In their 2001 book The Strategy-Focused Organization, Kaplan and Norton transformed their Balanced Scorecard, introduced in 1992 in the Harvard Business Review as a performance measurement system, to a strategic management system. A Strategy Map is a diagram that describes how an organization creates value by connecting strategic objectives in explicit cause-and-effect relationship with each other in the four BSC objectives (financial, customer, processes, learning and growth).
1World Bank KnowledgeSharing EventBuilding Blocks forKnowledgeManagementJune 24, 2004
2Module Objectives• To share knowledge about the ‘buildingblocks’ and ‘stumbling blocks’ of KnowledgeManagement• USAID perspective• New frameworks• Participants’ perspective
3This morning’s activities…Panel Presentation: short,focused presentation of aframeworks with implications forKMSmall Group Discussion: howapplicable is the idea based onyour perspective and experienceFeedback: Collection andpresentation of your viewsVoting: What’s most important,collective recommendations
4Session Agenda9:30 – 9:50 Introduction- Module- USAID KfD Strategy- Building Blocks9:50 – 10:50 Building Blocks PanelPresentation- Culture- Change Management- Governance- MeasurementQ&A10:50 – 11:05 Coffee Break11:05 – 12:05 Small Group Discussion12:05 – 12:50 Presentation of Recommendations- Plenary debrief, Q&A12:50 – 1:00 Session Wrap-up- Multi-voting
5• World wide deployment• Knowledge in many places• Workforce turnover• Presidential Management Agenda(PMA) InitiativeWhy KfD for USAID?The Right Knowledge to the Right Person at the Right Timein support of the Agency Mission
6USAID has three “faces”: The Field– On the ground: Development assistance/Disasterrelief– The “public” face The Strategic– Defining Agency policy, Bureau and CountryStrategies and Program Plans– The “USG” face The Operational– Administrative organizations and processes– Providing support functions of the Agency– The “hidden” faceWhat we found….Each person sees their role different depending on which “face” they represent!
7The Extended EnterpriseKnowledge for mission success is often not within USAID itselfNGOs, PVOs,Think Tanks,Universities,Grantees Beneficiaries inDevelopingCountriesCongress,State Dept.,The Public,OMB, NSC,The PresidentOther Donors,Co-FinancersContractors in US &Developing CountriesTechnical & SectorCouncils.Advisory CommitteesDOD, HHS,Commerce,Treasury,USDA,etc.StakeholdersFederal Leads,PartnersImplementingPartners, SuppliersUltimateCustomersFunding PartnersUSAIDFS, GSRetirees
8The KfD Strategy Strategic ObjectivesThe KfD Strategy Strategic Objectives• SO1 – Knowledge accessed andleveraged across the extendedenterprise• SO2 – Strengthened strategicoperations of the Agency• SO3 – Knowledge-based highperforming workforce achieved
12Building blocks• At its core,development is allabout knowledgesharing• Severe constraintsforce focus onknowledge• New structures(strategic programs,peer relationships,teams) should putpremium on knowledgesharing
13Stumbling blocks• Cross-organizationalconstraints morelimiting thanexpected• The personalcharacteristicsthat are attractedto change, and toknowledge sharing,are not necessarilythose promoted inorganizations
14Panel Introduction• Culture – Social Capital– Joe Rabenstine and Omar Azfar• Change Management – Politics– Gary Vaughan and Tony Pryor• Governance – KM Org Models– John Crager• Measurement – Strategy Maps– Jeff Malick and Joe Rabenstine
15Panel Presentations - CultureA Development Framework for Social Capital– Joe Rabenstine– Omar Azfar• Social Capital in KM/KS• Azfar and Subrick Model• Implications for KM/KS
16“Social capital trumps all”, Larry PrusakKnowledge management isheavily dependent on anorganization’s ability tobuild social capitalamong its employeesSocial capital is the(economic) valuecreated by maintainingand sustainingrelationships inside andoutside the organizationConnections – the tiesbetween peopleRelations- the interpersonaldynamics betweenindividualsShared Context- commonunderstanding oflanguage and events
17The issue…• How can we measure and assess socialcapital?• What are its dimensions?• What frameworks can be used beyondthe organizational boundaries?• How does social capital impact the coreprocesses of our organizations?
18A Framework From Development“Social capital, governance and growth:Results from a Cross-Country PanelDataset on Six Dimensions of SocialCapital”, Omar Azafar and Robert Subrick– IRIS Center University of Maryland, 2004– Notice of EGAT presentation shared by DIScolleague (a ‘knowledge accident’)– Definition and measurement and impact onbehaviors
19“In this paper we try to measure* some ofthe individual components of socialcapital…”“Levels of trust and trustworthiness varygreatly across countries.”– Trust– Spiritual capital– Rule compliance– Membership in organizations– Activism– Confidence in public institutions*Data from the World Values Survey and the European Values Survey“different aspects of social capital can affecteconomic activity in different ways”
20Assumptions• Identification of factors likely to affect behavior• Questions chosen to construct the social capitalindicators• Investigate correlations across the six dimensions• Comparison of effects of social capital by country• Effects on economic growth and changes ingovernment• Changes in social capital over time• Correlations across the six dimensionsAnalysis
21Findings…• Large and significant correlations on specificquestions• These components are a coherent measureof a kind of social capital• Different components do not appear closelyrelated• Regional differences existAnd considerations…• Dimensions of social capital that arerelevant to KM/KS behaviors• Measurement and validation• Social capital within organizations/withinclient countries
22Panel Presentation – Incentives,Leadership and CommunicationsA Perspective on Change Management– Gary Vaughan– Tony Pryor• Politics• Politics• More Politics
23Building Blocks of Knowledge-Sharing: APolitical Perspective by Gary VaughanThe Political Context…• Government is all about power/politics• Mix of Electoral, bureaucratic, professionalcompetition• Result: a frenzied, volatile environment• Challenge: how to focus, progress with KM• Metaphor: “seals in a shark tank”
24The Thesis• KM is like “running for office”• You need to “win votes for change”• KM strategies and concepts aresecondary to coping with organizationalpolitics• Implications for KM: opportunism,momentum, “popular” results• Metaphor: Apply KM in a competitive“jungle”
25Need for Traction, Momentum• Majority of staff need to support KM(“without realizing it!”)• Group activities crucial (need a “stage”)• Need broad results vs. isolatedsuccesses (to “stoke” organizationalmomentum)• Measurement? Simple! KM succeedswhen a lot of people say so!
26KM Professional’s Role• What you’re not:– “Knowledge doctor”– Senior Technocrat– Joan of Arc! (“crashand burn”)• What you are:– Spark Plug– Broker– Thomas Edison!(“trial and error”…but looking for thatpopular ‘light bulb’result!)
27Panel Presentation – GovernanceThe Basics of KM Governance and Structure– John Crager• Steering Committee• Advisory Board• Central Support• Design Teams
29Panel Presentation – MeasurementStrategy Maps – Objectives, Performanceand Accountability– Jeff Malick– Joe Rabenstine• Mapping objectives to the BalancedScorecard• Linking objectives to projects and processes• Using existing measures of projects andprocesses to measure KM performance
31What to map?• Enterprise Business strategy / objectives• Business unit strategy / objectives• Program strategy / objectives– E.g., Knowledge management program• Focus on objectives and how they relate to eachother – the specifics of what you want toaccomplishWhy map?• Strategy drives performance• Monitor the progress of what matters• Understand the ‘why’ behind performance tomake best decisions to put strategy in action
32Linkage to projects and processes• Objectives map to projects• Projects map to processesWhat to measure• Use current process metrics• Don’t create new measures and mechanisms forrecording themConsiderations…• Measurement of KM programs/projects• Attribution / cause and effect
34Small Group Discussion TasksAfter your break…• Re-group at your assigned tables– Two tables per panel topic• Consider and discuss the ideas shared by the panelists– Identify someone to capture ideas on flip charts– All ideas are good ideas!• Your facilitator will lead discussions on the topic assignedto your table– Building Blocks (2 – 4)– Stumbling Blocks (1-3)– Next steps and implications• Develop summary for plenary presentation (3 – 5 minutes)– Building Blocks (2)– Stumbling Blocks (1)– Next steps and implications