03) Differe nce Andhra Pradesh 2376 1613 763 Assam 310 159 152 Jharkand 109 8 101 Madhya Pradesh+Chhattisgarh* 2513 2327 186 Maharashtra 3745 2656 1089 *MP state was formed in 2001 Increasing crisis
  • 7. Farmers Suicides in India, 2012 Four major cotton growing states form 68% of the suicides AP and Maharashtra form 46 % Source: NCRB 1995-2012, http://www.ncrb.nic.in Total 13754 http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  • 8. Farmers Suicides in India, 2011 Four major cotton growing states form 64% of the suicides AP and Maharashtra form 40 % Source: NCRB 1995-2012, http://www.ncrb.nic.in Total 14027 http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  • 9. 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Farmers suicides in Andhra Pradesh NCRB data State Govt Recognised Source: NCRB 1995-2012 http://www.ncrb.nic.in Total 35,898 in 18 years http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  • 10. Farmers Suicides in Andhra Pradesh Source: NCRB, 2012, http://www.ncrb.nic.in http://www.agrariancrisis.in Total: 14,516 Avg 1613/year Total: 21,382 Avg 2375/year
  • 11. Year Suicides according to NCRB Recognised by AP Govt 1995 1196 0 1996 1706 0 1997 1097 0 1998 1813 104 1999 1974 180 2000 1525 192 2001 1509 256 2002 1896 321 2003 1800 304 2004 2666 1178 2005 2490 654 2006 2607 561 2007 1797 512 2008 2105 488 2009 2414 321 2010 2525 259 2011 2206 260 2012 2572 93 Total 35898 5683 • 5241: Total farmers suicides recognized as genuine • 4879: Total families the study team met • Caste wise distribution – Backward classes: 2594 – Other classes: 1362 – Scheduled castes: 590 – Scheduled tribes: 382 • 3284: families receiving widow pension • 561: families do not have ration card • 2358: families not having pucca house, no sanction under INDIRAMMA housing scheme • 1109: families benefited under INDIRAMMA • 3787: families still struggling to earn their livelihoods • In the one lakh rupees paid as exgratia expenditure was • 46% to pay old loans • 22% agriculture investments • 17% miscellaneous expenditure – In the 50 thousand as loan resettlement 45% was to clear off bank loans Rehabilitating victim families
  • 12. Major Reasons • Increasing costs of cultivation due to – high input use – increasing costs of inputs, and – decreasing subsidies • Stagnating yields – Soil fertility going down – Monoculture of crops – Crops spreading into areas unsuitable for them • Shift to water intensive crops leading to – Ground water depletion – Failure of tubewells • Decreasing prices – Lower MSPs – Increasing price fluctuations after opening up of markets
  • 13. Increasing small holders Category No of holdings (in lakhs) Area (lakh ha) Average land holding (ha) 1995-96 2000-01 2010-11 1995-96 2000-01 2010-11 1995-96 2000-01 2010-11 Marginal (< 1ha) 63 (59.42) 70.23 (60.91) 8484.24 (63.95) 29.04 (20.20) 31.04 (21.56) 3737.27 (26.08) 0.46 0.44 0.44 Small (1 to 2 ha) 22.62 (21.33) 25.18 (21.84) 2929.18 (22.15) 32.29 (22.47) 35.65 (24.75) 4141.19 (28.83) 1.43 1.42 1.41 Semi medium (2 to 4 ha) 13.95 (13.16) 14.23 (12.34) 1313.99 (10.62) 37.36 (25.99) 37.95 (26.36) 3636.84 (25.78) 2.68 2.67 2.6363 Subtotal 99.57 (93.91) 109.64 (95.08) 127.42 (96.72) 98.69 (68.67) 104.64 (72.67) 115.3 (80.69) Medium (4 to 10 ha) 5.63 (5.31) 5.01 (4.34) 33.97 (3.01) 32.31 (22.48) 28.55 (19.83) 2222.08 (15.45) 5.74 5.7 5.5656 Large (> 10 ha) 0.83 (0.78) 0.66 (0.57) 0.3535 (0.2727) 12.73 (8.86) 10.80 (7.5) 55.50 (3.85) 15.34 16.36 15.5050 Total 106.03 (100) 115.31 (100) 131.73 (100) 143.73 (100) 143.99 (100) 142.88 (100) 1.36 1.25 1.0808 Source: Directorate of Economics and Statistics – 2012. (figures in parentheses are percentage of total)
  • 14. No. of holdings Class No. of Holdings Growth rate 2005-06 2010-11 Marginal (0.5-1.0 ha) 74,17,460 84,27,700 13.58 Small (1.0-2.0 ha) 26,39,110 29,18,370 10.58 Semi-Medium (2.0-4.0 ha) 14,44,080 13,99,120 -3.11 Medium (4.0-10.0 ha) 4,87,430 3,97,260 -18.50 Large (above 10.0 ha) 56,040 35,650 -36.38 Total 1,20,44,120 1,31,75,100 9.39
  • 15. Increasing tenancy Loan Elgibility Cards 2011-12 2012-13 No.of Cards Reissued 0 244082 Fresh Issues 576147 179243 Total Cards Issued 576147 423325 No.of farmers accessed loan 197747 126157 % of Farmers accessed loan 34 30 • Increasing tenancy • 40 lakh tenant farmers • Increasing tenancy • No access to credit, insurance, compensations • During 2012-13 against the target of Rs. 37,127.77 crore (Rs. 23,827.50 cr kharif target) loans disbursed were 23,282.82 cr. • Target was also to cover 12 lakh tenant farmers (2000 cr) but only Rs. 183 cr was sanctioned • Among the targeted 12 lakh tenant farmers loan elgibility cards were given only to 4.23 lakhs (1.79 lakhs new and remaining 2.44 were renewed) and among them only 1.26 lakh tenant farmers have got access to credit • Total amount sanctioned as loan is Rs. 183.03 and more than half of it goes to West Godavari district
  • 16. Decreasing access to credit Type of Location Number of Branches as on March 31,2005 March 31, 2006 March 31, 2012 Rural 2,829 (47.19) 2,852 (46.42) 33,245(36.55) Semi Urban 1,365 (22.72) 1,394 (22.69) 22,327(26.21) Urban 1,206 (20.12) 1,278 (20.80) 22,096(23.61) Metropolitan 594 (9.90) 619 (10.07) 11,210(13.63) Total 5,994 6,143 88,878
  • 17. Cotton Yields and Farmers Suicides in Andhra Pradesh Source: NCRB, 2012, http://www.ncrb.nic.in, Cotton yields DES data http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  • 18. Cotton yields in Andhra Pradesh (Lint in kg/ha) Cotton yields DES data http://www.agrariancrisis.in
  • 19. 1980-81* 1990-91* 2000-2001** 2010-11** Crop Gross Cropped area % Gross Cropped Area % Gross Cropped Area % Gross Cropped Area % Paddy 1453 28.92 2418.4 56.16 4243 36.40 4752 42.42 Coarse cereals 1796.4 35.76 239.8 5.57 1514 12.99 1137 10.15 Wheat 4.1 0.08 0.5 0.01 11 0.09 10 0.09 Pulses 437.9 8.72 620 14.40 1902 16.31 2131 19.02 Oilseeds 990.9 19.72 740.9 17.21 2697 23.13 2472 22.07 Cotton 232.8 4.63 93.7 2.18 1022 8.77 1784 15.93 Sugar cane 77.4 1.54 144.4 3.35 217 1.86 192 1.71 Tobacco 31.2 0.62 48.5 1.13 52 0.45 157 1.40 Grand Total 5023.7 100.00 4306.20 100.00 11658 100.00 11202 112.79 Source: * A.Vaidyanathan (2005) Report on the analysis of data of cost of cultivation surveys undertaken by the Indian Society of Agricultural Economics CULTURAL ECONOMICS and DES 2010-11 Season & Crop Report. Changing Cropping patterns (in lakh ha)
  • 20. Cotton yields DES data http://www.agrariancrisis.in Increasing Cotton Area 1956-2011
  • 21. Problems in estimating yields • Considerable divergence exists between yields obtained from Crop Cutting Experiments (CCEs) and those from Comprehensive Scheme (CS Scheme) to study Cost of Cultivations both by Department of Economics and Statistics (DES) of Ministry of Agriculture • In the last ten years between 2001-01 to 2009-10 on average the yields estimated by CCEs were lower than CS Scheme across crops viz., – Paddy (19.7%) – Maize (10.80%) – Tur (17.12%) – Soybean (16.41%) – Groundnut (-0.82%) – Cotton (301.97%) • CACP takes the yields from the CS scheme significantly underestimating per quintal cost of production. • CACP collects the data from CS Scheme through 5800 centres through the state agriculture universities where as the CCEs are done across 9,73,184 centres with the help of State Governments.
  • 22. Year CCEs CS Scheme % Deviation 2000-01 2.77 12.42 348.93 2001-02 2.88 13.41 365.65 2002-03 2.30 17.66 668.62 2003-04 3.84 21.01 447.32 2004-05 3.16 18.05 471.12 2005-06 3.47 12.40 257.12 2006-07 3.81 21.77 470.72 2007-08 5.23 23.55 349.99 2008-09 4.34 17.83 311.12 410.10 Deviation between CCE and CSS estimates Cotton
  • 23. Crop A2+FL/ha C2/ha A2+FL/q C2/q C3/q Yield q/ha Implicit price/q MSP/q Paddy 35104.50 54202.54 603.62 932.35 1033.43 54.69 1122.25 1050 Cotton 27204.15 42919.35 1525.73 2405.53 2547.15 17.53 2905.54 3000 Jower 16012.21 23757.04 1000.62 1429.67 1572.64 14.17 1452.57 540 Maize 26735.73 35564.55 576.95 531.69 917.69 44.25 547.34 540 Redgram 16519.59 30960.04 1674.31 3149.79 3465.00 9.50 4316.33 2300 Moong 7351.55 12624.29 2340.03 4013.55 4414.92 3.14 5103.19 2750 Blackgram 14304.52 25555.33 1615.53 2554.59 3207.54 5.54 4422.75 2520 Groundnut 24771.12 35699.44 1765.24 2537.04 2791.30 13.27 2312.25 2100 Cost estimations for 2009-10
  • 24. CACP classification
  • 25. Suggestions for immediate action • A comprehensive relief and rehabilitation package needs to be evolved to address the distress conditions of bereaved families. – Enough to take care of the problems related to immediate debt relief (public and private), release of land from mortgage, livelihood support (agriculture and non agriculture), education of the children and health needs – widow pension to the tune of Rs.5000/- per month to meet the survival needs of the family – simplifying the procedures of proving the case. The implementation of special package should be given to Panchayat and block offices. – The categorization of suicides into “genuine” and not genuine should be immediately scrapped. – Linking of all the deceased families with all existing government schemes on special priority is necessary. Schemes like MGNREGA, subsidized food grains of at least 35 kgs, insurance and pensions. • Address the issues of the families in extreme distress conditions and on the verge of suicide without waiting for a suicide to happen. This could include: debt relief, insurance coverage, release of land under mortgage, linking with existing food schemes etc. • The government should invest more in support of sustainable agriculture • Immediately expand and revise the MSPs to remunerative levels, and initiate procurement operations. The prices should provide the farmers sufficient margins above their actual cost of cultivation. Timely and effective procurement directly from the farmers by government agencies such as FCI and CCI should be ensured, for paddy and cotton as well as dryland crops. • Provide effective crop insurance and credit to majority of farmers including tenant farmers and non-loanee farmers and ensure proper implementation.
  • 26. Addressing the root cause • The government should introduce a “Price Compensation” system, especially for all the food crops where MSP is declared. Whenever the MSPs or actual market prices do not meet the target price (equal to Cost of Cultivation + 50%), the shortfall should be paid to the farmer directly. The farmer should no longer be forced to bear the burden of keeping food prices low for consumers. • Government should ensure income security for all farm households, including resorting to direct income support for covering living costs for dignified livelihoods if other measures don’t provide the same. • Promote sustainable agriculture that will reduce costs of cultivation and reduce crop risk by agri-diversity based and agro-ecological farming. A programmatic thrust along with appropriate and adequate support systems is required to spread sustainable agriculture like the CMSA program in Andhra Pradesh. The importance of grassroots farmer institutions cannot be overemphasized. • For rainfed areas which constitute about 60% of the total cultivated area in India, there should be a comprehensive mission to sustain agriculture and farmer livelihoods. This should be focused on diverse cropping systems, ensuring protective irrigation and strengthening livestock based livelihoods. Government investments in rainfed areas should be immediately doubled. • Provide bank credit to the farmers with adequate scale of finance, increase priority sector lending for agriculture and ensure correct implementation to reach small farmers.
  • 27. CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE http://www.csa-india.org http://www.krishi.tv http://www.agrariancrisis.in http://www.sahajaaharam.in http://www.indiaforsafefood.in http://www.kisanswaraj.in Ph. 040-27017735, mobile : 09000699702 csa@csa-india.org, ramoo.csa@gmail.com Facebook: ramoo.agripage

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