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Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
Opportunistic pathogens
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Opportunistic pathogens

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  • 1. OpportunisticPathogens
  • 2. PATHOGEN“A pathogen is a microbe or microorganism such as a virus (such as HIV), bacterium (such as staph), prion, or fungus (such as yeast) that causes disease in its animal or plant host”.First devised in 1880.
  • 3. MAJOR HUMAN PATHOGENSBacillus anthracisClostridium botulinumBartonella spp.Spanish influenza virusYersinia pestisMycobacterium leprae
  • 4. PATHOGENESIS“The pathogenesis of a disease is the mechanism by which the disease is caused. The term can also be used to describe the origin and development of the disease and whether it is acute, chronic or recurrent”.
  • 5. OPPORTUNISTIC PATHOGEN “An infectious microorganism that is normally a commensal or does not harm its host but can cause disease when the host’s resistance is low”. OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION “An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens, particularly opportunistic pathogens”.
  • 6. OPPORTUNISTIC CONDITIONS When the immune system isn’t working properly, normal flora can overpopulate or move into areas of the body where they do not normally occur. When the balance of normal microbes is disrupted, for example when a person takes broad spectrum antibiotics. Disease can result when normal flora are traumatically introduced to an area of the body that is axenic or that they do not normally occur in.
  • 7. Causes of Immunodeficiency Malnutrition Chemotherapy for cancer Skin damage Medical procedures Pregnancy Immunosuppressing agents for organ transplant recipients The concomitant presence of certain underlying diseases such as cancer, diabetes, cystic fibrosis Side effects of certain medical therapies and drugs such as corticosteroids Infection with immunity-destroying microorganisms Age, both old and young
  • 8.  Candida albicans Staphylococcus aureus Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • 9. OPPORTUNISTIC BACTERIA Campylobacter Flavobacterium Haemophilus Mycobacterium Nocardia Pseudomonas Rhodococcus Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus Streptococcus Treponema Yersinia
  • 10. REFERENCES TO STUDY OPPORTUNISTIC BACTERIAThere are two main references to study opportunistic bacteria:1. Opportunistic bacteria with reference to the site change. Example E.coli2. Opportunistic bacteria with reference to the immunocompromised condition. ExampleAIDS and its related opportunistic bacteria.
  • 11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa as anopportunistic pathogen member of the Gamma Proteobacteria Gram-negative, aerobic rod Belongs to family Pseudomonadaceae. Oxidase-positive
  • 12. Infections by Pseudomonasaeroginosa urinary tract infections, respiratory system infections, dermatitis, bacteremia, bone and joint infections, gastrointestinal infections
  • 13. Infections are caused particularlyin : Patients with severe burns cystic fibrosis cancer AIDS Pseudomonas aeruginosa is primarily a nosocomial pathogen.
  • 14. Characteristics contributing toits success as opportunisticpathogenNatural habitat Ubiquitous in soil and water, and on surfaces in contact with soil or water Actively swimming by means of its flagellum.Metabolism Respiratory and never fermentative Can grow in the absence of O2 if NO3 is available as a respiratory electron acceptor
  • 15. Nutritional requirements Minimal nutritional requirements Simplest medium for growth consists of acetate as a source of carbon and ammonium sulfate as a source of nitrogen.
  • 16. Optimum temperature for growth 37 degrees Able to grow at temp as high as 42 degreesTolerance to physical conditions Resistant to high conc. of salt, dyes, weak antiseptics and antibiotics
  • 17. Resistance to antibiotics and phagocytes Naturally resistant to antibiotics due to the permeabiliity barrier afforded by its Gram- negative outer membrane. Living in association with the bacilli, actinomycetes and molds; resistant to their naturally-occuring antibiotics. Slime layer; anti-phagocytic effect
  • 18. Pathogenesis of PseudomonasaeruginosaComposed of three distinct stages bacterial attachment and colonization; local invasion; disseminated systemic disease.
  • 19. Attachment and colonizationIt uses Flagella Pilli Exopolysaccharide (alginate or slime)
  • 20. InvasionProduce extracellular enzymes and toxins that Break down physical barriers Damage host cells and immune defence.Two exocellular proteases involved are: Elastase Alkaline proteaseSome more proteins are; hemolysins and cytotoxins
  • 21. Dissemination Involves spread of infection to other parts Mediated by same extracellular products that produce localized infection
  • 22. E.coli
  • 23. Escherichia coli (E. coli ) is aGram-negative,rod-shaped andfacultative anaerobic bacteriumCommonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms)Help in food digestion.
  • 24. E.coli as an opportunisticbacteria:- Although it lives in a healthy micro flora of a human body, but only in specific situation, when it arrive from intestine to other organs and tissues, unfortunately, it can cause a very serious infection and illnesses. The most frequent are urinary tract and sexual organs infections.
  • 25. Infections:-Virulent strains of E. coli can cause Gastroenteritis (inflammation of stomach and small intestine) Urinary tract infections and Neonatal meningitis (colonisation of new born’s intestine)
  • 26. In rarer cases, virulent strains are also responsible for Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Peritonitis (inflammation of peritoneum) Mastitis (inflammation of breast tissues) Septicemia (inflammation of whole body) and Gram-negative pneumonia.
  • 27. Classification of E.coli:- Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) diarrhea (without fever) in humans, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and horses Enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC) diarrhea in humans, rabbits, dogs, cats and horses Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) found only in humans Enterohemorrhagic E.coli (EHEC) found in humans, cattle, and goats Enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC) found only in humans
  • 28. Serotypes Pathogenic E.coli strains can be categorised as follows:- O antigen: part of lipopolysaccharide layer K antigen: capsule H antigen: flagellin F antigen: MR fimbriae (rare) For example E.coli strain EDL933 is of the O157:H7 group.
  • 29. Symptoms:- Bad stomach cramps Belly pain Vomiting Diarrhea, sometimes with blood in it Painful urination Children are more likely than adults to have symptoms. 3 or 4 days
  • 30. Causes of infection:- E. coli in food During meat processing. Meat is not cooked to 160°F (71°C). Food come in contact with raw meat E. coli from person-to-person contactWhen an infected person does not washhis hands well after a bowel movement.
  • 31.  E. coli in water Human or animal feces infected with E. coli sometimes get into lakes, pools, and water supplies. People can become infected when a contaminated city or town water supply has not been properly treated with chlorine or when people accidentally swallow contaminated water.
  • 32. Precautions:- Cook all types of beef to at least 160°F (71°C). Wash any tools or kitchen surfaces that have touched raw meat. Wash your hands properly after using washroom. Use only pasteurized milk, dairy, and juice products. Use only treated, or chlorinated, drinking water.
  • 33. Summary In summary, E. coli is an opportunistic pathogen that can produce a variety of symptoms in its host. However, if precautionary measures are taken, E. coli infections can be limited or eliminated.
  • 34. GENERAL INTRODUCTION OF AIDS Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Retrovirus CD4 T cells, macrophages and dendrite cells. Cellular immunity is lost. leaves individuals susceptible to various opportunistic infections
  • 35. Opportunistic infections association with HIV and AIDS HIV does not kill anybody directly. People with HIV can get many infections called opportunistic infections. Many of these illnesses are very serious, and they need to be treated and some can be prevented. People with advanced HIV infections are vulnerable to infections and malignancies. Opportunistic Infections are caused by various pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, virus and parasites.
  • 36. OPPORTUNISTIC BACTERIAL PATHOGENS Bacterial pathogens are associated with the significant proportion of morbidity and mortality. The following genera of pathogens are most common in person infected with HIV.  Salmonella Campylobacter  Shigella Flavobacterium  Staphylococcus Haemophilus  Streptococcus Mycobacterium  Treponema Nocardia  Yersinia Pseudomonas Rhodococcus
  • 37. Campylobacterr Campylobacter Campylobacter is a genus that belongs to Family Campylobacteraceae of Kingdom Bacteria. Twisted bacteria with spiral or corkscrew appearance. These are motile with either unipolar or bipolar flagella Gram-negative. Microaerophilic Oxidase positive test.
  • 38. Campylobacter &AIDS Campylobacter infections are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. Diarrhoea Bacteremia C. jejuni is usually the most common cause of community-acquired inflammatory enteritis. Symptoms Includes abdominal pain, cramping, dehydration and fever.
  • 39. Flavobacterium Flavobacterium is a genus that belongs to Family Flavobacteriaceae. Gram-negative bacteria. Rod shaped bacteria They maybe motile or non-motile Found in soil and fresh water
  • 40. Flavobacterium & AIDS Flavobacterium spp. may play a pathogenic role in patients with advanced HIV disease Endocarditis Pneumonia Bacteremia F. meningosepticum is the most imp example of this genus.
  • 41. Haemophilus Haemophilus is a genus that belongs to the Pasteurellaceae family Gram-negative bacteria. Pleomorphic bacteria (wide range of shapes they occasionally assume) Aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. The genus includes commensal and pathogenic organisms
  • 42. Haemophilus & AIDS Meningitis is one of the most common bacterial infections occurring in persons infected with HIV caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumonia Upper respiratory tract infections, such as otitis and sinusitis Genital infections. Recently HIV infection increases the risk of acquiring invasive H. influenza infection.
  • 43. OPPORTUNISTIC BACTERIALPATHOGENS Oppertunistic infections are also caused by abnormal immune system of host Because of this reason such infections are most common in person infected with HIV. We will discuss the effect of five bacterial genera as oppertunistic pathogens due to weak immune system of the host
  • 44. Nocardia  Nocardia is a gram positive actinomycete.  Human infection is rare and contracted through inhalation.  Infection is more common among immunocompromised patients, especially those with impaired cell mediated immunity.  The patient may have other infections e.g tuberculosis.
  • 45. Rhodococcus Pneumonia is the most common manifestation of Rhodococcus infection. Very most of cases originally reported were in patients who were immunocompromised due to malignancies, immunosuppressive. Pulmonary infection occurs by the inhalation of the Rhodococcus particularly Rhodococcus equi
  • 46. Salmonella Salmonella infection has an increased incidence in HIV infected populations. Salmonellosis and bacteremia are occurring at an increased rate in person with HIV. A characteristic feature of Salmonellosis in AIDS is the relapses that occur during appropriate antibiotic therapy. S. typhimurium and S. enteridis are the two most common serotypes isolated from the blood of patients with AIDS in the United States
  • 47. Yersinia Yersinia is responsible for causing plague in peoples infected with AIDS Y. pestis is a gram-negative, facultatively aerobic rod it is primarily a rodent pathogen. The vactor for this bacterium is a rat flea , Xenopsylla cheopis. Rat flea is actually an insect which transmits that bacterium between two hosts.
  • 48. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis is an unquestionably, the most potent opportunistic bacterial infection complicating HIV infection caused by Mycobacerium tuberculosis. It is responsible for more than 2 million deaths and 8 million new cases annually In India, tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection. About a third of the HIV positive population worldwide is coinfected with M. tuberculosis.
  • 49.  Taxonomy Shigella Family Enterobacteriaceae Four species: • Shigella dysenteriae: • Shigella flexneri: • Shigella sonnei: • Shigella boydii Morphology rod-shaped Gram-negative
  • 50.  General characteristics facultatively anaerobic Non-lactose fermenting non-motile Infection spread from human to human via the fecal-oral route major cause of diarrheal disease HIV-infected persons are at increased risk for infection
  • 51. StaphylococcusTaxonomy Genus Staphylococcus Family StaphylococcaceaeMorphology spherical 1 µm in size thick cell wall Gram-positive
  • 52.  General characteristics facultative anaerobe immobile Coagulase Positive Are resistant to 122 °F temperatures high salt concentrations (<10%) drying Infection common flora: skin, nasal cavity, pharynx, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract
  • 53.  A bacteremia may result in seeding other internal abscesses, other skin lesions, or infections in the lung, kidney, heart, skeletal muscle or meninges. common cause of community-acquired (CA) or hospital-acquired (HA) bacterial skin and soft- tissue infections among patients with HIV infection.
  • 54. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Taxonomy genus Pseudomonas family Pseudomonadaceae Morphology rod-shape 1-5 µm long and 0.5-1.0 µm wide monoflagellated
  • 55.  gram-negative Infection it often colonizes immuno compromised patients, like those with cystic fibrosis, cancer, or AIDS . takes advantage of an individuals weakened immune system . produces tissue-damaging toxins. causes urinary tract infections, respiratory system infections, dermatitis, soft tissue infections, bone and joint infections, gastrointestinal infections .
  • 56. Streptococcus pneumoniae Taxonomy Genus Streptococcus family Streptococcaceae. Morphology Cocci 0.5-1.2um often Arranged in Pairs or Chains Gram-positive
  • 57.  General characteristics Non motile Carbohydrates fermenters Infection spontaneously cause disease in humans, monkeys, rabbits, horses, mice and guinea pigs. Patients with HIV infection are at increased risk for bacterial pneumonia
  • 58. Treponema pallidum Taxonomy genus Treponema family Spirochaetaceae. Morphology spiral-shaped 0.2 µm in diameter and 6- 15 µm in length Gram negative
  • 59. General characteristics mobile endoflagella Infection transmitted by direct contact Infection is initiated when T. pallidum penetrates dermal micro abrasions or intact mucous membranes. Neurosyphilis is most common in patients with HIV infection. headache, meningeal irritation and nerve abnormalities.

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