Essential Biology E3 Innate and Learned Behaviour

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Essential Biology E3 Innate and Learned Behaviour

  1. 1. Blog resource: http://tinyurl.com/4zwolm7 Click4Biology: http://click4biology.info/c4b/E/E3.htm <br />Cite all sources using the CSE method (or ISO 690 Numerical in Word). The first example has been done for you. Highlight all objective 1 command terms in yellow and complete these before class. Highlight all objective 2 and 3 command terms in green – these will be part of the discussions in class. After class, go back and review them. <br /><ul><li>Distinguish between innate and learned behaviour:</li></ul>InnateLearnedBasis/ foundation?Genetic (predetermined)Based on experience. CITATION Ste104 l 1033 (1)Modification by the individual?Variation within population?Effect of environmentEffect of natural selectionHuman examplesNon-human examples<br /><ul><li>TOK and Biology: To what extent are human behaviours innate or the product of learning?
  2. 2. Watch the video clip on Facial Expressions from the California Academy of Sciences: (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5G6ZR5lJgTI)
  3. 3. What was the research question of the investigation?
  4. 4. What is the effect of the observer on lab-based studies of behaviour?
  5. 5. Why did the blind Olympians provide a good model for research?
  6. 6. What conclusions could be drawn in the study? Why?
  7. 7. Outline taxis and kinesis as examples of innate behaviours:</li></ul>TaxisKinesisDefinition:Definition:Positive: Negative:Positive:Negative:PhototaxisChemotaxisThermotaxisOrthokinesisKlinokinesise.g.e.g.e.g.e.g.e.g.<br /><ul><li>Outline an investigation into orthokinesis and klinokinesis of Porcello scaber (woodlouse).
  8. 8. Independent variable:
  9. 9. Dependent variable – Orthokinesis:
  10. 10. Klinokinesis:
  11. 11. Controlled variables:
  12. 12. Method for collecting sufficient relevant data:
  13. 13. The images below show the results of an investigation into orthokinesis and klinokinesis in P. scaber.
  14. 14. Calculate klinokinetic and orthokinetic values for each environment.
  15. 15. Compare data collected from the cold and warm environments.
  16. 16. Conclude on your results in terms of survival and reproduction.
  17. 17. Explain how innate behaviours are the product of natural selection.
  18. 18. Define learning.
  19. 19. Discuss how the process of learning can improve chances of survival, with reference to non-human examples.
  20. 20. Distinguish between these methods of associative learning: </li></ul>Classical conditioning<br />Operant conditioning<br />Imprinting<br /><ul><li>Outline Pavlov’s experiments into classical conditioning, with reference to the terms unconditioned stimulus, conditioned stimulus, unconditioned response and conditioned response.
  21. 21. Birdsong is in part innate and in part learned behaviour.
  22. 22. Outline the function of birdsong with regard to sexual selection.
  23. 23. Distinguish between the innate and learned components of birdsong development. </li></ul>Innate (template song)<br />Learned<br /><ul><li>Explain how imprinting is vital in the learned part of birdsong development.
  24. 24. Birds raised in captivity are not exposed to adult songs or regional dialects of their own songs. Explain why they will not be reproductively successful if released into the wild.
  25. 25. Suggest methods by which captive-reared birds might acquire fully-formed, regional adult birdsongs with help from their human keepers. </li></ul>Questions 12 and 13 taken from the QuestionBank CD Rom. <br /><ul><li>Banded wrens (Thryothorus pleurostictus) are known to sing actively in defence of their territories during the breeding season. Males possess over twenty different song-types. When two males approach each other near a boundary they engage in counter-singing and some song-types will be shared. The following diagram shows the pattern of song-types used during an interaction between two males at their territorial boundary in the Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica. The arrows indicate when both males sang identical song-types in succession. The interaction ended without a fight when the males retreated from the boundary.
  26. 26. Identify which song-types are shared between both males.</li></ul>.........................................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />b. Describe the changes in the song-type pattern during the entire interaction.<br />.........................................................................................................................................<br />.........................................................................................................................................<br />.........................................................................................................................................<br /> (2)<br />c. Deduce how a male banded wren can communicate aggressive behaviour.<br />.........................................................................................................................................<br />.........................................................................................................................................<br />.........................................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />(Total 6 marks)<br /><ul><li>Two groups of 15 rats were trained to escape from an electric shock that was applied to one compartment of their cages. For one group (labelled EscD) the shock coincided with switching off the light, resulting in darkness in that compartment. The training was repeated for five sessions. The graphs below show the mean results for the two groups.</li></ul>[Source: K. Zielinski and Savonenko, (2000), Acta Neurobiol. Exp, 60, pages 457-465]<br />(a)(i)Calculate the difference in escape times in session 1 between the two groups.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(1)<br />(ii)Suggest a reason for the difference.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(1)<br />(b)(i)Compare the changes in escape times over the five sessions between the two groups.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(2)<br />(ii)Deduce, giving a reason, which group shows more evidence of learned behaviour.<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />...............................................................................................................................<br />(1)<br />(c)If the researchers were to continue their experiments with the group Esc and apply the same experimental conditions as for the group EscD, predict what would happen to the escape times for the group Esc.<br />.........................................................................................................................................<br />.........................................................................................................................................<br />(1)<br />(Total 6 marks)<br />Extension<br />Further reading:<br />Find out about the genes responsible for human language development (search FOXP2). What characteristics do we share with our animal ancestors? <br />Thinking: <br />How have behavioural theories shaped education and learning and how have they been used and abused throughout history? (Lorenz, famous for imprinting theory, was a member of the Nazis). <br />Do historical behavioural studies push the boundaries of modern ethics?<br />Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Taylor, Stephen. Innate and Learned Behaviour (presentation). Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress, 2010. http://sciencevideos.wordpress.com.2. Allott, Andrew. IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma. s.l. : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-0-19-915143-1.3. Mindorff, D and Allott, A. Biology Course Companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-099151240.4. Clegg, CJ. Biology for the IB Diploma. London : Hodder Murray, 2007. 978-0340926529.5. Campbell N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E. Biology Concepts and Connections. San Fransisco : Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0-8053-7160-5.6. Burrell, John. Click4Biology. [Online] 2010. http://click4biology.info/.7. IBO. Biology Subject Guide. [Online] 2007. http://xmltwo.ibo.org/publications/migrated/production-app2.ibo.org/publication/7/part/2/chapter/1.html.<br />Self Assessment:<br />Essential BiologyAssessmentCriterionComplete (2)Partially complete (1)SelfMrTPresentation & OrganisationNAComplete and neat. All command terms highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented. Academic HonestyNASources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical) method, with Works Cited section complete and correct. Objective 1 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Define Draw Label List Measure StateObjective 2 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Annotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify OutlineObjective3understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Analyse Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine DiscussEvaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch SuggestLogic, notation, mathematical workingNAAnswers are presented in a logical and concise manner. SI units used most times, with correct unit symbols and definitions of terms. All mathematical working shown.Further researchNAEvidence is apparent of research and reading beyond the textbook and presentations to find correct answers to challenging questions. If any questions are unanswered, this criterion scores zero. Total (max 10):<br />

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