Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Chapter11a
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Chapter11a

  • 98 views
Published

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
98
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to the material on pp. 351-354 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    Television is unique in its ability to combine visual images, sound, motion, and color. These characteristics provide the advertiser with an opportunity to develop the most creative and imaginative advertising appeals of any medium.
    This slide shows the numerous advantages of television. They are:
    Creativity and impact – the interaction of sight and sound offers tremendous creative flexibility and opportunities for the advertising message
    Coverage and cost effectiveness – TV can reach large audiences cost effectively
    Captivity and attention – commercials impose themselves on viewers as they watch their favorite programs and are likely to be seen unless some effort is made to avoid them
    Selectivity and flexibility – audiences vary by program content, broadcast time, and geographic coverage; cable television offers additional selectivity
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the various advantages of television.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 354-358 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    Although television is unsurpassed from a creative perspective, the medium has several disadvantages that limit its use for some advertisers. These problems include:
    Fleeting messages – most TV commercials are 30 seconds or less and leave consumers with nothing tangible to examine
    Cost – expense of buying airtime and costs of producing TV commercials is high
    Low selectivity – offers some selectivity, but not very selective for smaller target markets
    Clutter – a problem because of shorter and an increased number of commercials
    Distrust and negative evaluation – the pervasiveness of TV commercials and their intrusiveness as well as content creates problems
    Limited attention – viewers avoid commercials by zipping and zapping or simply by not paying attention to them
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the limitations of television as an advertising medium and the various challenges they present to advertisers when using it as part of their media mix.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 356-357.
    Summary Overview
    As more consumers become turned off by advertising and the number of available channels increases, the level of zapping is likely to increase. The challenge, then, is to discourage viewers from changing channels during commercial breaks.
    Tactics to hold the viewers attention include:
    Showing previews of the next week’s show
    Placing action sequences before the opening credits and commercials
    Increasing viewers’ involvement with the program
    Using commercial that are designed to look like a minishow
    Using hybrid commercials that are part show promotion and part ad
    This ad for Court TV claims that its viewers are less likely to zap to another channel due to higher involvement with the programming.
    Use of this slide
    Use this slide to introduce zapping to students, and then point out ways to discourage the practice.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 352 and Figure 11-1 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide shows a list of the top ten network television advertisers from 2006. Because of its ability to reach large audiences in a cost-efficient manner, TV is a popular medium among companies selling mass-consumption products. Large consumer packaged goods companies, carmakers, and retailers use TV frequently for their advertising messages.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the top advertisers on network television. These are large companies with widespread distribution and availability of their products/services. They use TV to reach the mass market and deliver their messages at a very low cost per thousand.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 358-362 of the text, which discusses the buying of television time.
    Summary Overview
    A basic decision for all advertisers is allocating their TV media budgets to network versus local or spot announcements.
    Network – a network assembles a series of affiliated local TV stations
    National coverage is available through networks
    Affiliated stations are linked
    Purchase transactions are simplified
    Spot/Local – commercials shown on local TV with time purchased from individual stations
    Commercials shown on local stations
    May be local or national spot (non-network advertising done by a national advertiser)
    Network advertising is used by large national advertisers to disseminate their messages cost effectively and simplify their purchasing. Additionally, large national advertisers supplement their advertising in specific markets by using local/spot advertising. Local firms, such as banks, retailers, and auto dealers, use spot/local advertising to reach their local geographic markets.
    Use of Slide
    This slide can be used to introduce the various options available to advertisers in buying advertising time on television.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 358-359 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    The three traditional major networks are NBC, ABC, and CBS. A fourth major network is Fox, which broadcasts over a group of affiliated independent stations.
    The other television network in the United States is CW, which was formed in 2006 when WB and UPN decided to merge. The CW Network is co-owned by CBS/Viacom and Warner Bros., which is part of the Time Warner media conglomerate.
    The CW Network targets the 18-to-49 demographic, but does not offer a prime-time schedule. It airs 15 hours of prime-time programming over six days, with only a morning cartoon block on Saturdays. Popular shows on this network include America’s Next Top Model, Supernatural, and WWE Friday Night Smackdown!
    Use of this slide
    Use this slide to introduce the major television networks that currently exist in the United States.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 362-363 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    Advertisers may also reach TV viewers by advertising on syndicated programs, which are shows that are sold or distributed on a station-by-station or market-by-market basis. The types of syndicated programming are listed below:
    Off-network syndication – reruns of network shows that are bought by individual stations. Popular shows are Seinfeld, Everybody Loves Raymond, and Friends.
    First-run syndication – shows specifically produced for the syndication market. Popular shows are Live with Regis & Kelly and The Jerry Springer Show.
    Advertiser-supported or barter syndication – selling shows to stations in return for a portion of the commercial time in the show, rather than cash. Popular shows are Wheel of Fortune, Jeopardy, and The Oprah Winfrey Show.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to explain syndicated programming. Syndication accounts for more than a third of the national broadcast audience, and has become a very big business, generating revenue comparable to the big-three networks. In certain dayparts, such as daytime, early prime time, and late fringe, syndicated programs have become more popular than network shows.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 362-363 and Figure 11-3.
    Summary Overview
    Many national advertisers use syndicated shows to broaden their reach, save money, and target certain audiences. Syndication continues to gain in popularity, and more advertisers are making syndicated shows part of their television media schedules. The top 10 syndicated programs in 2007-2008 are shown on this slide.
    Use of this slide
    Use this slide to discuss the syndication of television shows, and to point out which are the most popular, in terms of viewership.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 363-364 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide shows various methods of buying advertising time on television. A decision facing advertisers is whether to sponsor an entire program, participate in a program, or use spot announcements between programs. Characteristics of each are as follows:
    Sponsorship – advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and usually the content of the program and the advertising that appears within it.
    Firm can capitalize on the prestige of a high-quality program
    Control over the number, placement, and content of its commercials.
    Participation – many different advertisers buy commercial time on a particular program
    90% of network advertising is sold this way
    Can participate on a regular or irregular basis
    Advertisers have no financial responsibilities for the program
    Participants lack control over the content
    Spot announcements – bought from local stations; ads generally appear during time periods adjacent to network programs, rather than within them
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the various methods of buying media time. Sponsorship of a program and participation are available on either a network or a local market basis, whereas spot announcements are available only from local stations.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 364-365 of the text, and Figure 11-4.
    Summary Overview
    The cost of TV advertising time varies, depending on the time of day and the particular program, both of which determine audience size. TV periods are divided into dayparts, which are specific segments of a broadcast day.
    A typical classification of dayparts for a weekday is shown on this slide. The various segments attract different audiences in both size and nature, so advertising rates vary accordingly. Prime time draws the largest audiences, with 8:30 to 9 p.m. being the most watched half-hour time period. Because prime time demands premium rates, this daypart is dominated by large, national advertisers.
    As a rule, daytime TV attracts women, early morning attracts women and children. The late-night fringe is popular among advertisers trying to reach young adults who tune in to The Late Show with David Letterman, or The Tonight Show with Jay Leno.
    Use of this slide
    Use this slide to explain how the weekday is divided into advertising segments, called dayparts, and how the advertising rates for each can vary.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 365-370 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    Perhaps the most significant development in broadcast media has been the growth of cable television. This slide summarizes the characteristics, advantages, and limitations of cable television.
    Characteristics – national, regional, local and targets specific geographic areas
    Advantages – highly selective, reaches specialized markets, low cost and flexible
    Limitations – overshadowed by major networks, audience is fragmented, lacks penetration in major markets.
    Cable advertising has increased considerably over the last twenty years; by 2007, cable penetration reached 86% of the nation’s 112.8 million households, either through wired cable or through other delivery systems.
    Cable TV broadens the program options available to the viewer, as well as the advertiser, by offering specialty channels, including all-news, music, sports, weather, educational, and cultural. This has broadened its appeal, which in turn has grown its audience. Cable channels now have more of the prime-time viewing audience than the major networks.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss cable television and some of its advantages and limitations.
  • Relation to text
    This slide related to IMC Perspective 11-2 on p. 369 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    When ESPN was launched in 1979, the critics declared that “all the good sports are already on the three networks.” They ridiculed the network for broadcasting such things as stock car racing, which was described as “two hours of left turns.”
    No one is laughing at ESPN today. It is one of the top cable networks, reaching nearly 90 million homes in the United States… 10 million more than its closest competitor.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss how a cable network such as ESPN provides advertisers a way to reach a very specific target audience. ESPN provides advertisers with an excellent way to reach young, male sports fans, which is a target group that is difficult to reach but highly coveted by marketers.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 370-371 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    Cable TV should continue to experience strong growth as its audience share increases and advertisers spend more money to reach cable viewers. However, the cable industry faces several challenges:
    Increases in the number of channels, leading to audience fragmentation
    Changes in government regulations
    Competition in the programming distribution business from other telecommunications companies and direct broadcast satellite services
    Advances in technology, such as digital video compression and fiber optics, coupled with massive investments in system upgrades, are making it possible for cable operators to offer more channels, thus increasing competition for existing channels
    A larger number of channels further fragments the cable audience and makes it harder for cable networks to charge the ad rates needed to finance their programming.
    Direct broadcast satellite (DBS) services are one of the biggest threats facing the cable industry
    A major competition restriction to DBS services was removed in 1999, when the federal government passed legislation allowing satellite TV companies to carry local broadcast signals.
    Use of this slide
    Use this slide to point out that cable TV, although expected to experience continued growth, has challenges to overcome.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 383-384 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    One of the most important considerations in TV advertising is the size and composition of the viewing audience. Measuring the size of the audience is very important to marketers. This slide introduces various audience measurement terms, including:
    Television households – number of households that own a TV
    Program rating – percentage of TV households in an area that are tuned to a specific program during a specific time period.
    Households using TV – percentage of homes in a given area where TV is being watched during a specific time period
    Share of Audience – percentage of households using TV in a specified time period that are tuned to a specified program
    Total Audience – the total number of homes viewing any five-minute part of a telecast
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the various audience measurement terms. The sole source of network TV and local audience information is the A.C. Nielsen Co., which gathers viewership information from a sample of TV homes and then projects this information to national and local markets.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 371-372 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide shows the calculations for program rating and share of audience, two common measurements of television viewing audiences. The two formulas use the same numerator, but different denominators. Households using television is a lower number than total U.S. households, therefore audience share is always higher than the program rating, unless all the households have their sets tuned on.
    The program rating is the best known of the audience measures and is important to the stations because it determines how much they can charge for commercial time. The audience share measurement is used to assess how well the program does with the available viewing audience.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to show how program rating and share of audience numbers are calculated.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 372-373 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    Nielsen Media Research has a national RV ratings service known as the Nielsen Television Index, which provides daily and weekly estimates of the size and composition of the national viewing audience.
    Nielsen uses a national sample of 10,000 homes, which are carefully selected be representative of the population of U.S. households. Ratings are based on the viewing patterns of the homes, which are measured using the people meter shown on this slide.
    Data collected by the people meter includes when the set is turned on, which channel is viewed, when the channel is changed, when the set is off, and who is viewing. The demographic characteristics of the viewers are also in the system, and viewership can be matched to these traits.
    Use of this slide
    Use this slide to explain how Nielsen Media Research collects national audience information.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on page 373 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    The Nielsen Station Index (NSI) measures viewing audiences in 210 local markets known as designated market areas (DMAs). DMAs are non-overlapping areas used for planning, buying, and evaluating TV audiences, and are generally a group of counties in which local television stations achieve the largest audience share. NSI reports viewing by time periods and programs, and includes audience size and estimates of viewing over a range of demographic categories for each DMA.
    Nielsen also measures the largest local markets with Local People Meter (LPM) technology. In large to mid-sized local markets, viewing information is gathered from 400 to 500 households using electronic set meters tht only capture the channel to which the TV set is tuned. This information is augmented at least four times a year with demographic data collected from separate samples of households who fill out seven-day paper viewing diaries.
    Use of this slide
    Use this slide to explain how local audience information is gathered.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on p. 373 and IMC Perspective 11-3.
    Summary Overview
    This slide shows a collateral piece for KFMB TV, which is promoting the station’s first place sweeps rating for the local news. The text of the piece lists local competing stations and the HH Rating for each.
    Sweeps are the four time periods per year when Nielsen Media Research measures TV station audiences in 210 local markets. The numbers gathered during the sweeps periods are used as guideposts in the buying and selling of TV commercial time during the rest of the year, and are extremely important to local television stations.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used as part of a discussion of sweeps.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 373-375 and IMC Perspective 11-3.
    Summary Overview
    For years, the advertising industry has called for changes in the way TV viewing audiences are measured, arguing that new digital technologies are leading to major changes with regard to when, where, and how people watch television. They also argue that the Nielsen measurement system is overwhelmed by the number of TV sets, delivery systems, and program options available.
    In 2007, Nielsen began providing commercial ratings data, known as C2. It includes measures of the average viewership of commercials, both live and up to three days after the ads are played back on a DVR. The new ratings do not track individual ads or specific time slots. Rather, they offer an average viewership of all the national commercial minutes in a program.
    In 2006, Nielsen Media launched Anytime Anywhere Media Measurement (A2/M2). The initiative includes the introduction of electronic measurement in all local markets, the addition of Internet, and out-of-home measurement in Nielsen’s People Meter sample, plus the development of passive measurement devices. As part of the initiative, Nielsen has begun measuring the television viewing patterns of college students (see IMC perspective 11-3).
    The A2/M2 initiative includes new metrics for measuring viewer engagement in television programming. Engagement is the focused mental and emotional connection between a consumer, a media vehicle, and a brand’s message.
    Use of this slide
    Use this slide to discuss how difficult it is for Nielsen to measure viewing audience activities, given the number of TV sets in today’s homes, the delivery systems, and the program options available, and how the company is addressing those issues.
  • Relation to text
    This slide is supplemental, and does not relate to any specific section in the text..
    Summary Overview
    This slide shows the similarities of radio and television, which are the two major forms of broadcast media that can be used for advertising. These similarities are that both media:
    Are time oriented media
    Are sold in time segments
    Have network affiliates
    Have some independents
    Use the public airways
    Are regulated by FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
    Are externally paced media
    Are passive, low involvement media
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the similarities between television and radio, two forms of broadcast media that can be used for advertising.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 375-379 of the text, which discusses radio as an advertising medium.
    Summary Overview
    Although there are many similarities between radio and TV, there are also some major differences between the two forms of broadcast media. This slide shows that in comparison to television radio advertising:
    Has more limited communication
    Costs much less to produce
    Cost much less to purchase
    Has less status and prestige
    Offers only an audio message
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the differences between television and radio as advertising media. Despite some of its limitations when compared to TV, radio continues to be an important advertising medium.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 376-379 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide summarizes the advantages of using radio as an advertising medium.
    Cost and efficiency
    Receptivity
    Selectivity
    Flexibility
    Mental imagery
    Integrated marketing opportunities
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using radio. Although it can be overshadowed by television, radio continues to be an important advertising medium. The average American listens to 3 hours of radio every weekday and 5 hours every weekend. This has created an industry that has grown from $8.8 billion in 1990 to over $20 billion in 2007.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on p. 379 and Exhibit 11-13 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide illustrates how radio advertising can boost the effectiveness of a television campaign through the imagery transfer process. The idea behind image transfer is that consumers will replay the visual image mentally when they hear the audio portion of a corresponding radio commercial. Thus, by incorporating similar audio tracks in both TV and radio commercials, advertisers can use radio to transfer the visual images from their television ads into the minds of consumers.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used as part of a discussion of the image transfer process for radio advertising. Many advertisers rely on this concept when they develop advertising campaigns that utilize both TV and radio ads.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on p. 379 and Exhibit 11-14 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide shows a Radio Advertising Bureau ad that promotes the synergy between radio and newspaper advertising. Radio can be used in conjunction with a number of media, including television, magazines, and newspapers, which has a positive impact on brand awareness and brand selection.
    Advertisers also use radio stations and personalities to enhance their involvement with a local market and to gain influence with local retailers.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to introduce the idea of synergistic interaction between different forms of media.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 379-381 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide summarizes the limitations of using radio as an advertising medium, including:
    Creative limitations
    Audience fragmentation
    Chaotic buying procedures
    Limited research data
    Limited listener attention
    Competition from digital media, including satellite radio
    Clutter
    Use of this slide
    .
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 381-382 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide shows the various options for purchasing advertising time on radio. These include:
    Network radio
    Three national networks
    Over 100 regional/area networks
    Many syndicated programs are available on network radio
    Spot radio
    Accounts for 20% of radio time sold
    Greater flexibility in selecting markets
    Purchasing can be difficult to coordinate across various markets
    Local radio
    80% of advertising is purchased on local stations by local companies
    Local cable is becoming a competitor for local radio
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss the various options available to advertisers in buying radio time, which is similar to buying television time.
  • Relation to text
    This slide relates to material on pp. 382-383 and Figure 11-8 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    This slide shows the various dayparts for radio advertising. The size of the radio listening audience varies widely across the dayparts, and advertising rates follow accordingly. Radio rates also vary according to the number of spots or type of audience plan purchased, the supply and demand of time available in the local market, and the ratings of the individual station.
    The largest radio audiences and the highest rates occur during the early morning and late afternoon drive times.
    Use of this slide
    This slide can be used to discuss time classifications for radio.
  • Relation to textThis slide relates to material on pp. 383-384 of the text.
    Summary OverviewBecause there are so many radio stations, and thus many small, fragmented audiences, the stations cannot support the expense of detailed audience measurement. Therefore, they turn to radio ratings services, such as Arbitron and RADAR. Arbitron covers 286 local radio markets with one to four ratings reports per year. The three basic estimates in the Arbitron report are:
    Person estimates – the estimated number of people listening
    Rating – the percentage of listeners in the survey area population
    Share – the percentage of the total estimated listening audience
    These estimates are further refined by using quarter-hour and cume figures. The average quarter-hour (AQH) figure is the average number of people who listened to a station for at least five minutes during any quarter hour. Cume mean “cumulative audience,” the number of different people who listened to a station for at least five minutes in a quarter-hour period, within a specific daypart.
    RADAR reports are issued four times a year and provide network audience measures, along with estimates of audience and various segments.
    Use of this slideThis slide can be used to discuss the difficulties in gathering audience information.
  • Relation to textThis slide relates to material on p. 384 of the text.
    Summary Overview
    As with TV, media planners must use the audience measurement information to evaluate the value of various radio stations, their relative cost, and the ability to reach the advertiser’s target market.
    Use of this slideUse this slide to point out the responsibilities of media planners, and why the audience measurement information is so important.

Transcript

  • 1. EVALUATION OF BROADCAST MEDIA Learning Objectives To examine the structure of the television and radio industries and the role of each medium in the advertising program. To examine the advantages and limitations of television and radio as advertising media. To explain how advertising time is purchased for the broadcast media, how audiences are measured, and how
  • 2. I. TELEVISION Television has virtually saturated households throughout the United States and many other countries and has become a mainstay in the lives of most people.  TV for news and information.  primary form of entertainment.  predominant form of mass media.
  • 3. Television Advantages  Television permits you to reach large numbers of people on a national or
  • 4. Television Advantages Creativity and Impact Creativity and Impact Coverage and Cost Effectiveness Coverage and Cost Effectiveness Captivity and Attention Captivity and Attention Selectivity and Flexibility Selectivity and Flexibility
  • 5. aADVATAGES 1. Information:- Television provides the information regarding to day to day events on national and international level. 2. Comparison:- With the help of information provided by the Television we can easily compare the development progress of nation with other nation 3. Entertainment:- Television is the most important mean for entertainment of every section of our society. 4. Education:- Television helps in getting guidelines to the students regarding their subjects from deemed and remote university.
  • 6. 5. Techno information:- It gives us the audio visual information regarding the new inventions in the world. 6. News:- It gives us the latest and updated information in form of news of each and every area or part of world. 7. Forecast:- It helps us in getting information regarding the weather, business, technical etc forecasts.
  • 7. Television Disadvantages Fleeting Fleeting Message Message Limited Limited Attention Attention Zipping Zipping Zappin Zappin g g Cost Cost Negative Negative Factors Factors Negative Negative Evaluation Evaluation Low Low Selectivity Selectivity Distrust Distrust Clutter Clutter
  • 8. Disadvantages of TV 1. False advertisements: - People believe on the information delivered with the mean of advertisements related to the product which may be true or false. 2. Spreading Profanity:- Now these day through Cable network the images of profanity is getting excess in the common man habitats which is not appreciable from the children point of
  • 9. Examples of ADs Best adverstisement of the week: Cadbury Silk This spot, much like most commercials for Cadbury Silk, will probably make you drool or hurl, depending on your tummy's general disposition. It's about a twosome devouring a bar of melting chocolate plumb in the middle of a film, smearing their fingers and forearms with gunk while they are at
  • 10. Viewer Involvement
  • 11. Top 10 Network TV Advertisers
  • 12. Network versus Spot Network Network Affiliated stations Affiliated stations that are linked that are linked Purchase transactions Purchase transactions are simplified are simplified Spot & Spot & Local Local Commercials shown Commercials shown on local stations on local stations May be local or “national May be local or “national spot” commercials spot” commercials
  • 13. The CW Network
  • 14. Syndicated Programs Sold and Sold and distributed distributed station by station by station station AdvertiserAdvertisersupported or supported or bartered bartered Off-network syndication Off-network syndication are “reruns” are “reruns” First-run syndications First-run syndications are also featured are also featured Programs sold to stations in Programs sold to stations in return for air time return for air time
  • 15. Top 10 Syndicated Programs
  • 16. Methods of Buying Time Sponsorship Sponsorship Participations Participations 1. Participating 1. Participating sponsors share sponsors share the cost the cost 2. May participate 2. May participate regularly or regularly or sporadically sporadically 3. Advertiser isn’t 3. Advertiser isn’t responsible for responsible for production production 4. Participants 4. Participants lack control lack control over content over content Spot Spot Announcements Announcements 1. May be 1. May be purchased purchased by daypart by daypart or adjacency or adjacency
  • 17. Weekday Television Dayparts Morning 7:00-9:00 a.m. Daytime 9:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Early Fringe 4:30 p.m.-7:30 p.m. Prime-Time Access 7:30 p.m.-8:00 p.m. Prime Time 8:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m. Late News 11:00-11:30 p.m. Late Fringe 11:30-1:00 a.m.
  • 18. Cable Television (CATV) Characteristics Characteristics 1. 1. Advantages Advantages Limitations Limitations 1. Highly selective 1. Highly selective “narrowcasting” “narrowcasting” 1. Overshadowed N 1. Overshadowed N by major by a major a networks tt networks ii 2. Audience is 2. Audience is o o fragmented fragmented n n a 3. Lacks a 3. Lacks ll penetration in penetration in ,, major markets major markets 2. Reaches 2. Reaches specialized specialized markets markets 3. Low cost and 3. Low cost and flexibility flexibility rr e e g g
  • 19. ESPN is One of the Most Popular Cable Networks
  • 20. The Future of Cable More More channels channels Govt. Govt. regulations regulations Future Future Challenges Challenges DBS DBS services services Competition Competition New New technology technology
  • 21. Measuring the TV Audience Total Total Audience Audience Program Program Rating Rating Share of Share of Audience Audience Households Households Using TV Using TV
  • 22. TV Audience Measures Program Rating Rating = HH tuned to show Total U.S. HH Share of Audience Share = HH tuned to show U.S. HH using TV
  • 23. National Audience Information
  • 24. Local Audience Information
  • 25. Sweeps Periods
  • 26. Developments in Audience Measurement Commercial Ratings data (C3) Anywhere Media Measurement (A2/M2) Engagement metrics
  • 27. Radio and TV Similarities Are time oriented media Are time oriented media Are sold in time segments Are sold in time segments Have some network affiliates Have some network affiliates Have some independents Have some independents Both Both media… media… Use the public airway Use the public airway Are regulated by the F.C.C. Are regulated by the F.C.C. Are externally paced media Are externally paced media Are passive, low-involvement Are passive, low-involvement
  • 28. Radio Differs From TV Is more limited Is more limited communication communication Offers only an Offers only an audio message audio message Has less status Has less status and prestige and prestige Costs much less Costs much less to produce to produce Costs much less Costs much less to purchase to purchase
  • 29. Radio Advantages Radio is a universal medium enjoyed by people at one time or another during the day, at home, at work, and even in the ca The vast array of radio program formats offers to efficiently target your advertising dollars to narrowly defined segments of consumers most likely to respond to your offer.
  • 30.     Gives your business personality through the creation of campaigns using sounds and voices Free creative help is often available Rates can generally be negotiated During the past ten years, radio rates have seen less inflation than those for other media
  • 31. Disadvantages Because radio listeners are spread over many stations, you may have to advertise simultaneously on several stations to reach your target audience Listeners cannot go back to your ads to go over important points Ads are an interruption in the entertainment. Because of this, a
  • 32. may require multiple exposure to break through the listener's "tune-out" factor and ensure message retention Radio is a background medium. Most listeners are doing something else while listening, which means that your ad has to work hard to get their attention
  • 33. Advantages of Radio Cost and Efficiency Cost and Efficiency Receptivity Receptivity Selectivity Selectivity Flexibility Flexibility Mental Imagery Mental Imagery Integrated Marketing Integrated Marketing
  • 34. Mental Imagery • Visual elements of television commercials are transferred into the consumer’s mind by using a similar audio track in radio commercials
  • 35. Radio Gives Customers a Clearer Picture
  • 36. Limitations of Radio Creative Limitations Creative Limitations Audience Fragmentation Audience Fragmentation Chaotic Buying Chaotic Buying Limited Research Data Limited Research Data Limited Listener Attention Limited Listener Attention Digital Media Competition Digital Media Competition Clutter Clutter
  • 37. Buying Radio Time Network Network Radio Radio Three national networks Three national networks Over 100 regional/area networks Over 100 regional/area networks A multitude of syndicated programs A multitude of syndicated programs About 20% of all spots About 20% of all spots Allows great flexibility, targeting Allows great flexibility, targeting Purchase transaction can be difficult Purchase transaction can be difficult Local Local Radio Radio Spot Spot Radio Radio Nearly 80% of advertisers are local Nearly 80% of advertisers are local Local CATV is becoming competitive Local CATV is becoming competitive
  • 38. Dayparts for Radio
  • 39. Audience Information Person Person estimates estimates Share Share RADAR RADAR Arbitron Arbitron Rating Rating Network audience measures Network audience measures
  • 40. Media Planner Responsibilities Ensure target audience coverage Ensure target audience coverage Identify advertising rates Identify advertising rates Set time schedules Set time schedules Optimize the advertiser’s budget Optimize the advertiser’s budget
  • 41. Choose a particular television day part other than evening prime time, such as early morning, the afternoon or late fringe, and list the products and services advertised during these time periods. Analyze the type of consumers these advertisers are targeting and the products and services being advertised during this period. Why do you think these companies/brands have chosen to advertise during this day part?