2009 Tire Inflation and Attitudinal Study<br />May, 2010<br />
CONTENTS<br />Stakeholders<br />Background<br />Methodology<br />Vehicles Surveyed<br />Tire Data<br />Tire Care Attitudes...
STAKEHOLDERS<br />http:// www.rubberassociation.ca<br />The Rubber Association of Canada is the national trade association...
STAKEHOLDERS<br />http://www.desrosiers.ca<br />DesRosiers Automotive Consultants Inc. (DAC) has, for nearly 25 years,  be...
STAKEHOLDERS<br />http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca<br />Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) is Canada's cen...
STAKEHOLDERS<br />http://www.auto21.ca<br />AUTO21 is a multi-disciplinary, auto-related research and development (R&D) in...
                                                <br />BACKGROUND<br />The Consumer Tire Inflation Study sampled consumers ...
BACKGROUND<br />Objective<br /><ul><li>The 2009 Tire Study serves to determine the current knowledge levels and motivators...
Specifically, this study was implemented to determine if Canadians have improved their tire inflation habits since 2003, w...
The 2003 study set the benchmark for the level of tire inflation (under/over inflation) across Canada.  The current study ...
BACKGROUND<br />Data<br /><ul><li>The results presented represent the complete data set, consisting of 1,811 survey respon...
For some questions, some survey data was omitted, either due to lack of respondent willingness to answer said question, or...
BACKGROUND<br />Data<br /><ul><li>The data set is national in scope, representing respondents from Vancouver in the West t...
Statistically, the total sample is large enough so that the overall results are accurate to within 2.5 percentage points, ...
METHODOLOGY<br />Overview<br /><ul><li>300 consumer interviews in each of 6 locations across Canada for a total sample of ...
  Vancouver  - University of British Columbia
  Calgary – University of Alberta
  Winnipeg – University of Manitoba
  Toronto – University of Toronto
Sherbrooke - L'Université de Sherbrooke
  Fredericton – University of New Brunswick
Consumer interviews plus field data collection coordinated by AUTO21
Vehicles were sampled based on a segment quota system derived from current vehicle registration data for each location.</l...
METHODOLOGY<br />Survey Agents<br /><ul><li>Through AUTO21, engineering professors at each location were approached, who i...
Preference was given to 4th year and graduate students.
The students and professors were trained by DAC in all areas of the survey process, including a walk-through of the survey...
METHODOLOGY<br />Vehicle Selection Criteria<br /><ul><li>Private passenger vehicles.  Not commercial usage.
Under 4536KG (10,000lbs) gross vehicle weight rating (GVRW)
Avoided vehicles that had non-original specification, or dual rear  wheels and tires.
Location-specific vehicle segment criteria.</li></ul>13<br />
METHODOLOGY<br />Survey Process<br /><ul><li>Consumers were approached at self-service filling stations and asked question...
The interview took 12 – 15 minutes.  During this interview, tire pressure and tread depth data were collected from the con...
No consumer names, addresses, or license plate information were collected and all individual data collected during this st...
METHODOLOGY<br />Survey Process<br /><ul><li>To help educate consumers on this important topic, participating consumers, a...
METHODOLOGY<br />Key Data Fields<br /><ul><li>Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)
Tire Markings (Sizing)
Tire Pressure
Tire Tread Depth</li></ul>16<br />
METHODOLOGY<br />Tire Pressure Measurement<br /><ul><li>For the purpose of this study, tire pressure was measured in pound...
Team members replaced any missing valve caps with stock provided.
Consumers were notified of a marked difference in the pressure levels in one or more of their 4 tires.</li></ul>17<br />
METHODOLOGY<br />Tire Pressure Measurement<br /><ul><li>Normally, tires should be measured “cold” – when they have been dr...
At the same time, all service station locations were situated in urban areas, predisposing them to a larger “cold” tire sa...
The tire measurement procedure was consistent with what was performed in 2003, allowing for comparison between the two stu...
METHODOLOGY<br />Tire Tread Depth<br /><ul><li>For the purpose of this study, tire tread depth was measured in 32nd of an ...
Team members measured the centre of the tire tread for tread depth avoiding contact with tire wear bars.</li></ul>19<br />
METHODOLOGY<br />Public Safety Issues<br /><ul><li>In consideration of consumer safety, team members,  to the best of thei...
Excessive tire wear
An imbedded object or cut in the tire sidewall
An imbedded object in the tire tread
Separation of tread.
Excessive damage to the rim
Visible damage to tire valve</li></ul>20<br />
VEHICLES SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>The sample representation is slightly younger than that of the national fleet.</li></ul>21<...
VEHICLES SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>A higher proportion of passenger cars were surveyed  relative to Canadian registrations.
Lower light truck representation was seen among pick up trucks and vans.</li></ul>22<br />
VEHICLES SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>The proportion of import nameplate vehicles surveyed (vs. domestic) is higher than that pre...
However, the subgroups are well represented within each respective domestic/import designation.</li></ul>23<br />
VEHICLES SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>The spectrum of odometer readings is relatively even across the sample.</li></ul>24<br />
CONSUMERS  SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>The age of the consumers sampled reflects the age of drivers across Canada.</li></ul>25<b...
CONSUMERS  SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>More men responded to the survey than women.
The male/female split is much closer to even than the 2003 study (70:30).</li></ul>26<br />
TIRE DATA<br /><ul><li>Recommended tire pressure varies across a broad range, as vehicle sizes and weights differ.  The ma...
TIRE DATA<br /><ul><li>Tire inflation in Canada has improved vastly from the 2003 study to the 2009 study, as the proporti...
TIRE DATA<br /><ul><li>Improvements in both under and overinflation are evident in the 2009 study.  Of particular note, un...
TIRE DATA<br />Possible Rationale for Improved Tire Inflation Results<br /><ul><li>Improved consumer education, awareness ...
Increase in tire changeovers (for winter tires – spring and fall)
Advanced technology – nitrogen inflation and the proliferation of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems
Differences in the average ambient temperatures recorded during each study – the 2003 study was performed in the winter wh...
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2009 Tire Maintenance Study Final Revised (Slides 28 29 31 33 36)

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Consumer Tire inflation and Attitudinal Study

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  • 1996 and earlier should be about 25%... 1997-2001 is good…. The other two are high.
  • Check this with Martin
  • Domestics under-represented ….. 39% (vs. 60%)
  • 2009 Tire Maintenance Study Final Revised (Slides 28 29 31 33 36)

    1. 1. 2009 Tire Inflation and Attitudinal Study<br />May, 2010<br />
    2. 2. CONTENTS<br />Stakeholders<br />Background<br />Methodology<br />Vehicles Surveyed<br />Tire Data<br />Tire Care Attitudes & Habits<br />2<br />
    3. 3. STAKEHOLDERS<br />http:// www.rubberassociation.ca<br />The Rubber Association of Canada is the national trade association representing the interests of tire manufacturers.<br />The Consumer Tire Inflation Study is part of The Rubber Association of Canada’s Consumer Tire Education Initiative.<br />3<br />
    4. 4. STAKEHOLDERS<br />http://www.desrosiers.ca<br />DesRosiers Automotive Consultants Inc. (DAC) has, for nearly 25 years, been a primary source of market research and management consulting to Canada’s automotive sector.<br />Our clients have included companies from along the full length of the automotive sector supply chain, from raw material suppliers to OE parts suppliers, vehicle assemblers, dealer organizations and aftermarket manufacturers and distributors. As well, we have completed assignments for government departments and agencies at all levels, industry associations and have worked extensively with financial institutions providing sector analysis and market risk due diligence services. <br />4<br />
    5. 5. STAKEHOLDERS<br />http://oee.nrcan.gc.ca<br />Natural Resources Canada’s Office of Energy Efficiency (OEE) is Canada's centre of excellence for energy conservation, efficiency and alternative fuels information. The OEE is mandated to strengthen and expand Canada's commitment to energy efficiency in order to help address the Government of Canada's policy objectives.<br />In addition, the OEE offers grants and incentives and other resources, including workshops for professionals, statistics and analysis, awards and hundreds of free publications<br />5<br />
    6. 6. STAKEHOLDERS<br />http://www.auto21.ca<br />AUTO21 is a multi-disciplinary, auto-related research and development (R&D) initiative established by the Canadian Federal Networks of Centres of Excellence (NCE) program. <br />The federal government established the AUTO21 NCE to help position Canada as a leader in automotive research and development. To achieve this mandate, AUTO21 supports researchers at universities across the country who are working on innovative, applied auto-related research.<br />Partnering the public and private sectors, AUTO21 currently supports more than 300 researchers across Canada working on 54 auto-related projects in a variety of areas. <br />6<br />
    7. 7.                                                 <br />BACKGROUND<br />The Consumer Tire Inflation Study sampled consumers in six locations across Canada to determine current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding their vehicle tire inflation pressure.<br />Fredericton<br />Sherbrooke<br />Calgary<br />Winnipeg<br />Vancouver<br />Toronto<br />7<br />
    8. 8. BACKGROUND<br />Objective<br /><ul><li>The 2009 Tire Study serves to determine the current knowledge levels and motivators of Canadian consumers in regards to tire inflation and tire maintenance.
    9. 9. Specifically, this study was implemented to determine if Canadians have improved their tire inflation habits since 2003, when a national under inflation problem was revealed by a similar study.
    10. 10. The 2003 study set the benchmark for the level of tire inflation (under/over inflation) across Canada. The current study was designed to replicate its predecessor as closely as possible in order to provide an “apples to apples” comparison with the results from 2003. </li></ul>8<br />
    11. 11. BACKGROUND<br />Data<br /><ul><li>The results presented represent the complete data set, consisting of 1,811 survey respondents.
    12. 12. For some questions, some survey data was omitted, either due to lack of respondent willingness to answer said question, or to ensure quality control in the case of survey inconsistencies. These adjustments were few and minor, and do not affect the statistical relevance of the study.</li></ul>9<br />
    13. 13. BACKGROUND<br />Data<br /><ul><li>The data set is national in scope, representing respondents from Vancouver in the West to Fredericton in the East.
    14. 14. Statistically, the total sample is large enough so that the overall results are accurate to within 2.5 percentage points, nineteen times out of twenty. </li></ul>10<br />
    15. 15. METHODOLOGY<br />Overview<br /><ul><li>300 consumer interviews in each of 6 locations across Canada for a total sample of 1800.
    16. 16. Vancouver - University of British Columbia
    17. 17. Calgary – University of Alberta
    18. 18. Winnipeg – University of Manitoba
    19. 19. Toronto – University of Toronto
    20. 20. Sherbrooke - L'Université de Sherbrooke
    21. 21. Fredericton – University of New Brunswick
    22. 22. Consumer interviews plus field data collection coordinated by AUTO21
    23. 23. Vehicles were sampled based on a segment quota system derived from current vehicle registration data for each location.</li></ul>11<br />
    24. 24. METHODOLOGY<br />Survey Agents<br /><ul><li>Through AUTO21, engineering professors at each location were approached, who in turn, hired engineering students to perform the survey.
    25. 25. Preference was given to 4th year and graduate students.
    26. 26. The students and professors were trained by DAC in all areas of the survey process, including a walk-through of the survey and where to find certain information, proper measuring techniques, safety procedures, vehicle criteria, and strategies for approaching drivers and conducting a successful survey.</li></ul>12<br />
    27. 27. METHODOLOGY<br />Vehicle Selection Criteria<br /><ul><li>Private passenger vehicles. Not commercial usage.
    28. 28. Under 4536KG (10,000lbs) gross vehicle weight rating (GVRW)
    29. 29. Avoided vehicles that had non-original specification, or dual rear wheels and tires.
    30. 30. Location-specific vehicle segment criteria.</li></ul>13<br />
    31. 31. METHODOLOGY<br />Survey Process<br /><ul><li>Consumers were approached at self-service filling stations and asked questions about their knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of their vehicles tire pressure.
    32. 32. The interview took 12 – 15 minutes. During this interview, tire pressure and tread depth data were collected from the consumer’s vehicle as well as the vehicle make, model, VIN number, and GVWR.
    33. 33. No consumer names, addresses, or license plate information were collected and all individual data collected during this study will be kept strictly confidential.</li></ul>14<br />
    34. 34. METHODOLOGY<br />Survey Process<br /><ul><li>To help educate consumers on this important topic, participating consumers, and those who declined, were provided with tread depth indicator cards and brochures published by the Rubber Association of Canada and Transport Canada that provide valuable information on proper tire maintenance and road safety. </li></ul>15<br />
    35. 35. METHODOLOGY<br />Key Data Fields<br /><ul><li>Vehicle Identification Number (VIN)
    36. 36. Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR)
    37. 37. Tire Markings (Sizing)
    38. 38. Tire Pressure
    39. 39. Tire Tread Depth</li></ul>16<br />
    40. 40. METHODOLOGY<br />Tire Pressure Measurement<br /><ul><li>For the purpose of this study, tire pressure was measured in pounds per square inch (PSI) using only the instruments provided.
    41. 41. Team members replaced any missing valve caps with stock provided.
    42. 42. Consumers were notified of a marked difference in the pressure levels in one or more of their 4 tires.</li></ul>17<br />
    43. 43. METHODOLOGY<br />Tire Pressure Measurement<br /><ul><li>Normally, tires should be measured “cold” – when they have been driven for less than 2 km or have been stationary for at least 3 hours. Due to the logistics of the data collection, it was not possible to guarantee “cold” tire samples.
    44. 44. At the same time, all service station locations were situated in urban areas, predisposing them to a larger “cold” tire sample
    45. 45. The tire measurement procedure was consistent with what was performed in 2003, allowing for comparison between the two studies.</li></ul>18<br />
    46. 46. METHODOLOGY<br />Tire Tread Depth<br /><ul><li>For the purpose of this study, tire tread depth was measured in 32nd of an inch using only the instruments provided.
    47. 47. Team members measured the centre of the tire tread for tread depth avoiding contact with tire wear bars.</li></ul>19<br />
    48. 48. METHODOLOGY<br />Public Safety Issues<br /><ul><li>In consideration of consumer safety, team members, to the best of their ability, informed consumers if the following tire/wheel conditions were observed during field data collection:
    49. 49. Excessive tire wear
    50. 50. An imbedded object or cut in the tire sidewall
    51. 51. An imbedded object in the tire tread
    52. 52. Separation of tread.
    53. 53. Excessive damage to the rim
    54. 54. Visible damage to tire valve</li></ul>20<br />
    55. 55. VEHICLES SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>The sample representation is slightly younger than that of the national fleet.</li></ul>21<br />
    56. 56. VEHICLES SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>A higher proportion of passenger cars were surveyed relative to Canadian registrations.
    57. 57. Lower light truck representation was seen among pick up trucks and vans.</li></ul>22<br />
    58. 58. VEHICLES SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>The proportion of import nameplate vehicles surveyed (vs. domestic) is higher than that present in the Canadian fleet mix.
    59. 59. However, the subgroups are well represented within each respective domestic/import designation.</li></ul>23<br />
    60. 60. VEHICLES SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>The spectrum of odometer readings is relatively even across the sample.</li></ul>24<br />
    61. 61. CONSUMERS SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>The age of the consumers sampled reflects the age of drivers across Canada.</li></ul>25<br />
    62. 62. CONSUMERS SURVEYED<br /><ul><li>More men responded to the survey than women.
    63. 63. The male/female split is much closer to even than the 2003 study (70:30).</li></ul>26<br />
    64. 64. TIRE DATA<br /><ul><li>Recommended tire pressure varies across a broad range, as vehicle sizes and weights differ. The majority of OEM recommended tire pressure falls under 30, 32, and 35 psi..</li></ul>27<br />
    65. 65. TIRE DATA<br /><ul><li>Tire inflation in Canada has improved vastly from the 2003 study to the 2009 study, as the proportion of vehicles with at least one tire more than 10% above or below OEM recommendation fell from 71% to 49%.</li></ul>28<br />
    66. 66. TIRE DATA<br /><ul><li>Improvements in both under and overinflation are evident in the 2009 study. Of particular note, underinflation of at least one tire has subsided, falling from 56% in 2003 to 32% in 2009. </li></ul>29<br />
    67. 67. TIRE DATA<br />Possible Rationale for Improved Tire Inflation Results<br /><ul><li>Improved consumer education, awareness and attitudes
    68. 68. Increase in tire changeovers (for winter tires – spring and fall)
    69. 69. Advanced technology – nitrogen inflation and the proliferation of Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems
    70. 70. Differences in the average ambient temperatures recorded during each study – the 2003 study was performed in the winter while the 2009 study was performed in the summer/fall.</li></ul>30<br />
    71. 71. TIRE DATA<br />31<br />
    72. 72. TIRE DATA<br />32<br />
    73. 73. TIRE DATA<br />Tire Inflation Summary<br />(by Odometer Reading – Km)<br />33<br />
    74. 74. TIRE DATA<br />Average Tire Pressure vs. Recommended Pressure <br />(if Under Inflated)<br /><ul><li>Front tires tend to be more underinflated than rear tires.
    75. 75. In 2009, underinflated front tires were about 3 PSI below recommendation, versus 4 PSI in 2003. Similar improvements are seen on rear tires as well.</li></ul>34<br />
    76. 76. TIRE DATA<br />Average Tire Pressure vs. Recommended Pressure <br />(if Over Inflated)<br /><ul><li>Similar to underinflation, front tires tend to be more overinflated than rear tires.
    77. 77. A slight improvement among overinflated tires is seen in 2009 versus 2003.</li></ul>35<br />
    78. 78. TIRE DATA<br />36<br />
    79. 79. TIRE DATA<br /><ul><li>The average tire had a tread depth of 7/32” in 2009.
    80. 80. Among the 7,000 tires measured, only 74 were recorded as having a tread depth of 2/32” or less, the legal and safety minimum requirement. This equates to 1% of all tires.</li></ul>37<br />
    81. 81. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>More than half of total respondents indicated having their vehicle’s tires rotated either the last time it was serviced or within the twelve months previous – in both the 2003 and 2009 studies.</li></ul>38<br />
    82. 82. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>The proportion of respondents who indicated “never” having a wheel alignment performed declined from 28% in 2003 to 19% in 2009. Over the same period, “do not know” responses rose from 13% to 18%.</li></ul>39<br />
    83. 83. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>Nearly half of Canadian drivers are aware that it is optimal to check tire pressure when tires are cold.
    84. 84. Respondents who stated “don’t know” made up nearly a quarter of the sample. Including “either” responses, 39% of Canadians do not know when the best time to check tire pressure is.
    85. 85. “When cold” responses tended to increase consistently with respondent age, rising from 39.0% for 16-24 year olds, to 58.6% for those aged 70 years or older.</li></ul>40<br />
    86. 86. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>When asked to rate each factor, most respondents considered all areas very important.
    87. 87. From 2003 to 2009, “to improve fuel economy” increased in importance, ranking fourth in 2003 versus second in 2009.</li></ul>41<br />
    88. 88. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>Physical cues, such as the tire looking low or changes in handling/steering are the major motivators for getting consumers to check their tire pressure.</li></ul>42<br />
    89. 89. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>More than a quarter of drivers believe that the appropriate tire pressure is indicated on the tire sidewall.
    90. 90. 52% of respondents know the correct location to reference recommended tire pressure (owner’s manual or placard), compared to 38% in 2003.</li></ul>43<br />
    91. 91. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>Personal air pressure gauges stand alone as the most common means of checking tire pressure.</li></ul>44<br />
    92. 92. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>Physical cues most often determine when a consumer checks their tire inflation.
    93. 93. Temporal and situational factors are also strong drivers, such as when the car is being serviced, when preparing for a long trip, and when seasons change.</li></ul>45<br />
    94. 94. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>In 2009, 30% of respondents indicated that they check their tires for proper inflation at least once a month, the RAC’s recommended interval.
    95. 95. In 2003, 39% of drivers indicated that they were within this range.</li></ul>46<br />
    96. 96. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>Considering that 30% of respondents report that they check their tire inflation every month or more often, it is no surprise that many do not believe they should do so more frequently.
    97. 97. Regardless, there is opportunity for increased consumer education.</li></ul>47<br />
    98. 98. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>More than half of drivers surveyed indicated that a notice on the gas pump would be a good way to inform consumers of the importance of proper tire inflation.
    99. 99. Intuitively, this seems reasonable. There is a higher propensity to check fluids and tire pressure when stopped at a service station, as the required equipment and potential products are readily available.</li></ul>48<br />
    100. 100. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>6% of consumers indicated that they have nitrogen inflated tires. This corresponds with actual readings, indicating that those who have nitrogen in their tires are generally aware of it. </li></ul>49<br />
    101. 101. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br /><ul><li>In 2007, the U.S. government mandated TPMS to come standard on all new light vehicles. This requirement was phased in, with 70% of the total fleet required to come equipped with TPMS in 2007. While Transport Canada has yet to adopt such a policy, most technology and features are commonly shared between vehicles within the two markets, thus increasing TPMS proliferation in Canada as well.</li></ul>50<br />
    102. 102. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br />Awareness of Location of Tire Placard/Sticker<br /><ul><li>Including those who said that they knew where the Placard was, but could not locate it when asked to, 70% of respondents did not know where to find the Placard for their vehicle, or even that such a thing exists.
    103. 103. This represents a significant opportunity for consumer education, especially among women (vs. men), of whom only 17% said they were aware of the Placard’s positioning and could locate it.</li></ul>51<br />
    104. 104. TIRE CARE ATTITUDES & HABITS<br />Use of Placard/Sticker to Determine Correct Tire Information – if aware of location<br /><ul><li>Among the 30% of consumers who know where the placard/sticker is located, 61% have actually referenced it to determine correct tire information.</li></ul>52<br />
    105. 105. OPINIONS ON AGGRESSIVE DRIVING & FUEL ECONOMY<br /><ul><li>Canadians consider jackrabbit starts and speeding to have the greatest impact on reducing fuel efficiency.</li></ul>53<br />
    106. 106. OPINIONS ON AGGRESSIVE DRIVING & FUEL ECONOMY<br />54<br />
    107. 107. OPINIONS ON AGGRESSIVE DRIVING & FUEL ECONOMY<br />55<br />
    108. 108. OPINIONS ON AGGRESSIVE DRIVING & FUEL ECONOMY<br />56<br />
    109. 109. OPINIONS ON AGGRESSIVE DRIVING & FUEL ECONOMY<br />57<br />
    110. 110. OPINIONS ON AGGRESSIVE DRIVING & FUEL ECONOMY<br />58<br />
    111. 111. OPINIONS ON AGGRESSIVE DRIVING & FUEL ECONOMY<br />59<br />
    112. 112. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />60<br />
    113. 113. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />61<br />
    114. 114. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />62<br />
    115. 115. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />63<br />
    116. 116. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />64<br />
    117. 117. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br /><ul><li>The recycling of scrap tires to make new rubber products is ranked most desirable among Canadian consumers.</li></ul>65<br />
    118. 118. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />66<br />
    119. 119. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />67<br />
    120. 120. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />68<br />
    121. 121. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />69<br />
    122. 122. OPINIONS ON TIRE RECYCLING<br />70<br />

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