Essential Biology 04.4 Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology
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Essential Biology 04.4 Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology



For the IB Biology course.

For the IB Biology course.



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Essential Biology 04.4 Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology Essential Biology 04.4 Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology Document Transcript

  • Blog resource: Click4Biology: <br />Cite all sources using the CSE method (or ISO 690 Numerical in Word. Highlight all objective 1 command terms in yellow and complete these before class. Highlight all objective 2 and 3 command terms in green – these will be part of the discussions in class. After class, go back and review them. <br />Complete the self-assessment rubric before submitting to Moodle. Avoid printing this if possible. <br />Learn.Genetics @ Utah (great simulations and animations): <br />Human Genome Project: and <br />BioEthics Education Project: <br />
    • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is used where DNA samples are too small to be useful.
    • State the purpose of PCR in labs and investigations.
    • Identify the cellular process which PCR mimics.
    • State the role of high temperatures in PCR.
    • State the role of complementary base pairing in PCR.
    • Describe why it is called a chain reaction.
    • State two main uses of DNA profiling by electrophoresis.
    • State some other names for DNA profiling.
    • State the roles of the following components of gel electrophoresis:
    • Restriction enzymesGelElectric currentFluorescent DNA markers
    • Annotate the image below to outline briefly how gel electrophoresis works, including how the size of fragments affects their position on the final gel.
    • -114300133350
    • Use the gel electrophoresis results below to answer these questions.
    • In this case, a DNA sample was taken from a cigarette found at a crime scene (smoking in a no-smoking zone):
    • State the process used to amplify the small amounts of DNA collected at the crime scene to an amount big enough to be used in DNA profiling.
    • Deduce which criminal, Rob McCarr or Nick Allott, left their dribbly cigarette-end at the crime scene. Explain your answer.
    • Criminal:
    • Explanation:
    • Draw bands to show where the standard fragments would be observed. State the role of the standard fragment.
    • Outline the evidence in the DNA profile that suggests Nick and Rob are related.
    • Describe the Human Genome Project.
    • Outline the goals of the HGP ( ).
    • Look at some of the HGP resources at
    • Describe the role of E. coli in the HGP.
    • Explain how differently-coloured nucleotides were used in sequencing the genes.
    • Explain why the information collected was stored in public databases.
    • Outline how the HGP developed knowledge in the following fields:
    • Evolutionary research
    • Medicine
    • Bioinformatics
    • Ethical, Legal and Social Issues (ELSI)?
    • Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are created using gene transfer.
    • Outline gene transfer.
    • Explain how the universality of the genetic code is central to gene transfer applications.
    • Define transgenic organism.
    • State the role of the following in gene transfer:
    Restriction enzymes<br />E. coli plasmids<br />Ligase<br />Vector<br />
    • Annotate the diagram below to outline the process of gene transfer:
    • Explain how gene transfer is used in industrial production of insulin.
    • Outline the use of gene transfer in gene therapy to treat SCID.
    • SCID is…
    • Gene therapy can treat SCID by…
    • Give three examples of genetically modified (GM) plant crops and the effects of their new genes.
    • New propertiesAdvantages‘Golden Rice’
    • Outline how genetically modified sheep can help hemophiliacs.
    • Discuss the benefits and potential dangers of one type of genetic modification used in agriculture. Suggest why some groups are protesting GM (genetically modified) foods or crops?
    • Define clone.
    • Give three examples of naturally occurring clones.
    • Dolly the Sheep was produced by cloning using a differentiated nucleus.
    • Define differentiated nucleus.
    • Suggest why the differentiated nucleus taken from an udder cell.
    • Suggest one reason why Dolly died younger than normal, but of age-related illnesses.
    • Outline the method used to clone Dolly the Sheep.
    • 3257550762000
    • Distinguish between reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning.
    • Reproductive =
    • Therapeutic =
    • State some of the medical applications and benefits of therapeutic cloning.
    • Discuss the ethical considerations of therapeutic cloning in humans.
    Advantages:Disadvantages:<br />
    • Suggest why stem-cell reprogramming (IPS cells) might mitigate the negative opinions of human therapeutic cloning.
    • Source:
    • Define iPS stem cells.
    • Outline the process for reprogramming the cells.
    • Explain the benefits of using iPS cells in medicine and research.
    Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Allott, Andrew. IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma. s.l. : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-0-19-915143-1.2. Mindorff, D and Allott, A. Biology Course Companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-099151240.3. Clegg, CJ. Biology for the IB Diploma. London : Hodder Murray, 2007. 978-0340926529.4. Campbell N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E. Biology Concepts and Connections. San Fransisco : Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0-8053-7160-5.5. Taylor, Stephen. Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress, 2010. Burrell, John. Click4Biology. [Online] 2010. IBO. Biology Subject Guide. [Online] 2007.<br />Self Assessment:<br />Essential BiologyAssessmentCriterionComplete (2)Partially complete (1)SelfMrTPresentation & OrganisationNAComplete and neat. All command terms highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented. Academic HonestyNASources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical) method, with Works Cited section complete and correct. Objective 1 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Define Draw Label List Measure StateObjective 2 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Annotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify OutlineObjective3understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Analyse Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine DiscussEvaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch SuggestLogic, notation, mathematical workingNAAnswers are presented in a logical and concise manner. SI units used most times, with correct unit symbols and definitions of terms. All mathematical working shown.Further researchNAEvidence is apparent of research and reading beyond the textbook and presentations to find correct answers to challenging questions. If any questions are unanswered, this criterion scores zero. Total (max 10):<br />