Is a strong component of the
visual language of any brand.
BRAND SYMBOL LEADS TO
of the Brand
Brand Symbols can be created
across 10 concepts in order to
value to Brands
Non – Living Characters
The combination of shape and color is called Brand
It is the visual signature of the brand.
(ex) Gold flake ------ Golden colour.
Parachute ------- Blue colour.
The Brand name has to stand out. Hence, shapes &
Colors are used on packs & across communication
ELEMENTS OF THE BRAND LOGO
A) Brand name
B) Geometric shape
(ex) Britania ---- Eat healthy & think better.
EVALUATION OF LOGO
Specific likes & dislikes & the reason there of.
Comprehension of the message by Logo
(ex) solidity, vibrant, dynamism etc.
Preference of each logo among key competitors.
Marketers develop living or non
living characters & add personality &
meaning to it in the context of brand
development. These characters are
called Brand Characters.
Advice to Brand Character
Have Distinct colors
Have close association with the brand
Not to have strong association with a
particular product category
Have a name for better identity
Not to be Changed
Have Standardized Features and Traits
Evoke a feeling
Brand Equity is a set of brand
Assets and Liabilities linked to
a brand, its name and Symbol
that add to or Subtract from
the value provided by a
product or service to a firm or
to that firm’s customers.
Brand Equity as a “Bridge”
Reflection of past investments in the
marketing of a brand
Direction for future marketing actions
Provides value to customer by enhancing
Interpretation/ Processing of Information
Confidence in the Purchase Decision
Provides value to firm by Enhancing
Efficiency & Effectiveness of Marketing Programs
Prices / Margins
It is a measure of the attachment
that a customer has to a brand. It
reflects how likely a customer will
switch to another brand, especially
when the brand makes a change,
either in price or in product
LEVELS OF BRAND LOYALITY
LIKES THE BRAND CONSIDERS
IT AS A FRIEND
SATISFIED BUYER WITH
SATISFIED / HABITUAL BUYER NO
REASON TO CHANGE
SWITCHERS/PRICE SENSITIVE IN DIFFERENT
– NO BRAND LOYALTY
THE VALUE OF BRAND LOYALTY
REDUCED MARKETING COST
ATTRACTING NEW CUSTOMERS
TIME TO RESPOND TO COMPITITIVE
THEN HOW TO CREATE AND MAINTAIN
BRAND LOYALITY ?
TREAT THE CUSTOMER RIGHT
STAY CLOSE TO CUSTOMER
CREAT SWITCHING COSTS
ACHIEVING BRAND LOYALTY
(FOR THE BRAND)
IDENTIFICATION OF DRIVES
PRODUCT – PROMISE & DELIVERY
REINFORCEMENT OF BENEFITS
Brand awareness is the ability of
potential buyer to recognize or recall
that a brand is a member of a certain
product category. A link between a
product class and brand is involved
(ex.) Wrangler jeans.
LEVELS OF BRAND
TOP OF MIND
UNWARE OF BRAND
HOW AWARRENESS WORKS TO
HELP THE BRAND?
Anchor, to which other
Associations Can be attached.
Familiarity - liking
Signal of substance / commitment
Brand to be considered.
HOW TO ACHIVE AWARENESS?
BE DIFFERENT, MEMORABLE
INVOLVE A SLOGAN OR JINGLE
CONSIDER BRAND EXTENSION
RECALL REQUIRES REPETITION
Establishing Brand Awareness
Increasing the familiarity of the
brand through repeated exposure
(for brand recognition)
Forging strong associations with the
appropriate product category or
other relevant purchase or
consumption cues (for brand recall)
Depth of brand awareness
• Ease of recognition and recall
• Strength and clarity of category
Breadth of brand awareness
• Purchase consideration
• Consumption consideration
Points-of-difference (PODs) are
attributes or benefits that consumers
strongly associate with a brand,
positively evaluate, and believe that
they could not find to the same
extent with a competitive brand.
Points-of-parity associations (POPs),
on the other hand, are not
necessarily unique to the brand but
may in fact be shared with other
Choosing POP’s & POD’s
Desirability criteria (consumer
• Personally relevant
• Distinctive and superior
• Believable and credible
Deliverability criteria (firm
• Pre-emptive, defensible, and difficult to
BRND ASSOCIATION QUESTIONS
1. When I say the name of our brand, what is the first
thing that comes to mind? Why?
2. What are the strengths & weaknesses of our brand?
3. What brands did you consider before you bought our
4. What are your perceptions of the brands you
5. Why did you choose our brand?
6. Has our brand met your needs & expectations?
7. What benefits has our brand provided you?
8. Describe the experience with our brand before & after
9. When describing our brand to another potential/
friend how would you describe it?
10.Why would you recommend our brand to another
Customer-Based Brand Equity
• Differences in consumer response
• A result of consumers’ knowledge about
Consumer response to marketing
• Choice of a brand
• Recall of copy points from an ad
• Response to a sales promotion
• Evaluations of a proposed brand
Brand Awareness Advantages
• Register the brand in the minds of
• Likelihood that the brand will be a
member of the consideration set
• Affect choices among brands in the
Creating a Positive Brand
• Does not matter which source of brand
• Need to be favorable, strong, and
• Marketers should recognize the
influence of these other sources of
information by both managing them as
well as possible and by adequately
accounting for them in designing
Demographic and psychographic characteristics
Actual or aspirational
Purchase and usage situations
• Type of channel, specific stores, ease of purchase
• Time (day, week, month, year, etc.), location, and
context of usage
Personality and values
• Sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication,
History, heritage, and experiences
Primary characteristics and
Product reliability, durability, and
Service effectiveness, efficiency, and
Style and design
• Frequency and amount of repeat purchases
• Love brand (favorite possessions; “a little
• Proud of brand
Sense of community
Visit website, chat rooms
An articulation of the “heart and soul”
of the brand
similar to “brand essence” or “core
Short three- to five-word phrases that
capture the irrefutable essence or spirit
of the brand positioning and brand
Designing the Brand Mantra
The term brand functions describes
the nature of the product or service
or the type of experiences or benefits
the brand provides.
The descriptive modifier further
clarifies its nature.
The emotional modifier provides
another qualifier—how exactly does
the brand provide benefits, and in
Designing the Brand Mantra