Essential Biology Respiration (Core & AHL/Option C)
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Essential Biology Respiration (Core & AHL/Option C)

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For the IB Biology Course.

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    Essential Biology Respiration (Core & AHL/Option C) Essential Biology Respiration (Core & AHL/Option C) Document Transcript

    • Blog resource: http://tinyurl.com/6cu7yvh This workbook is printed for the Making ATP unit. <br />ATP<br />
      • Draw and annotate a molecule of ATP to show how it stores and releases energy.
      • List six cellular process that use ATP as a source of energy.
      3.7 Cell Respiration<br />
      • Define cell respiration.
      • The ______________________ release of ________________ in the form of _____________ from _______________________________ in cells.
      • State the word and symbol equations for the process of cell respiration.
      Word:<br />Symbol:<br />
      • Identify two organic molecules, other than glucose, which could be used for respiration.
      • Identify the two components of the cell in which respiration takes place.
      • Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic in terms of cell respiration.
      • Label the diagram of aerobic cell respiration below.
      7524751460500<br />
      • Label the diagram of anaerobic cell respiration below.
      89535011684000<br />
      • Complete the table below, comparing aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
      AerobicAnaerobicHexose sugar input in both types of respirationOxygen in2 ATP producedPyruvate as an intermediate compound in both types of respirationYeastAnimalsCarbon dioxide producedWater produced<br />
      • Complete the table below summarizing the events of aerobic cell respiration.
      ReactionLocationPurposeATP yieldGlycolysis2Matrix of the mitochondrionConvert pyruvate (3C) to acetyl CoA (2C)0Krebs CycleInner mitochondrial membraneOxidative phosphorylation<br />
      • Label the diagram below with the correct processes, locations and compounds:
      • Explain how end-product inhibition controls the rate of ATP production.
      8.1/C3 Cell Respiration (AHL/Option content)<br />
      • Many reactions in living things can be classified as either oxidation or reduction reactions.
      • These are particularly important in cell respiration and photosynthesis.
      • Complete the table below to compare oxidation and reduction reactions.
      OXIDATIONREDUCTIONElectrons are…lostOxygen is…Hydrogen is…<br />
      • Define phosphorylation.
      • List two ways in which phosphorylation is used in cell respiration.
      • In the space below, draw a diagram to show the process of glycolysis.
      Include phosporylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation. <br />
      • Explain the link reaction, including oxidative decarboxylation and conversion of pyruvate to
      acetyl CoA and CO2. <br />
      • The link reaction produces Acetyl CoA (2C) from the input substrate (usually pyruvate).
      The extra carbon is released as carbon dioxide. Acetyl CoA can also be produced from <br /> fatty acids. When the fatty acid chain contains an even number of carbons, no CO2 is <br /> released. How many Acetyl CoA molecules can be produced with the following fatty acids? <br />
      • 23C b. 18C c. 31C
      • Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of the mitochondrion as seen in a TEM image.
      Include the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes, matrix, christae, mitochondrial DNA and ribosomes and a scale bar. <br />
      • Complete the table below with the functions of the structures of the mitochondrion.
      How is each structure adapted to help maximize efficiency of respiration? <br />Structure: Function: Adapted to increase efficiency by: Outer membraneInner membrane(including christae)Matrix Mitochondrial DNA and ribosomesInter-membrane space<br />
      • What is an electron carrier?
      • List two electron carriers that are used in cell respiration.
      • State the final destination of electron carriers produced in the Krebs Cycle.
      • In the space below, draw a diagram of the Krebs cycle.
      Include formation of citrate, oxidation, decarboxylation, substrate-level phosphorylation (ATP formation) and production of electron carriers. <br />
      • Identify compounds in cell respiration that contain:
      • Six carbonsFour carbonsThree carbonsTwo carbonsOne carbonsZero carbons
      • Annotate the diagram below with the stages of the electron transport chain and oxidative
      phosphorylation. Include generation of a H+ concentration gradient in the inter-membrane space, movement of electrons, oxidative phosphorylation by ATP synthase, use of O2 as the terminal electron acceptor<br />-23812516065500<br />
      • In the space below, using the term ‘chemiosmosis’, describe how ATP synthase works.
      • Name (with reasons) three tissues in the body that contain high numbers of mitochondria.
      Tissue ReasonMuscle<br />
      • Explain why high levels of lactic acid might be found in an athlete’s blood test, post-exercise.
      • Explain why ATP yield in aerobic cell respiration is so much higher than in anaerobic
      respiration. (Long answer question – think about knock-on effects of reduced O2). 8 marks<br />Link question:<br />Draw and annotate sketch graphs of the effects of the following variables on rate of respiration – temperature, CoA concentration, pH. <br />Sample exam questions: <br />Practice these in your own time. <br />Describe the role of Acetyl CoA in the metabolism of lipids. (2 marks)<br />Explain chemiosmosis as it occurs in respiration. (2 marks)<br />Explain the process of aerobic respiration, including oxidative phosphorylation (8 marks)<br />Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration, including yield of ATP. (8 marks)<br />Interesting reading: <br />Nobel prizewinners: Krebs and Lipmann:<br />http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1953/ <br />Sample data analysis question (from IB QuestionBank)<br />At the start of glycolysis, glucose is phosphorylated to produce glucose 6-phosphate, which is converted into fructose 6-phosphate. A second phosphorylation reaction is then carried out, in which fructose 6-phosphate is converted into fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphofructokinase. <br />80962564198500Biochemists measured the enzyme activity of phosphofructokinase (the rate at which it catalyzed the reaction) at different concentrations of fructose 6-phosphate. The enzyme activity was measured with a low concentration of ATP and a high concentration of ATP in the reaction mixture. The graph below shows the results. <br />(a)(i)Using only the data in the above graph, outline the effect of increasing fructose 6-phosphate concentration on the activity of phosphofructokinase, at a low ATP concentration.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />(ii)Explain how increases in fructose 6-phosphate concentration affect the activity of the enzyme.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />........................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />(b)(i)Outline the effect of increasing the ATP concentration on the activity of phosphofructokinase.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />(ii)Suggest an advantage to living organisms of the effect of ATP on phosphofructokinase.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(1)<br />(Total 7 marks)<br />Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Allott, Andrew. IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma. s.l. : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-0-19-915143-1.2. Mindorff, D and Allott, A. Biology Course Companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-099151240.3. Clegg, CJ. Biology for the IB Diploma. London : Hodder Murray, 2007. 978-0340926529.4. Campbell N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E. Biology Concepts and Connections. San Fransisco : Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0-8053-7160-5.5. Taylor, Stephen. Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress, 2010. http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com.6. Burrell, John. Click4Biology. [Online] 2010. http://click4biology.info/.7. IBO. Biology Subject Guide. [Online] 2007. http://xmltwo.ibo.org/publications/migrated/production-app2.ibo.org/publication/7/part/2/chapter/1.html.<br />Self Assessment:<br />Essential BiologyAssessmentCriterionComplete (2)Partially complete (1)SelfMrTPresentation & OrganisationNAComplete and neat. All command terms highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented. Academic HonestyNASources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical) method, with Works Cited section complete and correct. Objective 1 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Define Draw Label List Measure StateObjective 2 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Annotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify OutlineObjective3understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Analyse Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine DiscussEvaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch SuggestLogic, notation, mathematical workingNAAnswers are presented in a logical and concise manner. SI units used most times, with correct unit symbols and definitions of terms. All mathematical working shown.Further researchNAEvidence is apparent of research and reading beyond the textbook and presentations to find correct answers to challenging questions. If any questions are unanswered, this criterion scores zero. Total (max 10):<br />