Berlinwall

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Berlinwall

  1. 1. By Mr Crowe www.SchoolHistory.co.uk THE BERLIN WALL
  2. 2. Another Cold War crisis • Background • East – West rivalry • Berlin divided – contrast the two halves. WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. Seen by USSR as ‘infection’ in the heart of Communist East Germany. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
  3. 3. Focus on refugees from East Germany or East Berlin to West 1949-129,2451949-129,245 1951- 165,6481951- 165,648 1953- 331,3901953- 331,390 1955- 252,8701955- 252,870 1957- 261,6221957- 261,622 1959- 143,9171959- 143,917 1961- 207,0261961- 207,026 1962- 21,3561962- 21,356 1963- 42,6321963- 42,632 1964- 41,8761964- 41,876
  4. 4. What they wanted The West • Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany • To see a united, democratic Germany The East • Maintain control over E Germany • Make the West recognise it as an independent state • Stop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in E Germany
  5. 5. 1958-Soviet demands West should: • Recognise GDR • Withdraw troops from West Berlin • Hand their access routes over to the East German government West refused and Khrushchev backed down.
  6. 6. Events of 1961 • June - Khrushchev pressured new American President John F Kennedy • Demanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin – Kennedy refused • July 23 – Flow of refugees from East to West = 1000 a day • July 25 – Kennedy repeats support for West Berlin and announced increase in arms spending
  7. 7. Events cont’d • 13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German govt. orders barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocks • All of West Berlin encircled apart from access points • This was against the Four Power agreement made in 1949.
  8. 8. Results • Important results for Berlin, Germany and the Cold War: • BerlinBerlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West- between 1961 and 1989; 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall
  9. 9. Results continued… • Kennedy accepted the Soviet action. He refused to use US troops to pull down the wall to avoid war. • Kennedy looked weak but West turned it into propaganda – why if Communism was so attractive was a wall needed? • 1963 – Kennedy visited West Berlin – pledged continued support – ‘Ich bin ein Berliner’ (I am a Berliner) – famous speech • Khrushchev lost face by failing to remove the West from Berlin • LINK:CNN - Cold War-The Wall

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