What's the Matter?

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Content overview for the opening unit of the Intro Chemistry class.

Content overview for the opening unit of the Intro Chemistry class.

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What's the Matter? What's the Matter? Presentation Transcript

  • What’s the Matter? Introductory Chemistry Canadian Academy MrT
  • Matter and Measurement Unit Questions: “How and why does organisation happen?” Enduring Understanding: Systems are organised. • Data collection relies upon instruments that have uncertainties. • Materials can be measured and classified in a variety of ways. • Ideas and materials can be classified in a variety of ways. • Materials can be measured in a variety of ways. Areas of interaction: Human ingenuity Developing methods for classification, measurement and hypothesis testing leads to learning.Criterion Assessment TasksC: Knowledge & Understanding Unit TestB: Communication in Science KA & BBP Science Show and blog postD: Scientific Inquiry Intensive or Extensive? (D)E: Processing Data Determining Density (D & E)
  • Rule #1:Make Good Decisions Should we need any more?
  • Make Good Decisions• All our resources are on GoogleSites: is.gd/ChemTaylor• We will use Quia a lot for formative, content-checking work.• All tasks are reported in PowerSchool.• Powerschool tasks have dates, which you can subscribe to in iCal.• Most work will be collected on Turnitin.com or through blogposts.• Use APA for referencing in ALL tasks.• My due dates are almost always 9pm. You need to get to bed.• We use a lot of class time for assignments. Make good use of it.• If you miss class, come as soon as possible to catch up.• I’m always available to help.• Be responsible and safe on social media. Protect your online reputation.• Treat yourself, our working environment and others with respect.• Work safely. Always ask if you are unsure.
  • Quick Lab Orientation Where is/are the…? Telephone? Fire extinguisher? Fire blanket? Goggles? Eye-wash station?
  • Safety Rules1. Listen to & read all instructions carefully. Act on them.2. Be a role model for others. Don’t mess around.3. Wear goggles at all times in lab work.4. Never eat or chew gum in class.5. Do not come or work in here without supervision.6. Wash your hands regularly.7. Be careful.8. Report all accidents immediately. Do not try to clean up broken glass.9. Always ask if you are unsure about a task or instruction.10.Dispose of all chemicals and used materials carefully.
  • Work Mode Use only the apps required for the task at hand.Work efficiently inclass, so that yourown time is your own! We’ll use them sometimes… We will use technology a lot in our class, including laptops, dataloggers and smartphones. Please come charged and prepared.Laptops Closed Give your full attention to the task, teacher or your group.
  • Our first mission: Science Show! Hi Grade 9 Chemistry Students, Our KA and BBP students are investigating water and its changes, properties and uses. They would love for you to show them some fun demonstrations of how water changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas. We need the demonstration to last 20 minutes and be repeated—the more colorful and dramatic, the better! Do you think you can help? Many Thanks, Mrs. Born and Mrs. WhiteCanadian Academy inspires students to inquire,reflect and choose to compassionatelyimpact the world throughout their lives.
  • “States of Matter” Science Show & Blog Post Hi Grade 9 Chemistry Students,Goal: Learn about properties of water and prepare some fun demonstrations Our KA and BBP students are investigating waterRole: Science show performers and its changes, properties and uses. They would love for you to show them some fun demonstrationsAudience: Students aged 3-5 of how water changes from a solid to a liquid to a gas.Scenario: You are responsible for informing We need the demonstration to last 20 minutes and younger students about water! be repeated—the more colorful and dramatic, theProduct: A demonstration of 3 minutes, with explanation, better! Do you think you can help? that can be repeated. Many Thanks,Criteria: F - Attitudes in Science for the show, B – Communication in Science for the show and the blog post. Mrs. Born and Mrs. White Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Jacky Nyeong-Min Ryota Madeleine Helen Justin O Kelsey Avi Preetpal Saifullah Justin T Paula Young-Jae Choryon Lucas Joesh Tamanna Andy
  • “States of Matter” Science Show & Blog Post Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Jacky Nyeong-Min Ryota Madeleine Helen Justin O Kelsey Avi Preetpal Saifullah Justin T Paula Young-Jae Choryon Lucas Joesh Tamanna Andy Some ideas: • why does boiling water ‘bubble’? Today: • why does the mirror ‘steam up’? • Pick a topic, research and plan the • cloud in a bottle demonstration. • ice-cube melting race & blue ice cubes • Practice if you can. • heating copper sulphate • sublimation Tomorrow: • Practice and perfect GoogleDoc: http://goo.gl/QJYso Friday: present
  • “States of Matter” Science Show & Blog Post Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Jacky Nyeong-Min Ryota Madeleine Helen Justin O Kelsey Avi Preetpal Saifullah Justin T Paula Young-Jae Choryon Lucas Joesh Tamanna Andy1. Check the assessment criteria and set up your own task-specific clarifications2. Practice! It needs to be: • Clear • Interesting • About 3 minutes.
  • “States of Matter” Science Show & Blog Post
  • “States of Matter” Science Show & Blog Post
  • Science Show for KA & BBP Reactions to practice and prepare for the 4-5 year-olds: 1. Elephant’s toothpaste 2. High-Five Glove 3. Traffic Lights Cylinders 4. Red and Blue Convection Liquids 5. Exploding Bubbles (Mg, HCl and soap) Assessment: • Criterion F Attitudes in Science on the day • Criterion B Communication in Science (blog post, presentation) • Further instructions on the GoogleDoc
  • The Language of ChemistryAdapted from the IBDP Chemistry data booklet
  • The Language of ChemistryAdapted from the IBDP Chemistry data booklet
  • How do we learn? and why do we need to practice? Working Memory Long-term Memory Storage… Perception Filter Interpreting Events Rearranging sometimes Observation Comparing branched, s sometimes as Storage Instructions separate Preparation fragments Feedback loop for perception filter So… • Review, ask questions, practice • Come back to it later, has it stuck? • Think about measurement and error in all your lab workFrom “Cultured Pearls of Tasty Truffles: Teaching chemistry for the 21st Century”, by Bill Byers 17http://www3.ul.ie/~childsp/CinA/Issue66/TOC20_truffles.htm
  • Measurement & Error• Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data• State SI units of measurement for mass, length, concentration, temperature, density and other values• Distinguish between accuracy and precision• Determine the uncertainty of digital and analogue measuring tools• Calculate the % error of a given or recorded set of values• State and calculate values to appropriate numbers of significant digits http://www.slideshare.net/gurustip/measurement-error 18
  • Experimentation• Identify independent, dependent and controlled variables• Outline the Scientific Method• Demonstrate correct and safe use of lab equipment 19
  • The Scientific MethodScientific Method diagram from Mark Bishop’s excellent resources at: http://preparatorychemistry.com/
  • Scientific Method LabMake qualitative observationsDesign 1 investigation Add MnO2 to the H2O2 Pour silver nitrate over the copper mesh. Add NaHCO3 to the HCl Add Mg to the HCl
  • Forming and Testing Hypotheses1. Take three small conical flasks. Add a small amount of the solid & solution.2. Cover the top and observe the reaction. Make notes on your observations.3. When the reaction is finished, put a splint into the flask. What happens? flame glowing flame MnO2(s) Mg(s) + HCl(aq) ? H2O2(aq) ) ? NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq) ?1. Why do the flames behave differently? Suggest a hypothesis for each.2. How could you test the hypothesis?
  • Forming and Testing Hypotheses1. Take three small conical flasks. Add a small amount of the solid & solution.2. Cover the top and observe the reaction. Make notes on your observations.3. When the reaction is finished, put a splint into the flask. What happens? Lab working notes: • Make sure your area is clean flame glowing flame • Clean the glassware you will use before you use it • Goggles on, hair tied up. Do not inhale fumes. • Don’t remove reagents from the prep desk • Work safely • Clean everything up with plenty of water – keep goggles on! MnO2(s)Mg(s) + HCl(aq) ? H2O2(aq) ) ? NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq) ?1. Why do the flames behave differently? Suggest a hypothesis for each.2. How could you test the hypothesis?
  • Forming and Testing Hypotheses1. Take three small conical flasks. Add a small amount of the solid & solution.2. Cover the top and observe the reaction. Make notes on your observations.3. When the reaction is finished, put a splint into the flask. What happens? flame glowing flame Make observations of the reactions as you work. What variables can you identify? What might you be able to change or to measure? MnO2(s)Mg(s) + HCl(aq) ? H2O2(aq) ) ? NaHCO3(s) + HCl(aq) ?1. Why do the flames behave differently? Suggest a hypothesis for each.2. How could you test the hypothesis?
  • The Reactions The formula equations below show the reactions. They are balanced and have (state symbols). Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) H2(g) + MgCl2(aq) hydrogen explodes! MnO2(s) 2H2O2(aq) O2(g) + 2H2O(l) oxygen reignites the flame NaHCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) carbon dioxide extinguishes the flame
  • Identifying and Manipulating VariablesChoose one of the reactions and suggest a simple research question that will allow youto investigate the effect of one variable (independent) on one other (dependent). Research question: “How does changing ________________ affect _____________ when _________________________________________?” Independent Variable: Units: Increments (min 5): Dependent Variable: Units: Method for measuring: Controlled Variables: Variable Possible Impact Method for control
  • What’s an Increment? We need to make our set of data Quantitative and Continuous The Independent Variable is on a scale, so Based on numerical measurements we can plot trends and deduce patterns. Example: “How does changing the concentration of HCl in the reaction with Mg affect the volume of H2 gas produced?“ We can dilute known concentrations of a solution to make them weaker. This easily gives a range of increments of the same variable. Concentration HCl (M) Water (ml) 2M HCl (ml) 0 20 0 0.5 1 10 10 total volume 1.5 stays the same 2 0 20
  • Self and peer-assess for this task.Criterion D: Scientific Inquiry (design strands*): *We will practice the other strands of Criterion D: Scientific Inquiry in our lab on Determining Density. 28
  • Matter & Properties• Distinguish between elements, mixtures and compounds• Identify and locate common elements on the periodic table• Describe changes in phase (state)• Distinguish between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures• Explain how to separate mixtures experimentallyProperties• Distinguish between physical and chemical properties of matter• Distinguish between intensive and extensive properties of matterChanges• Distinguish between chemical and physical changes• State that boiling, freezing, melting, condensing and sublimation are examples of physical changes• State that changes in colour, temperature, precipitate formation, odor and gas formation are examples of indicators of chemical change• State & apply the Law of Conservation of Mass 29
  • Matter & Properties 30Diagram from: http://www.m2c3.com/chemistry/VLI/M1_Topic2/M1_Topic2_print.html
  • What’s the Matter? Quia Quiz: http://www.quia.com/quiz/3822756.htmlWork through this interactive video from the BBC. 1.4 Matter & Properties put the subtitles on Link for the video: http://goo.gl/Olqyg 31
  • Elements, compounds and mixtures Compounds consist of two or more elements that are chemically bonded to each other, e.g carbon dioxide. Mixtures are two or moreElements are made of elements and/or compounds thatatoms. are together but are not chemically bonded.Elements are the simplest Air is a mixture of N2, O2, CO2 andtype of substance. They other gases.cannot be broken intoother substances. Homogenous mixtures, such as These are both molecules. solutions (HCl or salt water), have molecules evenly distributed. Molecules are two or more atoms that are chemically Heterogeneous mixtures, such as joined. mixed-up powders, the oceans or soup, are not evenly distributed. But this (e.g. O2) is also still an element.
  • What do you see here? F G A B C D E
  • Properties of Matter How does the substance behave? Physical vs Chemical Physical properties can be observed Chemical properties can only be without producing a new substance. observed as a result of chemical change.Colour, temperature, melting point, boiling Reactions to light, heat, acid or water. point, electrical conductivity, magnetism. Heat production, colour changes. Intensive vs Extensive Intensive properties are independent of Extensive properties depend on sample size. sample size. They don’t change if you add more They do change if you add more substance! substance! Colour, melting point, boiling point, Mass, volume, pressure in a fixed container. electrical conductivity. What about density? We’ll do a lab to find out. 34
  • Mixtures Homogeneous vs Heterogeneous “same” “different” Components are evenly distributed Components are not evenly distributed through the mixture. through the mixture. Homogeneous examples: • solutions • gases in the air Heterogeneous examples: • soup! • unevenly mixed solids 35Diagram from: http://www.m2c3.com/chemistry/VLI/M1_Topic2/M1_Topic2_print.html
  • We can separate mixtures based on theSeparating Mixtures properties of the components.Chromatography will separate differently-sized molecules in a solution.Filtration can be used to separate largeparticles from smaller particles or a solution.Evaporation can be used to separate solutesfrom a solvent in a solution.Magnetism could be used to separate amagnetic substance from non-magneticsubstances. Watch through this interactive BBC animation (10 mins): http://goo.gl/uVfoODistillation can be used to separate a mixtureof two liquids with different boiling points(this is how we get petrol/gasoline from oil). 36
  • The Language of ChemistryAdapted from the IBDP Chemistry data booklet
  • Changing Phase Phases (states) of matter: • Solid, liquid, gas, plasma Phases diagram from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phase_transitionPhases animation from:http://mutuslab.cs.uwindsor.ca/schurko/animations/waterphases/status_water.htm 38
  • Properties & Changes Lab Jurin Kirara Matthew Eri Jared Yota Nozomi Cedric Sanam Jack Sae Jung Wheemin David Nadine Sedge Mahima
  • Properties & Changes Lab Jurin Kirara Matthew Eri Jared Yota Nozomi Cedric Sanam Jack Sae Jung Wheemin David Nadine Sedge Mahima
  • Determining Density Lab Add pieces one at a time to the balance, recording the cumulative mass. Fill a 100ml graduated cylinder to 60ml. Add the pieces (without splashing) one-by-one to the cylinder. Record cumulative displacement each time. 41
  • Is density an intensive or an extensive property? ) Mass ( ) (± Volume ( ) (± )
  • Is density an intensive or an extensive property?http://www.wiredchemist.com/anim-density
  • What is reliability in this dataset? Highly reliable: All points on the best fit line, suggests recorded values are highly repeatable.)Mass ( ) (± Less reliable: Points close to the line but some variability. Suggests some measurements could have been off. Volume ( ) (± )
  • What is accuracy in this dataset?Accuracy is a measure of how close a measured value is to the ‘true’ value.We can compare these and calculate % error as a measure of accuracy. 1.3 g/ml 2.8 g/ml How many How would you describe the accuracy of these values? sigdigs would +4% you use? +2% % error 0% -2% -4%
  • Evaluations Validity of the method Reliability of the method (did the method allow you to answer the RQ?) (does the method produce reliable, repeatable data?) Limitation or source of error/ Possible effect on results (with Proposed solution to the uncertainty magnitude) identified problem (be specific)
  • Design an experiment to test whether a property of a substance is intensive or extensive. • Independent variable, Dependent variable, controlled variables. • Identify 5 increments of the independent variable • How will you measure the dependent variable? • Hypothesis: make a prediction with scientific reasoning. • Controlling the variables: what needs to stay the same? Why? How? 47
  • Law of Conservation of Mass “Matter can neither be created nor destroyed” reactants products +There will always be the same number of atoms of products as there were in the reactants. In aclosed system, these will not escape, so the mass of each side should remain unchanged.What happens in some gas-producing reactions when the system is not closed? Why?
  • Explain this Is it chemical or physical change? How do you know? Why did the system lose mass? Has matter been created or destroyed? Could the method be improved to be more accurate? • colour change • gas production • heat production 23.0oC 26.2oC 20.00 19.23Digital balances from: http://www.wiredchemist.com/anim-density
  • For more resources. Please consider a donation to charity via Biology4Good. Click here for more information about Biology4Good charity donations.This is a Creative Commons presentation. It may be linked and embedded but not sold or re-hosted.