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1949 - Prohibiton of Mixed Marriages Act: prohibited marriage between people of different races.
It was related with the Inmorality Act : sexual relations between people of different races was considered a criminal offence .
1950 - Population Registration Act : formalized racial classification into white, black, colour amd Indian people . Introduced an identification that all non-whites had to carry, known as PASS BOOKS . This included fingerprints, photo, and information on access to non-black areas. If the person didn´t have it was imprisoned.
-Group Areas Act : forced physical separation by creating different residential areas for different races.
1951 - Bantu Authorities Act : provided for the establishement of black homelands and regional authorities, with the aim of creating self-government in the homelands.
1953 - Reservation of Separate Amenities : municipal grounds were reserved for a particular race, creating, among others, separated beaches, buses, hospitals, ambulances, schools, and universities.
1953 – Bantu (Black) Education Act : The system of education was separated for african students (black), and was designed to prepare black people to work. Black students were not going to received an education that would led them to aspire to positions they wouldn´t be allowed to hold in society.
1950 –Also, there were laws suppressing resistance, like the Suppression of Communism Act that banned the South African Communist Party, and other political parties that the government thought were communist.
1958 - Promotion of Bantu Self-government Act: transformation of reserves into idependant bantustants (homelands). With it, people there had to carry passports instead of pass books. They were no more legally South Africans. This means that all political rigths, including voting were restricted to the homeland.
1970 - Black Homeland Citizenchip Act: No longer citizens of South Africa, but citizens of their respective homelands.
In 1960, a large group of black students in Sharpeville refused to carry their pass books. As a consequence, the government declarated a state of emergency. It lasted for 156 days, leaving 69 people dead and 187 people wounded: The Sharpeville Massacre.
In 1961, and as a response to this, The ANC was developing a military wing in its organization, called the Umkhonto We Sizwe ("Spear of the Nation“), or MK.
In 1962, the government discovered Umkhonto’s headquarters. Mandela was arrested and convicted of sabotage and other charges, and sentenced to life imprisonment. He served 27 years, spending many of these years on Robben Island.