The Journey of Indian independence Part 1

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As per our previous post, we are celebrating the Independence Week at Gusani Infotech.

Today in the first part of our journey we are presenting the story of How India came under the governance of East India Company. We will also share how many other foreign rulers came to India, how prosperous the Spice trade of India was and what were the different regions were there earlier.

In this presentation includes series of wars and events, there was one common thing which East India Company used to rule. That was “divide and rule”. They had concurred India intelligently creating wars between different territories and win them with the cunning strategies.

But, this was just the beginning. Visit us tomorrow to know the next part of the journey.

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  • 1400 - principally in search of west African riches (notably, gold)  gold dust, melagueta pepper, ivory and slaves.---They had greatly extended Portuguese maritime knowledge,
  •  highly profitable spice trade between Europe and AsiaAt the time, this was virtually monopolized by the Republic of Venice, who operated overland routes via Levantine and Egyptian ports, through the Red Sea across to the spice markets of India. 
  • D means dom === Dominus is the Latin word for master or owner. ===  for laymen who belong to the royal and imperial families (for example the House of Aviz in Portugal The distance traveled in the journey around Africa to India and back was greater than around the equatorHis father was a knight
  •  While Zamorin's officials wondered at why there was no gold or silver, the Muslim merchants who considered da Gama their rival suggested that the latter was only an ordinary pirate and not a royal ambassadorRturn journey -- monsoon wind-- it had taken Gama's fleet only 23 days to cross the Indian Ocean; now, on the return trip, sailing against the wind, it took 132 days
  • Portuguese factory at Calicut was attacked by the locals, the death of more than fifty Portuguese. Cabral  attack on the factory and seized ten Arab merchant ships ,killed about six hundred of their crewbombard Calicut for an entire day in retaliation for the violation of the agreement. Cabral started the return voyage on 16 January 1501 and arrived in Portugal with only 4 of 13 ships on 23 June 1501.
  •  The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the city for nearly two days from the sea shore. He also captured several rice vessels and barbarously cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with an insulting note to the Zamorin The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the city for nearly two days from the sea shore. He also captured several rice vessels and barbarously cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with an insulting note to the Zamorin
  • At the end of the 16th century, England and the United Netherlands began to challenge Portugal's monopoly of trade with Asia, forming private joint-stock companies to finance the voyages" theEnglish (later British) East India Company, and the Dutch East India Company, which were chartered in 1600 and 1602 respectively In 1615, following the Battle of Swally, Captain Best, followed by Captain Downton, overcame Portuguese naval supremacy and obtained an imperial firman establishing an English factory at Surat
  •  the French East India Company sent a small contingent to fight against the British. Siraj-ud-Daulah had a numerically superior force and made his stand at Plassey the Company established itself as a major player in Indian affairs, and soon afterwards gained administrative rights over the regions of Bengal, Bihar and Odissa, following the Battle of Buxarin 1764
  • He remained an implacable enemy of the British East India Company, bringing them into renewed conflict with an attack on British-allied Travancore in 1789During the summer of 1790, a Mahratta army of some 30,000 under the command of PurseramBhow, accompanied by a detachment of British troops from Bombay, began marching toward MysoreA second army, consisting of 25,000 cavalry and 5,000 infantry under the command of Hurry Punt
  • he was forced to cede half his territories to the allies, and deliver two of his sons as hostages until he paid in full three crores and thirty lakhs rupees fixed as war indemnity to the British for the campaign against him. He paid the amount in two installments and got back his sons from Madras.
  •  A column was supplied by the Nizam of Hyderabad consisting of ten battalions and over 16,000 cavalry, and many soldiers were sent by the MarathasThus the soldiers in the British force numbered over 50,000 soldiers whereas Tipu Sultan had only about 30,000 soldiersWhen the fallen Tipu was identified, Wellesley felt his pulse and confirmed that he was dead. Next to him, underneath his palankeen, was one of his most confidential servants, Rajah Cawn. Rajah was able to identify Tipu for the soldiers.
  • The garrison of the Vellore Fort in July 1806 comprised four companies of British infantry from H.M. 69th (South Lincolnshire) Regiment of Foot and three battalions of Madras infantryTwo hours after midnight, on 10 July, the sepoys in the fort shot down the European sentries and killed fourteen of their own officers and 115 men of the 69th Regiment, most of the latter as they slept in their barracks. Among those killed was Colonel St. John Fancourt, the commander of the fort. The rebels seized control by dawn, and raised the flag of the Mysore Sultanate over the fort. Tipu's second son FatehHyder was declared King.However a British officer escaped and alerted the garrison in Arcot. Nine hours after the outbreak of the mutiny, a relief force comprising the British 19th Light Dragoons, galloper guns and a squadron of Madras cavalry, rode from Arcot to Vellore, covering sixteen miles in about two hours. It was led by SirRollo Gillespie – one of the most capable and energetic officers in India at that time – who reportedly left Arcot within a quarter of an hour of the alarm being raised. Gillespie dashed ahead of the main force with a single troop of about twenty men.Arriving at Vellore Gillespie found the surviving Europeans, about sixty men of the 69th, commanded by NCOs and two assistant surgeons, still holding part of the ramparts but out of ammunition. Unable to gain entry through the defended gate, Gillespie climbed the wall with the aid of a rope and a sergeant's sash which was lowered to him; and to gain time led the 69th in a bayonet-charge along the ramparts. When the rest of the 19th arrived, Gillespie had them blow the gates with their galloper guns, and made a second charge with the 69th to clear a space inside the gate to permit the cavalry to deploy. The 19th and the Madras Cavalry then charged and slaughtered any sepoy who stood in their way. About 100 sepoys who had sought refuge in the palace were brought out, and by Gillespie's order, placed against a wall and shot dead. John Blakiston, the engineer who had blown in the gates, recalled: "Even this appalling sight I could look upon, I may almost say, with composure. It was an act of summary justice, and in every respect a most proper one; yet, at this distance of time, I find it a difficult matter to approve the deed, or to account for the feeling under which I then viewed it.The harsh retribution meted out to the sepoys snuffed out the unrest at a stroke and provided the history of the British in India with one of its true epics; for as Gillespie admitted, with a delay of even five minutes, all would have been lost. In all nearly 350 of the rebels were killed, and another 350 wounded before the fighting had stopped.
  •  It was built by the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan, in the 16th Century. In 1604, Guru Arjan completed the AdiGranth, the holy scripture of Sikhism, and installed it in the Gurdwararebuilt in 1764 ---Maharaja Ranjit Singh secured the Punjab region from outside attack and covered the upper floors of the Gurdwara with gold, which gives it its distinctive appearance and its English name.[
  • A double-edged sword also called a Khanda which is in the centreChakkar (or chakram)Two single-edged swords, or kirpans, are crossed at the bottom and sit on either side of the Khanda and Chakkar. They represent the dual characteristics of Miri-Piri, indicating the integration of both spiritual and temporal sovereignty together and not treating them as two separate and distinct entities.[2
  • The Journey of Indian independence Part 1

    1. 1. Infante Henry, Duke of Viseu 1400 A.D. in search of west African riches
    2. 2. 1481, John II of Portugal The silk route
    3. 3. 8 July 1497 -- 170 men 20 May 1498 D. Vasco da Gama 55 returned
    4. 4. Vasco Da Gama: meeting the King Zamorin of Calicut Kozhikode after landing at Kappad Beach in Calicut Kozhikode
    5. 5. 13 September 1500 Pedro Álvares Cabral Route taken by Cabral from Portugal to India in 1500 (in red), and the return route (in blue)
    6. 6. 12 February 1502. 15 ships and 00 men left Lisbon on October 1502
    7. 7. In 1661 Portugal was at war with Spain and needed support from England. This led to the marriage of Princess Catherine of Portugal to Charles II of England, with a dowry that included the city of Bombay. Portuguese Armada vs Chartered Fleets
    8. 8. French in india Their first establishment was in Pondicherry on the Coromandel Coast in southeastern India 1674
    9. 9. 1615 English factory at Surat
    10. 10. 23 June 1757, Siraj-ud-dulah The British, worried about being outnumbered, formed a conspiracy with Siraj-ud-Daulah's demoted army chief Mir Jafar,
    11. 11. Plan of battle of Plassy
    12. 12. The Maratha Empire was founded in 1674 by Shivaji of the Bhosle dynasty 12 July 1739 – gave the British East India Company rights to free trade in Maratha territory May 1739 Marathas defeat the Portuguese at neighboring Vasai in
    13. 13. May 1782, Mahadji Shinde. The foresight of Warren Hastings was the main reason for the success of the British in the war. In the south, the Nizam of Hyderabad had enlisted the support of the French for his war against the Marathas.In reaction to this, the Peshwa requested support from the British, but was refused.
    14. 14. 1760 - First Anglo – Mysore War 1784 - Second Anglo - Mysore War Treaty of Mangalore Nawab Tipu Sultan Bahadur Sher-e-Mysore
    15. 15. 1788 In 1791 his opponents advanced on all fronts, with the main British force under Cornwallis taking Bangalore and threatening Srirangapatna. attack on Travancore would be treated as a declaration of war on the company a Mahratta army of some 30,000 under the command of Purseram Bhow, accompanied by a detachment of British troops from Bombay, began marching toward Mysore 25,000 cavalry and 5,000 infantry under the command of Hurry Punt
    16. 16. 1792 Tipu sultan was forced to cede half his territories to the allies, and deliver two of his sons as hostages until he paid in full three crores and thirty lakhs rupees fixed as war indemnity to the British for the campaign against him. He paid the amount in two installments and got back his sons from Madras.
    17. 17. Nizam of Hyderabad consisting of ten battalions and over 16,000 cavalry, and many soldiers were sent by the Marathas Fourth Anglo-Mysore War Thus the soldiers in the British force numbered over 50,000 soldiers soldiers whereas Tipu Sultan had only about 30,000 soldiers
    18. 18. Tipu Sultan died defending his capital on 4 May, 1799
    19. 19. Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817–1818) Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803–1805)
    20. 20. In 1835 English was made the medium of instruction in India's schools. Western-educated Hindu elites sought to rid Hinduism of controversial social practices, including the varna caste system, child marriage, and sati. 1803 – Sahayak Sandhi 1828 – Raja Rammohanray, - Brahmsamaj 1829 – lord willium battic – sati praatha
    21. 21. The Sikh kingdom of Punjab was expanded and consolidated by Maharajah Ranjit Singh during the early years of the nineteenth century The Harmandir Sahib
    22. 22. 1839 – Maharaja Ranjit Singh died the Sikh Empire began to fall into disorder A double-edged sword also called a Khanda which is in the centre Chakkar. Two single-edged swords, or kirpans, are crossed at the bottom and sit on either side of the Khanda and Chakkar. They represent the dual characteristics of Miri-Piri, indicating the integration of both spiritual and temporal sovereignty together and not treating them as two separate and distinct entities.
    23. 23. British Raj in India
    24. 24. The journey will be continued tomorrow….

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