Child sensistive social protection bappenas 9 mei 2012

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Skema Program Perlindungan Sosial di Indonesia

Skema Program Perlindungan Sosial di Indonesia

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  • Does not include severance payExcludes Jamkesmas
  • Child protection programs (national priorites only)
  • Insurance for informal sectors

Transcript

  • 1. Recent Development on Social Protection Policy and Programsviviyulaswati@bappenas.go.idDirector for Social Protection and Welfare, BappenasWorkshop for Capacity Building on “Poverty and Social Protection”Jakarta, May 9th, 2012 1
  • 2. Outline• Where are we now? Some basis, current schemes, and challenges• Where do we want to go?  Vision in long-medium term  SP Transformation• How are we going to go?  From poverty to vulnerability focus  Universal coverage in stages 2
  • 3. WHERE ARE WE NOW? THE BASIS FOR SOCIAL PROTECTION POLICY Constitution (UUD 1945 and its amendment: article 28, 28H, and 34) Law No. 4/1979 on Children Welfare Law No. 3/1997 on Court for Children Law No. 4/1997 on Disabilities Law No. 13/1998 on Old Age Welfare Law No. 23/2002 on Child Protection Law No. 21/2007 on Elimination of Human Trafficking; Law No. 11/2009 on Social Welfare Law No. 13/2011 on Services for the Poor Law No. 19/2011 on Ratification of Convention on People with Disabilities Law No. 40/2004 on National Social Security System/SJSN (about participation, size of fee and benefit, implementation mechanism, and institution) Law No. 24/2011 ttg Social Security Institution/BPJS (about institution of UHC and Labor) Gov’t Regulation No. 22/1988 on Social Welfare for Children with adversity Gov’t Regulation No. 22/1988 on Social Welfare for Disabilities Gov’t Regulation No. 73/1991 on Education out of School Presidential Decree No. 36/1990 on Ratification for Children’s Right Convention Presidential Decree No. 59/2002 on Elimination of Children in Hazardous Works Presidential Instruction No. 1/2010 on the Acceleration of National Development Priorities Presidential Instruction No. 3/2010 on Fair and Just Development 3 And many others of the elaboration the above regulations Presidential
  • 4. CURRENT SOCIAL PROTECTION SCHEME Social Q5Social AssistanceQ5 Insurance •Pension.Q4 Cluster 3 •Old Age Security. Cluster 2Q3 •Health. National Credit Program on Facility to Cluster 1 SMEs •Work Injury. Community •Scholarship for the poor EmpowermentQ2 •Subsidized Rice. (PNPM): •Death. •CCT (for the poorest) Urban, rural, rural •Disabled infrastructure, less- •Children with adversityQ1 •Neglected old ages developed regions •Indigenous communities 4
  • 5. Social Insurance Civil Servants Scheme Private Employees Military & Police Non-Military 1. Work Injury 1. Old Age Benefit 1. Work Injury 2. Pension 2. Pension 2. Old Age BenefitProgram 3. Health Care 3. Health Insurance 3. Health Insurance 4. Death Benefit 500,000 4,100,000 8,000,000Active Member (0.5% of total (4.3% of total (7.4% of total workforce) workforce) workforce)Notes: many (informal) workers rely on kin-based support system – family, neighbors, orhometown-based groups in urban areas for assistance in cash or in-kind 5
  • 6. THE PROGRESS OF INDONESIA’S CCT-PKH PKH is one example of a new generation of social assistance programs that incorporates support system, ie. MIS, facilitators, supply readiness, and build-in evaluation from the beginning of the program. The evaluation showed that the program has increased 10% beneficiaries’ monthly expenditure by spending on higher protein foods and health cost, positive impact on children’s health quality, and has spill-over effect to neighboring households that didn’t receive cash transfer. Indicators 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012No. of HH 620.755 726.000 772.000 1.116.000 1.516.000beneficiariesNo. of Province 13 13 20 25 33No. of Districts 70 70 88 118 166No. of Sub-district 629 729 954 1.262 1.551No. of facilitators 2.469 3.069 3.669 5.069 7.069 Rp. 1,006 Rp. 1,1 Rp. 1,3 Rp. 1,61 Rp. 2,08Budget Triliun Triliun Triliun Triliun Triliun 6
  • 7. Some National Programs on Child ProtectionNo Programs Indicators Target 2013 2014 2015 20161 Program Keluarga Harapan Very poor households 2.400.000 3.000.000 2.766.000 2.766.000 (PKH) receiving conditional cash transfer.2 Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Children receiving 2.460 2.460 1.949 2.211 Anak (PKSA) youth saving accounts and counselling.3 Perlindungan Pekerja Child workers 11.000 12.500 12.500 12.500 Perempuan dan Penghapusan withdrawn from Pekerja Anak – Protection of working place and Female Workers and Child receiving education or Labor Elimination acquiring skills.4 Pelayanan, Perlindungan, dan Children (neglected, 169.461 169.461 134.262 152.329 Rehabilitasi Anak (Dalam dan disabled, and law Luar Panti) problems) who receive special treatment inside/outside nursing institution (panti) 7
  • 8. Variability of Child’s Problems Child Problems Units 2002 2004 2006 2008 2009 Neglected Infant childs 1.178.824 1.138.126 618.296 303.629 1.186.941 Neglected Children childs 3.488.309 3.308.642 2.815.393 2.367.693 3.176.462 Disabled Children childs 367.520 365.868 295.763 n.a. n.a. Delinquent childs 193.155 189.075 228.851 201.653 155.444 Street Children childs 94.674 98.113 144.889 107.778 83.776 Source: Pusdatin Kemensos Law No.23/2002 on Child Protection, article 59 stated that specific treatment Poor Children Population should be given to children: 1. In emergency situation (refugee of conflict, natural disaster, war) Near Poor 4.634.390 2. Having problem with law 3. Of minority and isolated group 4. Exposed by economic/sexual abused Poor 9.174.977 5. Human trafficking, kidnapping, abduction 6. Narcotics, alcohol, psichotropic and other adictives (napza) Poorest 7.487.153 7. Phisical and/or mentally abused 8. Abandontment/misconductSource: PPLS 2008 9. Disability 8
  • 9. Social Assistance ExpenditureSocial Assistance Budget of MoSA (2009) 2011 Annual Categories Expenditure (IDR) % Assistance for Elderly 101.114.400.000 0,37% Health Assistance (Jamkesmas) 5.100.000.000.000 18,85% Child Protection 287.127.300.000 1,06% Disaster Assistance and Relief 429.040.000.000 1,59% Other Social Assistance (disability, old age benefits) 358.890.800.000 1,33% Rice for the Poor (Raskin) 15.267.000.000.000 56,43% Scholarship for the Poor 3.900.000.000.000 14,42% Conditional Cash Transfer (PKH) 1.610.000.000.000 5,95% All Social Assistance 27.053.172.500.000,0 100,00% Share to State Budget (APBN) 1.320.751.300.000.000 2,05% Share to GDP 7.226.900.000.000.000 0,37% 9
  • 10. Evaluation on Child Protection Programs• Evaluation of Program Kesejahteraan Sosial Anak (PKSA) shows that improvements are needed*: – More effective targeting; – strong integrated baseline information, – monitoring and evaluation system; – professional social workers to support families; – efficient dissemination and complaint handling; – better coordination among several responsible ministries.• PKH needs improvement on increasing the benefit level and delivery schedule of the cost-effective program**. Scaling up is necessary to reach all chronically poor households and the collection of programs that target marginalized populations.*) Results from Bappenas-Puska PA UI study (2011)**) Excerpts from World Bank SAPER report (2012) 10
  • 11. Existing Health Protection in Indonesia (63%) PRIVATE SCHEMES ASKES JAMSOSTEK JAMKESMAS JAMKESDA SELF-INSURED INSURANCE STARTED 1984 1992 2005 2006-2007 Mid to Large Enterprises with Civil Servants & Formal Workers & Very Poor, Poor & Non-Quota Poor more than 250 Mid to Large WHO ? Families, Pensions Families Near Poor Population employees Enterprises Local Government Social Social Selected diseases Initiatives, cover all population: 4 out of 33 Notes Insurance Insurance Leukemia, Provinces, it covers Thalasemia, all of uninsured Maternity Care population TOTAL 36 million when itPOPULATION was started, COVERAGE expand to 76.4 (2010) 16.4 million 5.5 million million in 2008 32 million 10 million 5 million Contribution – % salary paid by Contribution – FINANCING Employer + % salary paid by Central Government Local Government Contribution from Contribution from SOURCES Employees Employers Subsidy Subsidy Employers EmployersTOTAL PREMIUM COLLECTED USD 634.02 USD 102.93 USD 565.22 USD 195.65 USD 2,492.39 USD 279.34 (2010) million *) million *) million *) million million **) million **) USD 0.60 - USD 10.00 - PMPM (2010) USD 3.26 USD 1.96 USD 0.65 USD 3.50 USD 20.77 USD 75.00*) TNP2K, “Jaminan Kesehatan, 2010"**) National Health Account Estimation for 2010, Ministry of Health
  • 12. PARTICIPATION OF FORMAL WORKER IN HEALTH INSURANCE Formal Workers ± 25,000.000 workers  Main characteristics are workers in small firms Jamsostek and has small number of Participants workers. 7,689, 444 workers  Need socialization for 16.147.832 family member (assumption: family ratio 2.1) health insurance  Needs data of workers and their families Health insurance participants  Only 25% of workers and 2,567, 671 workers 5.884.528 family members 41,3% of firms under Jamsostek that has health insurance  Will be transformed into BPJS 1 (Health) automatically by January 1,2014 12
  • 13. BASIC HEALTH PROTECTION – CURRENT SITUATION JAMKESMAS JAMKESDA JAMSOSTEK ASKES Poor Unemployed Informal workers Private formal workers Gov’ employees (PNS/TNI/Polri) Gov’t subsidy for Premium Worker’s contribution Except Jamkesmas, benefit schemes are vary, relatively low, and patchy Benefit scheme is higher and more comprehensive Fragmented coverage of protection: participation, benefit scheme, program 1313
  • 14. THE CHALLENGES• Big gap between laws and the implementation – Fragmented and scattered programs – Administrative feasibility (corruption, capacity, costs, transparency) – Weak coordination and no sharing agenda between ministries as well as local governments.• A large number of people remain excluded from the existing scheme. – Low and unequal access to SP, many are particularly vulnerable groups (including disabled children/with special needs). – Difference in database (no single format of reporting, scattered/unintegrated database), targeting and performance measurement• Unclear role and responsibity of stakeholders – Under decentralization, local government is important to synergize among sectors and information – Political support and public attitudes – Affordability (% of GDP, % of public spending) 14
  • 15. WHERE DO WE WANT TO GO? 15
  • 16. VISION 2025• The vision of national development until 2025 (Law No. 17) is to “Create nation that is self-sufficient, advanced, just, and prosperous”• With assumption real growth 7-8% per annum starting 2013, GDP in 2025 will be around US$ 3.76 – 4.47 billion.• With population projection around 293 million people, it is estimated GDP per capita will be around US$ 12.855 – 16.160.• Based on Goldmann Sachs & Economist projection, Indonesia’s GDP in 2050 will be more than US$ 26.000 billion and will be one of important world economics. “Build Indonesia to be a country among the 10th big global economies in 2030 and among 6th big economies in 2050 through ”High Inclusive and Sustainable Acceleration and Expansion of Inclusive Economic Growth to Improve The People’s Growth” Welfare 16
  • 17. THE MASTER PLANS – COMPLEMENTARY BETWEEN MP3EI AND MP3KI LONG-TERM NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN MEDIUM-TERM NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PLAN Primary Strategy: Pro-Growth, Pro-Job, Pro-Poor, Pro-Environment MP3EI MP3KIObjective : Growth with Equity Objective : Accelerated Poverty ReductionTarget : GDP/Capita 2025  USD 13.000-16.000 Target : Poverty Rate 2025 : 4-5% , EmploymentApproach : Increase in value added of commodity- Opportunities, Gini Coefficient. based flagship areas involving Approach : improve people’s welfare through synergies government, state-owned enterprises, among poverty reduction programs and P4 and private sector. (Public-Private-People Partnership)Strategy: 3 pillars  Strategy : (a) Comprehensive social protection System, (b)1) Determining 6 Economic Development Corridors, basic needs and services, (c) community empowerment, (d)2) Strengthening National Connectivity; access to capital, market, extention to services & networks3) Enhancing HRD and R&D capabilityDocuments: Documents:1. National Connectivity Action Plan 1. National Action Plan on Accelerated Poverty Reduction2. Government Work Plan (RKP) 2. Improved Poverty Reduction Program Designs3. ... 3. Road maps transformation of Social Security InstitutionsQuick wins: ground breaking investment Quick wins: launching the implementation of 4 clustergovernment, state-owned enterprises, and private programs PK in various chosen locationssector in corridors 17
  • 18. Transformation Scenario of Social Protection Poverty Rate PDB/capita (US$) Outlook Poverty 14.963 and Economic 10,5-11,5 % Target Poverty Line 8-10% (thousand Rp)Notes: 10.278 Elasticity 0,2431. PDB/Capita: MP3EI target 6862. Poverty rate: RPJP target 6.097 6-7%3. Poverty lines tend to increase 3.729 0,083 467 4-5%4. The elasticity of poverty level to GDP/capita growth 0,045 is decreasing 318 0,023 252 2012 2015 2020 2025 EXISTING POVERTY SOCIAL PROTECTION PROGRAMS Strategic Program REDUCTION PROGRAMS Social Insurance: Poverty Reduction  Health Insurance Cluster I  Life Insurance Strategy Social Assistance and Insurance  Old Age Savings  Pension Cluster II TRANSFORMATION  Work accident insurance Social Empowerment Social Assistance: Cluster III  Food stamps Small and Medium Enterprises  Temporary shelter  Beasiswa miskin Cluster IV ... “Pro-Rakyat” Program SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOOD Community Empowerment , extention to service, network, financial, market Access 10 % lowest 30 % lowest 20 % lowest Target Group poor households, vulnerables (PPLS 2014/2017) (PPLS 2017/2020) (PPLS 2023) (40 % lowest PPLS 2011) 18
  • 19. Social Protection System Framework ObjectivesPreventing people from falling Protecting the poor and the Promotive - support Transformative - to address into (further) poverty and vulnerable from risks and investment, enhance income concerns of social equity and vulnerabilities mitigating the pressures & capabilities exclusion Risks and Vulnerabilities Individual Life Cycle: Economic: Social: Environment: Hunger and malnutrition, Unemployment, social disaster, neglected, natural disasters, drought, injury, illness, disability, old underemployment, low and housing insecurity, land flood, fire, man-made age, death. irregular incomes, economic tenure. disaster. crises. StrategiesSocial Insurance Social Welfare Labour Market Program Social Safety Nets• Health Insurance • Basic social services • Employment generation • Emergency assistance• Minimum Guaranteed • Cash transfer (conditional) • Skills development and • Price subsidies Income and in-kind assistance training • Food subsidies• Crop Insurance • Capacity building • Labour and trade • Emergency employment • Supporting program policies • Retraining and emergency (targeting, safe-guarding, • Agricultural support loans Early Warning System) 19
  • 20. Major risks throughout the life cycle Early childhood Childhood and Youth Adulthood Old age (from pregnancy) adolescence Delays in early Incomplete schooling (primary or Insufficient childhood secondary) income development • Children more vulnerable owing to physical Insufficient job skills & psychological over vulnerabilities (natural disasters, broken home, & other social risks), • Family & school/community violence diminished adult care, discrimination, Low quality employment • Physical/psychological vulnerabilities compounded by voicelessness Unemployment Poor health conditions (including disabilities) Income povertySource: Verónica Silva V, March 2012, modified.
  • 21. CLUSTER 1 TRANSFORMATION (SOCIAL ASSISTANCE AND INSURANCE) 2025 2020 2015 2012 “UPGRADING” “UPSTREAMING” “UPSHIFTING”Focus Optimization of Cluster I Program (Social Development of Social Protection Expansion of Social Protection Assistance) Program ProgramObjectives • Providing targeted social assistance. • The development of more systematic • Social insurance is expanded to the • Social insurance mechanism developed social assistance programs. all community. particularly for targeted households and • The institutionalization and development • Development of comprehensive informal sector workers. of social insurance programs. social protection system.Intervention • Improvement of Raskin, BSM & PKH and • Improved benefits and expanded • Strengthening the role of local other social assistance program beneficiaries. authorities and communities in • Transforming Jamkesmas/da into BPJS 1/ • Integration and synchronization of social assistance. Health (Jan 1, 2014). various social insurance scheme. • Social protection for certain • Establishing BPJS 2/Employment (July 1, • Innovation for of alternative funding condition (disaster, crisis). 2015)* sources (incl. premium schemes). • Establishing social security system (i.e. • Crisis monitoring Protocol Premium Subsidy, dissemination/ ”sosialisasi”, capacity building).Notes: BPJS 2 will start Work Accident Insurance and Life Insurance in 2017 for ex-Jamsostek and all workers in 2020. BPJS 2 will start Old Age Savings Insurance in 2017-2028 for ex-Jamsostek and all workers in 2029 BPJS 2 will start pension scheme in 2029 for all workers 21
  • 22. HOW ARE WE GOING TO GO? 22
  • 23. MAJOR CHANGES NEEDED IN SOCIAL ASSISTANCE Change into FROM TOApproach POVERTY (income) VULNERABILITY (risks)Intervention focus INDIVIDUALS/INSTITUTION FAMILIES (household) INTEGRATED PROVISIONManagement model FRAGMENTATION OF SERVICES EFFICENCY + EFFICACY + COMPLEMENTARITY + QUALITY
  • 24. A LINKAGE MODEL: FROM POVERTY TO VULNERABILITYPolicy objectives• Equalization of Accesibility Timeliness opportunities. Institutional Mechanisms to ensure – Unified database and arrangements that effectiveness of the creating referral system facilitate the beneficiaries institutions to meet the entry to the system beneficiaries demands (single entry point) (guarantees)• Support throughout Services the life cycle. Permanent adjustments Institutional networks to the contents of social close to beneficiaries.• Assurance for the services and benefits (Municipalities and (service standards) Local Networks) entire population basic welfare levels. Quality Local provision
  • 25. Universal Health Coverage StrategyIncrease in cost proportionemployee and employer)(gov’t, premium from Increase in benefit package Increase coverage of beneficiaries
  • 26. But…. there are still gaps in the supply side Gap indicators Puskesmas Pustu TotalClean water 517 2.837 3.355Incubator for baby 5.860 22.154 28.014Electricity 305 10.282 10.629 (incl. Poskesdes & Polindes)Physicians 733 20.871 21.603Midwifes 187 5.831 6.017 Distribution of Midwifes at village level
  • 27. THE WAY FORWARD TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF BPJS BPJS HEALTH BPJS EMPLOYMENT Univeral coverage Participation Universal coverage (formal Coverage and informal workers) Health insurance Protection  Pension, accident, old saving & Program Life insurances  Program Desain Implementation  Program Design  Regulation harmonization regulation  Regulation Harmonization Askes/JPK/Jamkesmas/Jam Institutional Taspen/Asabri ke BPJS (2029) - kesda to BPJS 1 (2014) Transformation  Program Transformation/  Benefit feasibility integration Operasional Program Sustainability  Sevice quality Notes: Transformation principles  • The benefit package can’t lower than the current level • There is no stop for services for older members • 1 member should only pay once for each program 2727
  • 28. Conclusions• Social protection can reduce future poverty through preventing risks, protecting from impact, promoting proactive responses and transforming the legal environment and/or societal values – High returns to investment – Short window opportunity, High risks that investment will not happen – Strong gains from combination of interventions• As children’s experiences of poverty and vulnerability differently from those of adults, child sensitive social protection therefore is needed – to have a multidimensional focus – to be developed as an evidence-based approach – Aim at maximizing opportunities and developmental outcomes for children within given constraints – raise awareness and build a coalition for making social protection child sensitive• Some Future works: – Having some pilots for transformation/transition of expansion/redesign programs. – Enforcing the Minimum Service Standards, norms, procedure and criteria to ensure service delivery. – Improve allocative efficiency, and generate contribution (contributory scheme of social insurance)• The Social Protection Floor Initiative could help the acceleration of toward more comprehensive social protection in Indonesia 28
  • 29. Terima Kasih Thank You 29