1949 - Prohibiton of Mixed Marriages Act: prohibited marriage between people of different races.
It was related with the Inmorality Act : sexual relations between people of different races was considered a criminal offence .
1950 - Population Registration Act : formalized racial classification into white, black, colour amd Indian people . Introduced an identification that all non-whites had to carry, known as PASS BOOKS . This included fingerprints, photo, and information on access to non-black areas. If the person didn´t have it was imprisoned.
-Group Areas Act : forced physical separation by creating different residential areas for different races.
1951 - Bantu Authorities Act : provided for the establishement of black homelands and regional authorities, with the aim of creating self-government in the homelands.
1953 - Reservation of Separate Amenities : municipal grounds were reserved for a particular race, creating, among others, separated beaches, buses, hospitals, ambulances, schools, and universities.
1953 – Bantu (Black) Education Act : The system of education was separated for african students (black), and was designed to prepare black people to work. Black students were not going to received an education that would led them to aspire to positions they wouldn´t be allowed to hold in society.
1950 –Also, there were laws suppressing resistance, like the Suppression of Communism Act that banned the South African Communist Party, and other political parties that the government thought were communist.
1958 - Promotion of Bantu Self-government Act: transformation of reserves into idependant bantustants (homelands). With it, people there had to carry passports instead of pass books. They were no more legally South Africans. This means that all political rigths, including voting were restricted to the homeland.
1970 - Black Homeland Citizenchip Act: No longer citizens of South Africa, but citizens of their respective homelands.
In 1912 the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) was
founded, known since 1923 as The African National Congress
(ANC). It represented the interests of the black people of all
ethnic groups. First, it started orgainizing strikes and boycotts to
protest racist policies, in a peaceful way. However, as the
government attacks increased and the extreme Afrikaner
nationalism was rasing, it needed a more militant response. Its representative leader was Nelson Mandela.
In 1960, a large group of black students in Sharpeville refused to carry their pass books. As a consequence, the government declarated a state of emergency. It lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded: The Sharpeville Massacre.
In 1961, and as a response to this, The ANC was developing a military wing in its organization, called the Umkhonto We Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation“), or MK.
In 1962, the government discovered Umkhonto’s headquarters. Mandela was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life imprisonment. He served 27 years, spending many of these years on Robben Island.
In 1974, South Africa´s Nationalist Party passes a law
prohibiting instruction in schools to be any language but
Afrikaans and English. In Soweto town, a students’
demonstration protesting this move was fired upon by
the police, and a thirteen year-old student was killed.
People in Soweto were outraged and for three days war
existed between the outraged public and the police, and
the clashes spread to other black townships. Two white
people died and, at least 150 black, mostly school children.
In 1978, Botha became Prime Minister of the National Party.
A new constitution was created:
- Black homelands declared nation-states.
-Black labor unions were legitimized.
-Black people were allowed to live in urban areas and had property rights there.
-Government commited itself to “separate but equal” education.
1980s- Desmond Tutu, a black South African
bishop, led an economic campaign against
apartheid: foreign nations not to do business
with South Africa. Trade restrictions were
imposed, and South Africa was banned from
the Olympic Games.
1989 -Botha retired and Frederik de Klerk, member of the National Party, was elected:
-He gave the black population their place in the politics of the Nation.
Following his release from prison on 11 February 1990, Mandela led his party in the negotiations that ended in a multi-racial democracy in 1994.
Mandela became President of South Africa:
White and black people had to live together, in a nation of laws with rights for all, that was the policy of the new government.