Essential Biology 04.1 Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles, Mutations


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Essential Biology 04.1 Chromosomes, Genes, Alleles, Mutations

  1. 1. Blog resource: Click4Biology: <br />Cite all sources using the CSE method (or ISO 690 Numerical in Word. Highlight all objective 1 command terms in yellow and complete these before class. Highlight all objective 2 and 3 command terms in green – these will be part of the discussions in class. After class, go back and review them. <br />Complete the self-assessment rubric before submitting to Moodle. Avoid printing this if possible. <br /><ul><li>Define the following:
  2. 2. ChromosomeGeneAlleleGene locusGenomeChromatidMutationHaploidDiploid
  3. 3. 49339506096000
  4. 4. State the components of a chromosome.
  5. 5. DNA &
  6. 6. State the number of chromosomes present in a single human diploid cell.
  7. 7. Identify structures a. and b. on the line drawing of a chromosome in prophase shown to the right.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Give two examples of genes and some of their possible alleles. </li></ul>GenePossible allelesEye colourBlue, brown, green, hazel<br /><ul><li>List factors that increase the chance of a genetic mutation.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14. 581025317500</li></ul>mRNAamino acid<br /><ul><li>Distinguish between the two DNA strands above in terms of:
  15. 15. DNA base sequence.
  16. 16. Amino acid sequence in the resulting polypeptide.
  17. 17. Compare the following types of base-substitution mutation.
  18. 18. Silent mutationMis-sense mutationNonsense mutationNumber of bases substituted1Effect on polypeptideStop codon produced early – polypeptide shortenedExample illnessSickle cell disease
  19. 19. Describe the effects of sickle cell disease on sufferers in terms of:
  20. 20. Hemoglobin production
  21. 21. Symptoms and mortality
  22. 22. Identify parts of the world where a single sickle cell (Hbs) allele could be beneficial
  23. 23. </li></ul> Explain your answer<br /><ul><li>Define evolution.
  24. 24. Outline how mutations lead to evolution by natural selection.
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Outline how the spread of the sickle cell gene is an example of natural selection in action.
  31. 31.
  32. 32.
  33. 33.
  34. 34. How could this be an example of a correlation which has a strong element of causality? </li></ul>In-class activity: Using gene databases (ICT Databases)<br /><ul><li>Using the NCBI gene database at , identify the gene locus of the HBB (hemoglobin) gene.
  35. 35. Using the same database, look for the gene related to the illness PKU (phenylketonuria)
  36. 36. What is the gene name?
  37. 37.
  38. 38. What is the gene locus of this gene?
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Which enzyme is encoded by this gene?
  41. 41.
  42. 42. What is the consequence of a base-substitution (mis-sense) mutation of this gene?
  43. 43.
  44. 44. How is PKU diagnosed and why must it be diagnosed as early as possible?
  45. 45.
  46. 46. Stem cells link:
  47. 47. Read this article:
  48. 48. What is an IPS stem cell?
  49. 49. Outline the use of this technology in treating the mice with sickle cell disease. </li></ul>Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Allott, Andrew. IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma. s.l. : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-0-19-915143-1.2. Mindorff, D and Allott, A. Biology Course Companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-099151240.3. Clegg, CJ. Biology for the IB Diploma. London : Hodder Murray, 2007. 978-0340926529.4. Campbell N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E. Biology Concepts and Connections. San Fransisco : Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0-8053-7160-5.5. Taylor, Stephen. Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress, 2010. Burrell, John. Click4Biology. [Online] 2010. IBO. Biology Subject Guide. [Online] 2007.<br />Self Assessment:<br />Essential BiologyAssessmentCriterionComplete (2)Partially complete (1)SelfMrTPresentation & OrganisationNAComplete and neat. All command terms highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented. Academic HonestyNASources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical) method, with Works Cited section complete and correct. Objective 1 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Define Draw Label List Measure StateObjective 2 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Annotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify OutlineObjective3understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Analyse Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine DiscussEvaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch SuggestLogic, notation, mathematical workingNAAnswers are presented in a logical and concise manner. SI units used most times, with correct unit symbols and definitions of terms. All mathematical working shown.Further researchNAEvidence is apparent of research and reading beyond the textbook and presentations to find correct answers to challenging questions. If any questions are unanswered, this criterion scores zero. Total (max 10):<br />