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  • 1. The 1930s in America: The Great Depression
  • 2. The 1930’s in America
    • The Great Depression: Worst and longest economic collapse in America’s history
    • Consisted of fast drops in the production and sale of goods and a sudden, severe rise in unemployment
    • Businesses and banks closed their doors, people lost their jobs, homes, and savings, and many depended on charity to survive
    • In 1933, at the worst point in the depression, more than 15 million Americans—one-quarter of the nation’s workforce—were unemployed.
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt is credited as the President who brought the United States out of the Great Depression The 1930’s in America
    • The Great Depression: Worst and longest economic collapse in America’s history
    • Sales of goods dropped
    • Unemployment rose
    • Businesses and banks closed
    • People lost their jobs, homes, and savings
    • Many depended on charity to survive
    • In 1933, at the worst point in the depression, more than 15 million Americans—one-quarter of the nation’s workforce—were unemployed.
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt is credited as the President who brought the United States out of the Great Depression
  • 3. The Roaring 20s
    • After World War I, Americans stopped looking at other countries, and just wanted to focus on America. The emphasis was on getting rich and enjoying new fads, new inventions, and new ideas. The traditional values of America were being challenged by the “Jazz Age”, symbolized by what many considered the shocking behavior of young women who wore short skirts and makeup, smoked, and drank.
    • Advertising methods that had been developed to build support for World War I were used to persuade people to buy such relatively new products as automobiles and such completely new ones as radios and household appliances.
    The Roaring 20s
    • After World War I, Americans stopped looking at other countries – they just wanted to focus on America
    • Emphasis was on getting rich and enjoying new fads, new inventions, and new ideas
    • People were buying new products like automobiles, radios and household appliances
    • Fun times reigned
      • Dancing
      • Flappers
      • Drinking
  • 4. Why was this bad?
    • WWI
      • The U.S. was a major credit loaner to other nations in need
      • Many of these nations could not pay us back
    • Credit system
      • People did not have enough money to spend on the advertising products available. To get around this, people used something called “credit” (aka consumer debt )
      • People were allowed to “buy now, pay later.”
      • This only put off the day when consumers accumulated so much debt that they could not keep buying up all the products coming off assembly lines. That day came in 1929.
  • 5. The Stock Market
    • People bought stocks on margins
      • If a stock is $100 you can pay $10 now and the rest later when the stock rose
    • Stocks fall
      • Now the person has less than $100 and no money to pay back
  • 6. And then….
    • With people panicking about their money investors tried to sell their stocks
      • This leads to a huge decline in stocks
      • Stocks were worthless now
    • People who bought on “margins” now could not pay
    • Investors were average people who were now broke
  • 7. Black Monday
    • It is a common misconception that the stock market crash of October 1929, known as Black Monday, was the cause of the Great Depression. The two events were closely related, but both were the results of deep problems in the modern economy that were building up through the “prosperity decade” of the 1920s.
    Black Monday It is a common misconception that the stock market crash of October 1929, known as Black Monday, was the cause of the Great Depression. The two events were closely related, but both were the results of deep problems in the modern economy that were building up through the “prosperity decade” of the 1920s.
  • 8. Farmers after the war
    • Unlike most of the country, the farmers of America (1/4 of the country) could not hide the fact that they were losing money. The country needed many goods during WWI to support the war effort. However, when the war was over, the market was over-supplied and the farmers found themselves in a depression of their own.
  • 9. Immediate Effects of Crash
    • Because people had built up so much credit during the 20s, they finally needed to start paying it back. People were spending their income on past purchases instead of new ones. This meant stores were not selling, so businesses were failing.
  • 10. When businesses fail
    • When the business started to fail, it meant that they needed to lay people off or even close their stores entirely.
    • In the years following the crash, the unemployment rate went from only 3.2 percent to 25%! This meant that 15 MILLION Americans were out of work.
  • 11. To Make Matters Worse
    • Beginning in Arkansas in 1930, a severe drought spread across the Great Plains. Once-productive topsoil turned to dust that was carried away by strong winds, piling up in drifts against houses and barns. Parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado became known as the Dust Bowl, as the drought destroyed the livelihood of hundreds of thousands of small farmers. Packing up their families and meager possessions, many of these farmers migrated to California in search of work.
    … to make matters worse Beginning in Arkansas in 1930, a severe drought spread across the Great Plains. Once-productive topsoil turned to dust that was carried away by strong winds, piling up in drifts against houses and barns. Parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado became known as the Dust Bowl, as the drought destroyed the livelihood of hundreds of thousands of small farmers. Packing up their families and meager possessions, many of these farmers migrated to California in search of work. DUST BOWL
  • 12. THE DUST BOWL
  • 13. The Homeless Factor
    • As people lost their jobs and savings, mortgages on many homes and farms were foreclosed. Homeless people built shacks out of old crates and formed shantytowns, which were called “Hoovervilles” out of bitterness toward President Herbert Hoover, who refused to provide government aid to the unemployed.
    This famous photo of Florence Owens Thompson and her children was taken by Farm Security Administration photographer Dorothea Lange in Nipomo, California, in March of 1936. The family arrived in the Pajaro Valley later that day, hoping to find work picking lettuce. The Homeless Factor As people lost their jobs and savings, mortgages on many homes and farms were foreclosed. Homeless people built shacks out of old crates and formed shantytowns, which were called “Hoovervilles” out of bitterness toward President Herbert Hoover, who refused to provide government aid to the unemployed. This famous photo of Florence Owens Thompson and her children was taken by Farm Security Administration photographer Dorothea Lange in Nipomo, California, in March of 1936. The family arrived in the Pajaro Valley later that day, hoping to find work picking lettuce.
  • 14. PREJUDICE: Jim Crow Laws
    • After the American Civil War most states in the South passed anti-African American legislation. These became known as Jim Crow laws.
    • These laws included segregation in…
      • Schools -- Hospitals
      • Theaters -- Water fountains
      • Restaurants
      • Hotels
      • Public transportation
      • Some states forbid inter-racial marriages
  • 15.
    • These laws were instituted in 1896 and were not abolished till the late 1950’s (even then still not completely).
  • 16.
    • 9 young African-American men (13-20) accused of raping 2 white girls in 1931
    • Several white men boarded a train bound for Memphis and picked a fight with the black men
    Scottsboro Boys Trial
  • 17.
    • Whites were forced off train by the 12 black men. The white men reported the black men had raped two white girls on the train to authorities
    • The black men were immediately arrested and tried in front of an all-white jury.
    • Immediately sentenced to death
    • Trials went on for nearly 15 years before all the men were dismissed
    • Huge uproar amongst black community
    DETAILS
  • 18. Harper Lee (1926- )
    • Born in Monroeville, Alabama
    • Her father was a small-town lawyer (provided basis for the father in TKAM , Atticus)
    • TKAM was Lee’s first novel
    • Her novel was successful right away – she won several awards including the 1961 Pulitzer Prize for fiction.
    • TKAM was made into an award-winning movie, turning Lee into a celebrity herself.
  • 19. Maycomb Monroeville Harper Lee was born and raised in Monroeville, Alabama The place of TKAM ’s setting is the fictional town of Maycomb, Alabama. This is based largely on where Lee was raised. Harper Lee was born and raised in Monroeville, Alabama The place of TKAM ’s setting is the fictional town of Maycomb, Alabama. This is based largely on where Lee was raised.
  • 20. Setting
    • The book was written in the 1950s, published in 1960, but the time of the novel is the 1930s
    • Imaginary town: Maycomb, Alabama
    • Summer 1933 – Halloween Night 1935
    • Rural, poor, farming community
    • Prejudice and segregation were everywhere
          • (Civil Rights Act (which banned segregation) was not passed until 1964)
    HISTORICAL CONTEXT
  • 21. Characters
    • Scout (Jean Louise Finch): Narrator; 6 years old; lively, intelligent girl
    • Jem (Jeremy Finch): Scout’s older brother; tranquil disposition, even temperament
    • Atticus Finch: Scout and Jem’s father; Lawyer; always fair
    • Calpurnia: Cook and housekeeper for the Finches
    • Dill: Friend of Jem and Scout
    • Other characters include: Arthur (Boo) Radley, Miss Maudie Atkinson, Aunt Alexandra, Stephanie Crawford, Bob Ewell, Tom Robinson
  • 22. Social Class in the Novel This is probably similar to how class structure existed during the 1930’s in the South. The wealthy, although fewest in number, were most powerful. The blacks, although great in number, were lowest on the class ladder, and thus, had the least privileges. Examples of each social class: Wealthy - Finches Country Folk - Cunninghams “ White Trash” – Ewells Black Community – Tom Robinson
  • 23. Living in a World of Discrimination
    • ACTIVITY:
    • You will go to the assigned website to view a number of photographs depicting racial discrimination. Choose one picture and write a one-page reflection on how you felt upon seeing it. Consider how you would feel if you saw the public sign as a white person, and then as a colored person.
    • Click here to view Photographs of Racial Discrimination
    A cafe near the tobacco market. (Signs: Separate doors for "White" and for "Colored.“) North Carolina, 1940
  • 24. Reflecting on What We’ve Read so far… Chapters 1-4
    • In your journal, answer the following questions:
    • As the novel begins, we are introduced to the town of Maycomb and its inhabitants through the recollections of the narrator, Jean Louise Finch (Scout).
    • a) What does Scout tell us about the history of the town? What is life like there when Scout is growing up?
    • b) What do we learn about the history of Scout’s family? How is this history linked with that of Maycomb?
    • c) Briefly relate the history of the Radleys. What do you find odd about them? In what ways do the Radleys differ from the Finches?
    • Dill’s curiosity about Boo Radley sparks a series of attempted encounters with this mysterious, invisible neighbour. Examine each of the following “encounters” with Boo, and answer the questions below:
    • the dare
    • the runaway tire
    • the new game
    • a) What do the children find so fascinating about Boo Radley?
    • b) What is the children’s motive in each of these incidents?
    • c) What evidence is given to illustrate that their actions are not going unnoticed?
    Reflecting on What We’ve Read so far… Chapters 1-4
    • In your journal, answer the following questions:
    • As the novel begins, we are introduced to the town of Maycomb and its inhabitants through the recollections of the narrator, Jean Louise Finch (Scout).
    • a) What does Scout tell us about the history of the town? What is life like there when Scout is growing up?
    • b) What do we learn about the history of Scout’s family? How is this history linked with that of Maycomb?
    • c) Briefly relate the history of the Radleys. What do you find odd about them? In what ways do the Radleys differ from the Finches?
    • Dill’s curiosity about Boo Radley sparks a series of attempted encounters with this mysterious, invisible neighbour. Examine each of the following “encounters” with Boo, and answer the questions below:
    • the dare
    • the runaway tire
    • the new game
    • a) What do the children find so fascinating about Boo Radley?
    • b) What is the children’s motive in each of these incidents?
    • c) What evidence is given to illustrate that their actions are not going unnoticed?
  • 25. Reflections for further ahead…
    • As you are reading the novel for the first time, make entries in your journal at the points indicated below in response to the questions asked. Feel free to write other thoughts and feelings about other parts of the novel as you are reading!
    • After finishing chapter 11, give your opinion of Atticus. Would you like to have him as a father?
    • As you finish chapter 13, record your reaction to Aunt Alexandra. What will the relationship between her and Scout be like, in your opinion?
    • In chapter 14, Dill explains to Scout why he ran away. Have you ever felt like this?
    • Describe your feelings at the end of chapter 22. Was this the verdict you expected?
    • Write down your immediate feelings after finishing the novel.
    Reflections for further ahead…
    • As you are reading the novel for the first time, make entries in your journal at the points indicated below in response to the questions asked. Feel free to write other thoughts and feelings about other parts of the novel as you are reading!
    • After finishing chapter 11, give your opinion of Atticus. Would you like to have him as a father?
    • As you finish chapter 13, record your reaction to Aunt Alexandra. What will the relationship between her and Scout be like, in your opinion?
    • In chapter 14, Dill explains to Scout why he ran away. Have you ever felt like this?
    • Describe your feelings at the end of chapter 22. Was this the verdict you expected?
    • Write down your immediate feelings after finishing the novel.
  • 26. "Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music for us to enjoy. They don't eat up people's gardens, don't nest in corncribs, they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for us. That's why it's a sin to kill a mockingbird."