CommonKADS knowledge management


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Ch. 4 of the CommonKADS textbook

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CommonKADS knowledge management

  1. 1. Knowledge Management The nature of KM A process model for KM KM and KE
  2. 2. Knowledge Management 2 What is knowledge management? ■  Knowledge is seen as a resource ■  This means for knowledge management taking care that the resource is ➤  delivered at the right time ➤  available at the right place ➤  present in the right shape ➤  satisfying the quality requirements ➤  obtained at the lowest possible costs ■  to be used in business processes
  3. 3. Knowledge Management 3 Why is knowledge management different? ■  Due to specific properties of knowledge: ➤  intangible and difficult to measure ➤  volatility ➤  embodied in agents with wills ➤  not “consumed” in a process, can increase through use ➤  wide ranging organizational impacts ➤  long lead times ➤  non-rival, can be used by different processes at the same time
  4. 4. Knowledge Management 4 Knowledge assets Apply your best knowledge Construct new knowledge Value chain Continuous improvement of knowledge assets
  5. 5. Knowledge Management 5 Distribute Create/change ConsolidateCombine Application of Knowledge Assets Organization and improvement of care for knowledge
  6. 6. Knowledge Management 6 Modes of Knowledge Management ■  Strategic: ➤  What are the general changes to the knowledge infrastructure? ■  Operational: ➤  Organization the actual implementation and usage of the knowledge infrastructure.
  7. 7. Knowledge Management 7 Levels in knowledge management Knowledge  management  level Knowledge  object    level K nowledge  assets organizational  roles business  processes Organizational  goals knowledge  as  a  resource value  chain K nowledge management actions Report experiences    
  8. 8. Knowledge Management 8 Knowledge management cycle R E F L E C T identify  improvements plan  changes AC T implement  changes monitor  improvements C ONC E PTUAL IZE identify  knowledge analyze  strength/ weaknesses
  9. 9. Knowledge Management 9 Knowledge object level Organization  model                OM-­‐2:  people  &  structure Agent  model::                AM-­‐1:  agent  descriptions                                        (software,  humans) agents knowledge as s ets bus ines s proces s participate in Organization  model:                OM-­‐4:  knowledge  assets                                          coarse  grained  description                                            form,  nature,  time,  location Task  model:                TM-­‐2:  knowledge  bottlenecks K nowledge  model:                knowledge  specification                fine-­‐grained Organization  model                OM-­‐2:  overall  process                OM-­‐3:    process  tasks Task  model:                TM-­‐1:  task  descriptions possess requires
  10. 10. Knowledge Management 10 Four ambitions (Source: Wiig on basis of Deming’s work) Resources Process Every ambition requires specific actions Products & services Innovate products & services 1 2 3 4 Task execution Task improvement Improve system Use the best available knowledge Acquire new knowledge Acquire knowledge about - process - working environment Acquire knowledge -customers -markets -technology - competition
  11. 11. Knowledge Management 11 Conceptualize the knowledge ■  The Organizational Model is a good starting point for creating a knowledge map. ■  The Task Model is a good starting point of charting out where the knowledge is used. ■  The agent model is good for analyzing who owns the knowledge and who uses it. ■  Knowledge items are central in KM.
  12. 12. Knowledge Management 12 Conceptualize: main activities ■  Inventarization of knowledge and organizational context ■  Analysis of strong and weak points: the value of knowledge ■  Should deliver insights which can be used in the next step for defining of and deciding between improvements
  13. 13. Knowledge Management 13 Reflect: bottleneck / opportunity analysis ■  Can be done by using knowledge item descriptions, generic bottleneck / opportunity types: ➤  time (only available during a limited period, queuing, delay) ➤  location (not available at the point where needed, delay and communication, “many windows”) ➤  form (difficult to understand, translation processes, reformulation of knowledge) ➤  nature (quality of knowledge, heuristic, standardization) ➤  stability (high rates of change, need to be up dated) ➤  current agents (vulnerability, carrier can/will leave, few agents listed) ➤  use in processes (limited re-use, reinventing the wheel) ➤  proficiency levels (current agents not well skilled, opportunity to “sell” knowledge)
  14. 14. Knowledge Management 14 Act: interventions ■  Management, human resources and culture ➤  Education and training ➤  Reward system ➤  Recruitment and selection ➤  Management behavior ■  Jobs & organizational structure ➤  Staff department knowledge and strategy ➤  Department lessons learned ➤  Introduction of a 'buddy' system ➤  Teams with overlapping knowledge areas ➤  Out sourcing ➤  Acquiring and selling organizations
  15. 15. Knowledge Management 15 Act: interventions (2) ■  (Technological) tools ➤  Intranets & internet for knowledge sharing & Lessons learned architectures ➤  Groupware-based applications with ‘knowledge’ databases (best practices) ➤  Decision Support Systems (expert systems, case repositories, simulations) ➤  'who knows what' guide (‘knowledge map’) ➤  Data mining ➤  Employee information system with knowledge profiling ➤  Document retrieval systems with advanced indexing & retrieval mechanisms
  16. 16. Knowledge Management 16 Knowledge management & knowledge engineering ■  Organization analysis feeds into knowledge management (and vice versa) ■  Knowledge modeling provides techniques for knowledge identification and development ■  Knowledge engineering focuses on common / reusable elements in knowledge work
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