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Calendars, Writing Systems, Hammurabi, And Factors Of Cities
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Calendars, Writing Systems, Hammurabi, And Factors Of Cities

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Transcript

  • 1. Unit One: Civilizations Test Prep
  • 2.
    • Basing a calendar on a flood is a problem. Why???
    • Because it doesn’t always flood at the same time!
    Calendar Systems China
    • Lunar & Sun calendar
    • Lunar used to record private and public events.
    • Priest-astronomers added days as needed (important to get the days of the harvest correct!)
    • Lunar calendar. The remaining five days in the year were used for holidays and feasting.
    Egypt
    • Sun calendar.
    • 360 named days and 5 unnamed, unlucky days.
    Aztec
  • 3. Hammurabi: Significance
    • Hammurabi’s laws—NOT the oldest set of laws but the LONGEST set ever discovered.
    • Purposes for his law:
      • A. The need for law and order in a growing community.  
      • B. The need for strong leadership in Babylon. 
      • C. Hammurabi's desire to be seen as a great king in a line of kings coming before and after him.
    • Justice in Babylonia—applied to all equally (think of woman who cheated in the pub)
  • 4. Factors that led to the rise of cities
    • Urbanization
    • Agricultural surpluses
    • Specialization of labor
    • Collection, storage and defense of surplus food
    • Meeting places for traders
    • Defense of water supplies (it was a desert)
    • Easier defense against enemies
    • Better organization
  • 5. Types of Writing Systems Used
    • Cuneiform: Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets.
    • Egyptian Hieroglyphics: Pictures represent words or sounds. Over 600 signs. First written on stone or hard materials but soon graduated to papyrus.
    • Chinese Calligraphy
      • Ideographs: Signifier (Idea Sign) and a Phonetic Sound Sign
      • Mastery of the traditional Chinese written language demanded much study and practice. Thus most ancient Chinese people, whose working lifestyles left little time for study, were prevented from learning to write or to read.