Retail Store Location
For long this P has been considered as a most important in
retailing.
Selecting a market area and sp...
Retail Store Location…
The ultimate goal is maximum customer access
Market and location selection depends upon target mark...
Importance of Location
Good Location CAN Overcome Mediocre
Strategy Mix
Poor Location Difficult to Overcome
Requires Exten...
Problem with shifting location
Heavy Investment
New Location May Not Have Same
Characteristics
Store Fixtures and Renovati...
Site Selection Steps
Evaluate
Alternate
Geographic
(Trading)
Areas
Determine
Type of Location

Select
General
Location

An...
Trading-Area Analysis
A trading area is a geographic area
containing the customers of a
particular firm or group of firms
...
Trading area analysis
A trade area should account for more than 50% or
higher sales
Trade area can be a nation/ single nei...
Trading Area Parts
Often the trading area is broken down in
primary, secondary, tertiary or fringe areas
Primary area shou...
Trading Area
Size and Shape of Trading Area
Not Concentric
Two Stores in Same Area Can Have Different
Trading Areas (TA)
Trading Area Analysis Benefits
Consumer Characteristics Detailed
Promotional Activity Focus Determined
Proper Number of St...
Trading Area Influencers
Store Size
Competitors’ Locations
New Stores
Residential Housing Patterns
Travel or Driving Time
...
Factors Affecting Demand for a
Trading area
Competition
Business climate
Demographic and lifestyle characteristics
Economi...
Benefits of Trading Area Analysis
 Discovery of consumer
demographics and
socioeconomic
characteristics
 Opportunity to ...
DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR
TRADING AREA SELECTION
The Trading Areas of Current and
Proposed Outlets
Trading Areas and Store Type
Largest

Specialty Stores
Department stores

TRADING
AREAS

Apparel stores
Supermarkets

Smal...
Delineating The Trading Area Of
An Existing Store
Store records or special study can be used to measure the trading area.
...
Delineating Trading Area of New
Store
Different tools must be used when an area
must be evaluated in terms of opportunitie...
Computerized Trading-Area Analysis Models

Regression Model

Huff's Gravity Model
Huff’s Law…
Huff’s gravity model/ huff’s law of shopper
attraction states that consumers will shop at a store
more often i...
Huff’s Law…
Huff’s Gravity Model (Huff’s Law of Shopper
Attraction
n
PiJ = (SJ / TiJλ) / ∑ (SJ / TiJλ) Where;
j=1
PiJ = Pr...
Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail
Trading Areas
Population Size and Characteristics
Total size and density
Ag...
Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail
Trading Areas
Availability of Labor
Management
Management trainee
Clerical
Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail
Trading Areas
Closeness to Sources of Supply
Delivery costs
Timeliness
Numb...
Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail
Trading Areas
Economic Base
Dominant industry
Extent of diversification
Gro...
Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail
Trading Areas…
Competitive Situation
Number and size of
existing competitio...
Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail
Trading Areas…
Availability of Store Locations
Number and type of store
loc...
Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail
Trading Areas
Regulations
Taxes
Licensing
Operations

Minimum wages
Zoning
Location, Location, Location
Criteria to consider include
population size and traits
competition
transportation access...
Destinations versus Parasites
Destination stores have
a better assortment,
better promotion, and/or
better image
It genera...
Types Of Location
Typically a store location may be:
1. Freestanding/ isolated store
2. Part of a planned business distric...
Isolated Store/ Freestanding
Location
A freestanding location is a store located along a major traffic
artery, without any...
Planned Business Sites
Generally planned business site/ district is centrally
managed/ owned
The key to successful planned...
Planned Business Sites…
Regional centers: attracts customers from an area of 5 to
15 miles
Provides general merchandise an...
Planned Business Sites…
Community shopping centers tend to be between
100,000 to 400,000 sq. ft.
House a smaller branch de...
Planned Business Sites…
Lifestyle centers is a neighborhood center
targeted to upper-income shoppers, are
typically outdoo...
Planned Business Sites…
Airport malls is a community shopping center
located in an airport
2 models for airport malls: Pri...
Unplanned Shopping Sites
Unplanned shopping sites result when two or more
retailers move into the same area or in close pr...
Choosing Store Locations
In choosing store location, retailer should follow these four steps:
1. Evaluate alternative trad...
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Store locations

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Store locations

  1. 1. Retail Store Location For long this P has been considered as a most important in retailing. Selecting a market area and specific location are two important decisions for a retailer Since 90% of retail sales are made at stores. It is an important part of retail strategy. Location decisions can be complex, costs can be quite high, there is often little flexibility once the location has been chosen. Location of store conveys a fair amount of its image.
  2. 2. Retail Store Location… The ultimate goal is maximum customer access Market and location selection depends upon target market Retailer need to understand who its current customers are, who its competitors customers are and who makes up the potential customer bases People who are alike tend to live in neighborhood and have similar behavior and psychographic traits Geographic location matter because cost-effective product delivery and adaptation of websites to fit local market interests/ needs are necessary
  3. 3. Importance of Location Good Location CAN Overcome Mediocre Strategy Mix Poor Location Difficult to Overcome Requires Extensive Decision Making Not Flexible
  4. 4. Problem with shifting location Heavy Investment New Location May Not Have Same Characteristics Store Fixtures and Renovations May Not Transfer
  5. 5. Site Selection Steps Evaluate Alternate Geographic (Trading) Areas Determine Type of Location Select General Location Analyze Alternate Sites
  6. 6. Trading-Area Analysis A trading area is a geographic area containing the customers of a particular firm or group of firms for specific goods or services
  7. 7. Trading area analysis A trade area should account for more than 50% or higher sales Trade area can be a nation/ single neighbor block Size of area depends on retailer’s objectives, like, how many customers are needed to achieve profitability? What sales is required to achieve breakeven? Ray Kroc of McDonald’s insisted that franchisees live in trading area so they would understand the local market
  8. 8. Trading Area Parts Often the trading area is broken down in primary, secondary, tertiary or fringe areas Primary area should produce at least 60% of business, secondary area additional 15-20% and fringe areas the remainder
  9. 9. Trading Area
  10. 10. Size and Shape of Trading Area Not Concentric Two Stores in Same Area Can Have Different Trading Areas (TA)
  11. 11. Trading Area Analysis Benefits Consumer Characteristics Detailed Promotional Activity Focus Determined Proper Number of Stores Calculated Geographic Weaknesses Highlighted
  12. 12. Trading Area Influencers Store Size Competitors’ Locations New Stores Residential Housing Patterns Travel or Driving Time Promotion-impact is temporary
  13. 13. Factors Affecting Demand for a Trading area Competition Business climate Demographic and lifestyle characteristics Economies of scale versus cannibalization
  14. 14. Benefits of Trading Area Analysis  Discovery of consumer demographics and socioeconomic characteristics  Opportunity to determine focus of promotional activities  Opportunity to view media coverage patterns  Assessment of effects of trading area overlap  Ascertain whether chain’s competitors will open nearby  Discovery of ideal number of outlets, geographic weaknesses  Review of other issues, such as transportation
  15. 15. DECISION MAKING MODEL FOR TRADING AREA SELECTION
  16. 16. The Trading Areas of Current and Proposed Outlets
  17. 17. Trading Areas and Store Type Largest Specialty Stores Department stores TRADING AREAS Apparel stores Supermarkets Smallest Gift stores Convenience stores
  18. 18. Delineating The Trading Area Of An Existing Store Store records or special study can be used to measure the trading area. Primary, secondary and fringe areas can be described in terms of: •Frequency with which people from various geographic areas shop at a particular store. •The average rupee purchase at a store by people from given geographic areas. •The concentration of a store’s credit card holders from given geographic areas.
  19. 19. Delineating Trading Area of New Store Different tools must be used when an area must be evaluated in terms of opportunities rather than current patronage and traffic patterns – Trend analysis – Consumer surveys – Computerized trading area analysis models
  20. 20. Computerized Trading-Area Analysis Models Regression Model Huff's Gravity Model
  21. 21. Huff’s Law… Huff’s gravity model/ huff’s law of shopper attraction states that consumers will shop at a store more often if the size of the store is increased and the distance to shopping area is decreased. The theory says that because the center is larger, it may have larger/ wider assortment of goods and services Distance has the opposite effect on probability of patronage All things being equal, consumer wants a shopping area close to home
  22. 22. Huff’s Law… Huff’s Gravity Model (Huff’s Law of Shopper Attraction n PiJ = (SJ / TiJλ) / ∑ (SJ / TiJλ) Where; j=1 PiJ = Probability of consumer traveling from origin (i) to given shopping center or store (j) SJ = sq. ft. of selling space in shopping location, expected to be devoted to particular product being sold TiJ = travel time λ = exponent reflecting effect of travel time on different types of shopping trips (i.e. one may travel more for medical product) n = no. of shopping locations available
  23. 23. Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas Population Size and Characteristics Total size and density Age distribution Average educational level Percentage of residents owning homes Total disposable income Per capita disposable income Occupation distribution Trends
  24. 24. Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas Availability of Labor Management Management trainee Clerical
  25. 25. Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas Closeness to Sources of Supply Delivery costs Timeliness Number of manufacturers Number of wholesalers Availability of product lines Reliability of product lines
  26. 26. Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas Economic Base Dominant industry Extent of diversification Growth projections Freedom from economic and seasonal fluctuations Availability of credit and financial facilities
  27. 27. Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas… Competitive Situation Number and size of existing competition Evaluation of competitor strengths and weaknesses Short-run and long-run outlook Level of saturation
  28. 28. Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas… Availability of Store Locations Number and type of store locations Access to transportation Owning versus leasing opportunities Zoning restrictions Costs
  29. 29. Chief Factors to Consider in Evaluating Retail Trading Areas Regulations Taxes Licensing Operations Minimum wages Zoning
  30. 30. Location, Location, Location Criteria to consider include population size and traits competition transportation access parking availability nature of nearby stores property costs length of agreement legal restrictions
  31. 31. Destinations versus Parasites Destination stores have a better assortment, better promotion, and/or better image It generates a trading area much larger than that of its competitors Dunkin’ Donuts: “It’s worth the trip!” Parasite stores do not create their own traffic and have no real trading area of their own These stores depend on people who are drawn to area for other reasons
  32. 32. Types Of Location Typically a store location may be: 1. Freestanding/ isolated store 2. Part of a planned business district 3. Part of a unplanned business district
  33. 33. Isolated Store/ Freestanding Location A freestanding location is a store located along a major traffic artery, without any competitive retailers around. Generally the store is located off the main road, highway or Street Large retailers and medical retailers utilize isolated sites Advantage is limited competition resulting in lower rental It is harder to attract traffic to a freestanding site
  34. 34. Planned Business Sites Generally planned business site/ district is centrally managed/ owned The key to successful planned business site is balanced tenant mix which offers complementary merchandise to the consumer Planned business districts are developed to attract consumers from greater distances Have at least one anchor store and enough parking space to attract traffic 3 types of planned business sites are regional centers, community centers and neighborhood/ lifestyle centers
  35. 35. Planned Business Sites… Regional centers: attracts customers from an area of 5 to 15 miles Provides general merchandise and is typically enclosed with parking space Malls have balanced tenancy, convenient, free parking and vast selection of stores Generally about 50 stores, besides one anchor store make up regional center Should have about 4,00,000 sq. ft. of gross leasable area (GLA), though most regional centers are larger than this Megamalls/ superregional centers – two of the world’s largest are – the West Edmonton Mall in Canada and the Mall of America in Minneapolis Mall of America took $ 650 mn. to build, has 2.5 mn. sq. ft. of GLA and more than 4 mn. sq. ft. in total
  36. 36. Planned Business Sites… Community shopping centers tend to be between 100,000 to 400,000 sq. ft. House a smaller branch department store, large discount store, a category killer or combination of these stores as an anchor Have a diverse tenant mix, that includes banks, pharmacies, hair salons and specialty stores Neighborhood centers are planned shopping districts with a smaller anchor store and focus more on convenience goods
  37. 37. Planned Business Sites… Lifestyle centers is a neighborhood center targeted to upper-income shoppers, are typically outdoors with a main street type of ambience, tenants sell nonessential items, building and landscaping costs are higher than other retail developments and parking in front of the stores A lifestyle center is typically one-third size of a traditional regional center
  38. 38. Planned Business Sites… Airport malls is a community shopping center located in an airport 2 models for airport malls: Prime model and Developer model In Prime model, the airport is responsible for management of retail facilities whereas, in the Developer model, an outsider company serves as the mall manager and works to draw top retailers to the airport The shops in the developer model are owned and operated by individual retailers, who do their own hiring
  39. 39. Unplanned Shopping Sites Unplanned shopping sites result when two or more retailers move into the same area or in close proximity to each other Central Business Districts are city center areas/ downtown areas of city Secondary Business Districts generally a miniature CBD, located around major transportation intersections of cities Neighborhood Business Districts generally relies on convenience products as the main product mix and provides shopping for a neighborhood Strip shopping Districts have stores visible from the road and arranged in a long ‘strip’
  40. 40. Choosing Store Locations In choosing store location, retailer should follow these four steps: 1. Evaluate alternative trading areas in terms of characteristics of residents and existing retailers- Market Identification. 2. Determine whether to locate as an isolated store, in an unplanned business district or in a planned shopping center within the geographic area. 3. Select the general isolated store, unplanned business district, or planned shopping center location. 4. Analyze alternate sites contained in the specified retail location type. The choice of the location of the store depends on the target audience and the type of merchandise to be sold.

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