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Classification week2
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  • 1. KLASIFIKASIMIKROORGANISME27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 1
  • 2. Taxonomya Organizing, classifying and naming living thingsa Formal system originated by Carl von Linné (1701-1778)a Identifying and classifying organisms according to specific criteriaa Each organism placed into a classification system
  • 3. Taxonomya Domaina Kingdoma Phyluma Classa Ordera Familya Genusa species
  • 4. Bacterial Phylogeny Insert figure 1.15 Woese-Fox System
  • 5. BACTERIAa ARCHAEBACTERIA • Introns in DNA a EUBACTERIA • Lack peptidogycan in • Includes most cell walls bacteria • Live in extreme • Most have one of three environments shapes • May be divided into up to 12 phyla • Classification is controversial 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 6
  • 6. TYPES OF ARCHAEBACTERIA Methanogens living in Thermoacidophilies sewage Living in hot springs Extreme halophile living in the Great Salt Lake Padaga27/02/2012 Masdiana 7
  • 7. Bacteria Morphological Diversity 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 8 From http://ag.arizona.edu/plp/courses/plp329/micdivintro.ppt
  • 9. Most Species of Eubacteria may beGrouped Based on Staininga Gram-Negative a Gram-Positive • Lack thicker layer of • Thicker layer of peptidoglycan peptidogycan • Stain purple • Stain pink • Exotoxins (released • Endotoxins when bacteria die) Gram- negative Gram-positive27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 10
  • 10. Archaebacteria 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 11
  • 11. Archaebacteria 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 12
  • 12. Bacterial Taxonomy Based onBergey’s Manuala B ergey’s M anual of D eterminative B acteriology – five volume resource covering all known procaryotes • classification based on genetic information – p h y lo g e n e t ic • two domains: Archaea and Bacteria • five major subgroups with 25 different phyla
  • 13. Major Taxonomic Groups of Bacteriaa V o l 1A : D o m a i n A r c h a e a • primitive, adapted to extreme habitats and modes of nutritiona V o l 1B : D o m a i n B a c t e r i aa Vol 2-5: • P h y l u m P r o t e o b a c t e r i a – Gram- negative cell walls • P h y l u m F i r m i c u t e s – mainly Gram- positive with low G + C content • P h y l u m A c t i n o b a c t e r i a – Gram- positive with high G + C content
  • 14. Naming and Classifyingmicroorganisms • Linnaeus system for scientific nomenclature • Each organism has two names: 1) Genus 2) Specific epithet 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 15
  • 15. Scientific Namesa Italicized or underlined. The genus is capitalized, and the specific epithet is with lowercasea Could be as an honor for the scientista A Latin origin e.g. Escherichia coli (E. coli) - discoverer: Theodor Escherich In - describes the habitat (colon/intestine) intestine e.g. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) - Clustered (staphylo), spherical (cocci) On skin - 27/02/2012 Gold colored colonies (aureus) Padaga Masdiana 16
  • 16. Binomial NomenclatureExamples: Escherichia coli, E. coli, Escherichia spp., and“the genus Escherichia” The genus name (Escherichia) is always capitalized The species name (coli) is never capitalized The species name is never used without the genus name (e.g., coli standing alone, by itself, is a mistake!) The genus name may be used without the species name (e.g., Escherichia may stand alone, though when doing so it no longer actually describes a species) When both genus and species names are present, the genus name always comes first (e.g., Escherichia coli, not coli Escherichia) 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 17
  • 17. Binomial NomenclatureBoth the genus and species names are always italicized(or underlined)—always underline if writing binomials byhandThe first time a binomial is used in a work, it must bespelled out in its entirety (e.g., E. coli standing alone in amanuscript is not acceptable unless you have alreadywritten Escherichia coli in the manuscript)The next time a biniomial is used it may be abbreviated(e.g., E. for Escherichia) though this is done typically onlywhen used in combination with the species name (e.g.,E. coli)The species name is never abbreviated 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 18
  • 18. Binomial NomenclatureIt is a good idea to abbreviate unambiguously if there isany potential for confusion (e.g., Enterococcus vs.Escherichia) These rules are to be followed when employing binomial nomenclature even in your speech. It is proper to refer to Escherichia coli as E. coli or even as Escherichia, but it is not proper to call it coli or E.C.! When in doubt, write the whole thing out (and underline)!27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 19
  • 19. Types of Eukaryotes Protozoa Algaea Unicellular eukaryote a Unicellular/multicellulara Absorb or ingest organic eukaryote chemicals a Has cellulose cell wallsa May move using a Gain energy through pseudopods, cilia or photosynthesis flagella a Produce molecular anda e.g. Amoeba organic compounds 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 20
  • 20. Fungi (singular: Fungus)a Eukaryotesa Chitin cell wallsa Use organic chemicals for energya Molds and mushrooms are multicellular, consists of mycelia (composed of filaments called hyphae)a Yeasts are unicellular 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 21
  • 21. Multicellular animal parasitesa Helminths: flatworms and roundwormsa Multicellular27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 22
  • 22. Virusesa Too small to be observed with light microscopea Consists of DNA/RNA corea Core is surrounded by protein coata Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelopea Viruses are replicated only when they are in living host cella Bacteriophage-viruses that infect bacteriaa Viroids-nucleic acid without protein coatinga Prions- Infectious protenacious particles 27/02/2012 Masdiana Padaga 23