E1 Stimulus And Response

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For the IB Biology course: Option E Neurobiology and Behaviour.

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E1 Stimulus And Response

  1. 1. Assessment Statements Obj. E1.1 Define the terms stimulus, response and reflex. 1 Explain the role of receptors, sensory neurons, relay neurons, motor neurons, E1.2 3 synapses and effectors in the response of animals to stimuli. Draw and label a diagram of a reflex arc for a pain withdrawal reflex, including the E1.3 spinal cord and its spinal nerves, the receptor cell, sensory neuron, relay neuron, 1 motor neuron and effector. Include white and grey matter, dorsal and ventral roots. Explain how animal responses can be affected by natural selection, using two examples. E1.4 3 • Sylvia atricapilla (blackcap bird) migration changes • Heliconius cydno butterflies and changes in mate preference What connections can you make with other topics? nerves, hormones, evolution homeostasis Stimulus & ResponseCommand terms: http://i-biology.net/ibdpbio/command-terms/ Assessment statements from: Online IB Biology Subject Guide
  2. 2. The pain withdrawal reflex is a rapid, unconscious response toThe Pain Reflex danger or injury. It is mediated by the spine’s grey matter. A very basic overview from the BBC:Reflex animation from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_ocr_pre_2011/brain_mind/reflexactionsrev1.shtml
  3. 3. The pain withdrawal reflex is a rapid, unconscious response toThe Pain Reflex danger or injury. It is mediated by the spine’s grey matter. (nociceptors)Spine-mediated pain reflex arc, from: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Nervous_System
  4. 4. The pain withdrawal reflex is a rapid, unconscious response toThe Pain Reflex danger or injury. It is mediated by the spine’s grey matter. (nociceptors)Injury stimulates pain receptors (nociceptors), causing Ca2+ ions to rushin. This depolarises the sensory neuron and starts an action potential. http://www.vet.ed.ac.uk/animalpain/Pages/animation2.htmSpine-mediated pain reflex arc, from: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Nervous_System
  5. 5. The pain withdrawal reflex is a rapid, unconscious response toThe Pain Reflex danger or injury. It is mediated by the spine’s grey matter. (nociceptors) propagates the AP along the axon (review action and resting potentials!)Injury stimulates pain receptors (nociceptors), causing Ca2+ ions to rushin. This depolarises the sensory neuron and starts an action potential. http://www.vet.ed.ac.uk/animalpain/Pages/animation2.htmSpine-mediated pain reflex arc, from: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Nervous_System
  6. 6. The pain withdrawal reflex is a rapid, unconscious response toThe Pain Reflex danger or injury. It is mediated by the spine’s grey matter.http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp46/4601s.swfRelay neurons (interneurons in the animation above) are inthe grey matter of the spine. They receive the signal fromthe sensory neuron, through synaptic transmission (reviewit!) and coordinate the response to pain: • An excitatory neurotransmitter (e.g. ACh) is sent across the next synapse to the motor neuron for muscles to contract. • An inhibitory NT is used to send a signal to antagonistic (opposite) muscles to relax.Spine-mediated pain reflex arc, from: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Nervous_System
  7. 7. The pain withdrawal reflex is a rapid, unconscious response toThe Pain Reflex danger or injury. It is mediated by the spine’s grey matter. (nociceptors) Finally, the motor neurons conduct the AP from the relay neuron to the effector (muscle). • Muscles that need to contract receive and excitatory signal. • Muscles that need to relax receive an inhibitory signal. The response is rapid movement away from the source of pain.Spine-mediated pain reflex arc, from: http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Anatomy_and_Physiology_of_Animals/Nervous_System
  8. 8. ADorsal root ganglion (passage for neurons)BCDE FVentral root ganglion (passage for neurons)G
  9. 9. @IBiologyStephen Please consider a donation to charity via Biology4Good. Click here for more information about Biology4Good charity donations. This is a Creative Commons presentation. It may be linked and embedded but not sold or re-hosted.

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