The status dilemma
Neha is a working woman, and she needs a
lunch box to carry to office. She remembers
her father leaving for work every morning
clutching his colourless stainless steel lunch
box. But Neha shudders to even visualize the
look on her colleagues’ faces if she walks
into office with such a lunch box. Neha has a
number of options available in the market to
choose from, but she needs bright trendy
containers, which can keep the food fresh for
longer periods of time.
Brand to the rescue
Neha found exactly what she was looking for when
her friend Meena brought her lunch box to office one
day. Meena told her about Tupperware—a global
brand, recognized the world over. Tupperware
products were excellently designed and had won
prestigious awards like the Red Dot award in 2009
(an award for excellence in product design instituted
by Design Zentrum Nordrhein Westfalen in Essen,
Germany), and the company was also featured in
‘Forbes.com Platinum 400—America’s Best Big
Companies List’ for the sixth time in a row in 2009.
Tupperware had ‘a range of high quality, lightweight,
rust- and break-proof, colourful, airtight, stylish
containers, which kept food fresh for longer, thus
avoiding waste’ (Superbrands 2009). They were leakproof as well, which meant that Neha could carry
and store curry and gravy items.
What is a brand?
For the American Marketing Association (AMA), a brand
is a “name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a
combination of them, intended to identify the goods and
services of one seller or group of sellers and to
differentiate them from those of competition.”
These different components of a brand that identify and
differentiate it are brand elements.
What can we brand?
A service—for example, Life Insurance Corporation,
State Bank of India
A product—for example, Nokia mobile, Lux soap, Knorr
A store—for example, Big Bazaar, Shoppers Stop
A place/geographic location—for example, Taj Mahal,
India (the Incredible India! campaign)
A person—for example, Aamir Khan, Amitabh Bachchan
An idea—for example, World Wildlife Fund
An online organization—for example, Amazon, Make my
An organization—for example, UNICEF
WHAT IS A BRAND?
It is combination of features (what the product is), customer
benefits (what needs & wants the product meets), & values
( what the customer associates with the product.)
A brand is created when marketing adds values to a product
in the process differentiates it from other products with similar
features & benefits.
Importance of Brands to
of the source of the product
Assignment of responsibility to product
Search cost reducer
Promise, bond, or pact with product
Signal of quality
brand is therefore more than a product, as
it can have dimensions that differentiate it in
some way from other products designed to
satisfy the same need.
Difference between a Product and a
An Example of Branding a
Beers Group added the phrase “A
Diamond Is Forever”
Rationale for Building a Brand
Benefits of Building Strong Brands—Organizational
Shorthand for information
Enhancing customer loyalty
Higher market share
Inelastic response to price increase
As a barrier to entry of other brands
Can be bought and sold as an asset
Rationale for Building a Brand
Benefits of Building Strong Brands— Customer
Source of identification
Heuristic or proxy for quality
Source of evaluation
A tool to simplify decision making
Financial risk, performance risk, time risk, social risk,
Tool to express self image
- WHAT DOES THE BRAND DO ?
(ex) Cleans teeth better, or lasts longer
- More functional Benefit.
DIRECT EXPRESSIVE VALUES
- HOW DOES THE BRAND DO ?
They reflect the character of the Brand
frequently the user.
(ex) Modern/ Traditional/ Feminine
C) CENTRAL VALUES
- WHAT ELSE DOES IT DO ?
They relate to the aspiration
(ex) Confidence/ Security/ Freedom
Strategic Brand Management
Competitive frame of reference
Points-of-parity and points-of-difference
Core brand values
Identify and establish
brand positioning and values
Plan and implement
brand marketing programs
Mixing and matching of brand elements
Integrating brand marketing activities
Leveraging of secondary associations
Brand value chain
Brand equity management system
Measure and interpret
Grow and sustain
Brand portfolios and hierarchies
Brand expansion strategies
Brand reinforcement and revitalization
BUT, WHAT IS A GENUINE BRAND?
“ The internalized sum of all impressions received by customers
and consumers resulting in a distinctive position in their
‘Mind’s Eye’ based on perceived emotional and functional
Relative Brand Distinction
No diff. except price.
Well known but similar.
Perceived by the consumer as unique.
A) Yesterday way to build a Brand
TODAY’S WAY TO BUILD A BRAND
a) What is the distinctive benefit to be communicated to the Tgt audience?
b) What are the best ways to build a specific brand’s image?
c) How is the Mktg. Budget directed to optimize Brand Equity?
Concept of branding
the consumers, a brand is a product. But
for the maker or the seller, a brand is an
identifier of its goods and services and a
promise of consistently delivering the
features/benefits that the consumers desire
from the brand.
WHAT IS BRANDING?
It is a creation & infusion of Brand elements that serve to identify
& differentiate a product from others.
So, the task of Branding is to define what the brand infuses into the
the product/ service & how the brand transforms it.
It is a visual or verbal information that serves to identify &
differentiate a product.
What are they?
• Brand name
Criteria for choosing Brand Elements
5) Protect ability.
THE LOGIC OF
A Brand aims to segment the market
Brands are built up by Persistent Difference over the
A brand is a living memory
A brand gives products their meaning direction
A brand is a Genetic program
A brand is a contract
It Simplifies customer decision making.
BRAND MANAGEMENT PROCESS
BRAND MANAGEMENT PROCESS
Planning & Evaluating
THE BRAND NAME IS
The basic core indicator of the brand
The basis for awareness
The basis for communication effects
The basis for Sales measurement
More permanent then anything else
WHAT THE BRAND NAME CAN DO?
It helps create association in the mind that acts as
Descriptor – what it is? And What it does?
(ex) – Xerox
It provides entry barrier in its category once it gets
(ex) Burnal/ Surf/ Dettol
Through time & use, it becomes a viable asset.
(ex) Tata/ Godrej
TYPES OF NAMES
CRITERIA FOR BRAND NAME
IT SHOULD BE EASY TO LEARN AND REMEMBER:
When a name has something about it that is interesting.
When a name elicits a mental picture/image
When a name is meaningful.
When a name has some emotion
When a name is simple
When a name is different or unusual enough to attract attention & perhaps
to arouse curiosity
IT SHOULD SUGGEST THE PRODUCT CLASS
IT SHOULD SUPPORT A SYMBOL/SLOGAN
IT SHOULD SUGGEST DESIRED ASSOCIATIONS WITHOUT BEING
IT SHOULD NOT SUGGEST UNDESIRED ASSOCIATION.
IT SHOULD BE DISTINCTIVE - NOT TO CONFUSE WITH COMPETITORS NAMES.
IT SHOULD BE AVAILABLE AND PROTECTABLE LEGALLY.
SIMPLE QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FOR
What Thoughts come to your mind on hearing this name?
What does the name mean to you?
How would you Pronounce this name?
What do you Particularly like about the name?
What do you particularly dislike about the name?
Which products would the name suit?
Which products would the name not suit?
Which name do you like the most & Why?
Which name do you dislike the most & Why?
SIMPLE QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
I like the brand name cook lite.
I prefer to cook light food.
Light food is good for health
No digestion problem.
Can be active
Low fat formation in body
Better for old/ all family members
Children can eat more of light food.
Putting It All Together
entire set of brand elements makes up
the brand identity, the contribution of all
brand elements to awareness and image.
The cohesiveness of the brand identity
depends on the extent to which the brand
elements are consistent.
Why should a consumer buy the Brand?
What can be the rational reasons?
What can be the emotional resons?
are the emotional reasons for buying
are nine universal emotions namely
Happiness, anger, disgust, fear, sorrow,
courage, compassion, wonder and serenity.
(Ex) Pride/Self worth/Confidence/Image
projection/ Achievement/ Envy.
How can emotional reasons be
A comprehensive analysis of consumer
behavior is the starting point. But a
powerful tool is “Benefit Laddering”.
The set of “Why” questions could lead us in to many different directions.
IAS/ IIT/ Doctor
Success in Sports
Success in exams
Child can Grow
with 23 vital
Intelligent and educated customers
Growth of private labels
Increasing trade power
Media fragmentation and the rise of new
Increasing cost of product introduction and
Increasing job turnover
Key issues in branding
Whether to brand or not
How to build brand equity
How to measure brand equity
Understanding customers and how they purchase a brand
How to position the brand
Which marketing mix strategies to choose
How to design branding strategies
How to manage brands over time
How to manage brands across geographical boundaries