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Classification (IB Biology)
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Classification (IB Biology)

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For the IB Biology course

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  • wonderful. can u please share the same to me

    pidikitiprasad@cfbtes.com
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  • Hi Jeff - you’re right and it is present in the cell walls of vascular plants. Lignin is present in wood, though non-woody is not the same as non-lignified. I’ve updated it now.

    Thanks for the heads-up - and for the article link!

    Stephen
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  • I'm no botanist, but several sources I've seen say that ferns DO have lignin. Was this a typo or do you disagree? Also, I thought this was an interesting article about the evolution of lignin. Thanks for all your great resources...I use them in my IB classes regularly.
    -Jeff
    http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-01/uobc-bro012609.php
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  • Note to self - slide 22 annelida are segmented worms, not roundworms.
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  • 1. ClassificationStephen Taylor Photo: © All rights reserved by Stephen Taylor i-Biology at Flickr: http://www.flickr.com/photos/sciencevideos/5664230154/
  • 2. Assessment Statements from the IB Biology Subject Guide. Extension: • How does taxonomy connect to the big ideas of: • Evolution? • Structure & Function? • TOK: What are the benefits of a single global naming system for species based on latin?
  • 3. Living MRS GREN: Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity (to change), Growth, Reproduction, Excretion (of waste), Nutrition Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification
  • 4. Living MRS GREN: Movement, Respiration, Sensitivity (to change), Growth, Reproduction, Excretion (of waste), Nutrition Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification Three main ‘Domains’ in the Phylogenetic Tree of Life Tree of life from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three-domain_system
  • 5. Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification Six Kingdoms from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_(biology)
  • 6. Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification Six Kingdoms from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_(biology) Some examples of Phyla we need to know Kingdom Animalia • Porifera • Cnidaria • Platyhelminthes • Annelida • Mollusca • Arthropoda Kingdom Plantae (Plant phyla are better known as divisions) • Bryophyta • Filicinophyta • Coniferophyta • Angiospermophyta
  • 7. Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_classification Tree of life, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phylogenetic_tree Click here for full size. As we move down the taxonomic levels, groups become smaller and more closely related. For example, the Phylum Chordata includes the Classes: Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves, Mammalia.
  • 8. Photo © Stephen Taylor What’s the common name for this species in your mother tongues? manusia
  • 9. Binomial Nomenclature “Two-name naming system” Homo sapiens Homo sapiensGenus name is capitalized species name is NEVER capitalized If it has been used in your piece of work already, the name can be abbreviated to: H. sapiens (or H. sapiens) typed binomial names MUST be italicized handwritten binomial names MUST be underlined Photo © Stephen Taylorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature
  • 10. Binomial Nomenclature From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binomial_nomenclature Carolus Linneus (Carl von Linné) 1707-1778 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolus_Linnaeus
  • 11. DOMAIN Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species subspecies
  • 12. Mnemonic (memory aid) D __________ K __________ P __________ C __________ O__________ F__________ G__________ S __________ DOMAIN Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species subspecies
  • 13. Classification & Naming 10-minute Poster Task • Use the template on the GoogleSlides and access Arkive.org • Complete one poster each for an animal and a plant • Include IUCN database conservation status information • Include citations, photo credit and license Peer-check: • formatting • naming • taxonomy • citations • status MrT will access the slides from your folder for printing & display.
  • 14. Explore this interactive tool: how closely related are your two species? • What does the scale represent? • What is the effect of changing the scale? http://www.wellcometreeoflife.org/interactive
  • 15. Images from wikipedia.
  • 16. Images from wikipedia.
  • 17. Images from wikipedia. “Anya and Doggie” by Stephen Taylor
  • 18. Images from wikipedia.
  • 19. Images from wikipedia. “Anya and Doggie” by Stephen Taylor
  • 20. Images from wikipedia.
  • 21. Click on the images above to find out more about each division (phylum). Images from wikipedia.
  • 22. Chlorophyta(algae) Appearance: Photosynthetic, small. Marine, freshwater, terrestrial. Image: 'MAGIA EN HYDRODICTYON' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/25898159@N07/3654846926 Vasculature: None.
  • 23. Image: 'White Branch Falls' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/31246066@N04/5031218685 Appearance: Very simple, small plants. (under 50cm) Furry Appearance Vasculature: None: bryophytes absorb moisture from their humid surroundings and have minimally specialised structures. Reproduction: Spores released from stalk capsules (sporangia)
  • 24. Vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) are transport networks to carry resources and waste around the plant. This allows the plant to be bigger, with more specialised parts. Image: 'Green Leaf' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/47643206@N00/2209559360
  • 25. Filicinophyta (ferns) Appearance: Roots, leaves, short stems Max. height 15m. Leaves in section & may be curled up. Vasculature: Xylem & Phloem Not woody. Reproduction: Spores released sporangia (capsules under the leaves) Image: 'His Fingerprints' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/46042146@N00/2401553287
  • 26. Image: I am in love with the green earth, Charles Lamb' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/31246066@N04/4573554416 Coniferophyta(conifers) Appearance: Woody trees Leaves are needles Up to 100m Vasculature: Xylem & Phloem Woody Reproduction: Female cones contain seeds
  • 27. Photo by Stephen Taylor Angiospermophyta Flowering plants Appearance: Flowering plants Roots, stems, leaves Up to 100m. Vasculature: Xylem & Phloem Reproduction: Seeds dispersed through fruits. Pollination through flowers.
  • 28. Distinguish between these phyla of plants. Appearance Max. Size Reproduction Memorandum Bryophyta (mosses) Filicinophyta (ferns) Coniferophyta (conifers/pines) Angiospermophyta (flowering plants)
  • 29. Distinguish between these phyla of plants. Appearance Max. Size Reproduction Memorandum Bryophyta (mosses) Small, furry, no vasculature. Cover rocks, trees, etc. in wet areas. 50cm Spores, from sporangia on stalk capsules. Chlorophyte = Covers phloor (floor) Filicinophyta (ferns) Non-woody. Leaves in sections, may be curled up. 15m Spores, from sporangia under leaves. Filicinophyta = Ferns Coniferophyta (conifers/pines) Woody trees with needle-like leaves and cones. 100m Seeds stored and released from female cones. Conifer = Cones Angiospermophyta (flowering plants) Roots, stems and leaves. Produce flowers. 100m Spores, distributed through fruits. Flowers for pollination. Angiosperm = Pollen  flowers
  • 30. Click on the images above to find out more about each division (phylum). Images from wikipedia.
  • 31. Image: 'remparts' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/37071060@N06/3935753017 Porifera (sponges) Symmetry None Digestion No mouth or anus Filter food from currents Segmentation None Notes Pore = hole Attached to rocky surfaces
  • 32. Image: 'jellies01' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/16863501@N00/15711291 Image: ‘Clownfisch/ Anemonenfisch (cc)’ Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/45409431@N00/2039988461 Symmetry Radial Digestion Mouth, no anus Segmentation None Notes Tentacles around mouth Many have stinging cells Cnidaria (jellies & anemones)
  • 33. Image: 'Pseudoceros dimidiatus' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/82825649@N00/438039243 Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Symmetry Bilateral Digestion Mouth, no anus Segmentation None Notes Ribbon-shaped Many are parasites
  • 34. Annelida (segmented worms) Symmetry Bilateral Digestion Mouth & anus Segmentation Yes – segmented Notes May be bristled Includes earthworms, leeches Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alitta_virens
  • 35. Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alitta_virens Annelida(segmentedworms)
  • 36. Mollusca Symmetry Bilateral Digestion Mouth & anus Segmentation Not visibly Notes Hugely diverse group Image: 'slow down' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/72093892@N00/4153613907
  • 37. Mollusca Symmetry Bilateral Digestion Mouth & anus Segmentation Not visibly Notes Hugely diverse group Image: 'Squid' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/41059842@N03/8728416814
  • 38. Arthropoda Symmetry Bilateral Digestion Mouth & anus Segmentation Segmented, jointed Notes Exoskeleton, jointsImage: 'Out for a Stroll' Found on flickrcc.net http://www.flickr.com/photos/10676369@N07/3029291811
  • 39. Distinguish between these phyla of invertebrates. Symmetry Digestive Tract Segmentation Other Features Porifera (sponges) None No mouth or anus (filter feeders) None Porifera (porous), attached to rocks/ coral Cnidaria (jellies & anemones) Radial Mouth, no anus None Tentacles around mouth, may have stinging cells Platyhelminthes (flat worms) Bilateral Mouth, no anus None Many flatworms are parasites Annelida (segmented worms) Bilateral Mouth & anus Highly segmented Often bristly Includes earthworms and leeches Mollusca Bilateral Mouth & anus Not visible Very diverse, including snails, squid Arthropoda Bilateral Mouth & anus Segmented Exoskeletons Jointed limbs
  • 40. Distinguish between these phyla of invertebrates. Symmetry Digestive Tract Segmentation Other Features Porifera (sponges) Cnidaria (jellies & anemones) Platyhelminthes (flat worms) Annelida (segmented worms) Mollusca Arthropoda
  • 41. Dominoes: print 2-3 sets per group.
  • 42. Classification Dominoes spares • Groups of 2-4. • Each player needs a set of dominoes. • Put all the dominoes together & mix them up. • Deal out 6 dominoes per player. • The leftovers go in the ‘spare’ pile, face-down. Playing The Game: 1. Take one ‘spare’ and place it face-up on the desk. 2. The first player to spot that they can connect one of their dominoes goes first. 3. Play continues clock-wise until all players have correctly used all their dominoes. 4. If you cannot place a domino correctly on your turn, take one of the spares. Play passes you.
  • 43. Dichotomous Key Practice 1. Cell walls: Present: …………..Kingdom Plantae go to Q2 Not present: ……Kingdom Animalia go to Q5 2. Vasculature Present: …………………………………………………Q3 Not present (too small): ………………………….Phylum Bryophyta 3. Reproduction: Spores in sporangia under leaves: ………….Phylum Filicinophyta Seeds …………………………………………………….. Q4 4. Seeds in: Female cones: ………………………………………. Phylum Coniferophyta Fruits: ……………………………………………………. Phylum Angiospermophyta 5. Symmetry: None: …………Phylum Porifera Radial: …………Phylum Cnidaria Bilateral: ……..Q6 6. Segmentation Visible: ………………… Q7 Not visible: …………… Q8 7. Exoskeleton: Present: ………. Phylum Arthropoda Not present: .. Phylum Annelida 8. Digestive tract: Mouth, no anus: ………. Phylum Platyhelminthes Mouth & anus: .. ………. Phylum Mollusca Practice with a partner and play ‘guess who’ with the 10 phyla you need to know. • One partner picks a phylum at random • The other uses the key to deduce the answer. • Check each others’ understanding. • What other features can you remember about each phylum?
  • 44. Dichotomous Key Practice 1. Cell walls: Present: …………..Kingdom Plantae go to Q2 Not present: ……Kingdom Animalia go to Q5 2. Vasculature Present: …………………………………………………Q3 Not present (too small): ………………………….Phylum Bryophyta 3. Reproduction: Spores in sporangia under leaves: ………….Phylum Filicinophyta Seeds …………………………………………………….. Q4 4. Seeds in: Female cones: ………………………………………. Phylum Coniferophyta Fruits: ……………………………………………………. Phylum Angiospermophyta 5. Symmetry: None: …………Phylum Porifera Radial: …………Phylum Cnidaria Bilateral: ……..Q6 6. Segmentation Visible: ………………… Q7 Not visible: …………… Q8 7. Exoskeleton: Present: ………. Phylum Arthropoda Not present: .. Phylum Annelida 8. Digestive tract: Mouth, no anus: ………. Phylum Platyhelminthes Mouth & anus: .. ………. Phylum Mollusca Practice with a partner and play ‘guess who’ with the 10 phyla you need to know. • One partner picks a phylum at random • The other uses the key to deduce the answer. • Check each others’ understanding. • What other features can you remember about each phylum?
  • 45. Design a dichotomous key that the other group can apply to correctly identify the species on their cards. proboscis antennae head cephalothorax thorax legs abdomen wing casings fangs Order: Araneae Order: Coleoptera
  • 46. Images from wikipedia.
  • 47. Images from wikipedia.
  • 48. Dichotomous Key: Spiders 1. Yellow stripes on abdomen Yes …………Argiope keyserlingi No: …………………………………. Q2 2. Brown body Yes: …………………………………. Q3 No: …………………………………. Q6 3. Abdomen much larger than cephalothorax Yes: ………… Loxosceles reclusa No: …………………………………. Q4 4. White stripe on abdomen Yes: ………… Hogna colinensis No: …………………………………. Q5 5. Dark dots on abdomen Yes: …………Heteropoda maxima No: ………… Tegenaria agrestis 6. Red mark on abdomen Yes: ………… Latrodectus tredecimguttatus No: …………… Q7 7. Red fangs Yes: …………… male Missulena bradleyi No: ……………female Missulena bradleyi
  • 49. Dichotomous Key: Beetles 1. Visible proboscis Yes …………………………………. Q2 No: …………………………………. Q3 2. Brown body Dark brown ……… Sitophilius granarius Light brown……… Anthonomus grandis 3. Striped wing case Yes: ……………………………….. Q4 No: …………………………………. Q5 4. Stripes are: Black / light-brown - Leptinotarsa decemlineata Black / white / brown – Leptinotarsa juncta 5. Wing casing is Red & spotted … Coccinella septempunctata Dark ……………….. Q6 6. Legs are: Dark, yellow antenna: Tragodendron fascilatum Yellow: …………………….. Q7 7. Yellow legs are adapted for: Walking: …………… Sphaerius acaroides Swimming: ………… Gyrinus natator
  • 50. Dichotomous Key: Beetles 1. Visible proboscis Yes …………………………………. Q2 No: …………………………………. Q3 2. Brown body Dark brown ……… Sitophilius granarius Light brown……… Anthonomus grandis 3. Striped wing case Yes: ……………………………….. Q4 No: …………………………………. Q5 4. Stripes are: Black / light-brown - Leptinotarsa decemlineata Black / white / brown – Leptinotarsa juncta 5. Wing casing is Red & spotted … Coccinella septempunctata Dark ……………….. Q6 6. Legs are: Dark, yellow antenna: Tragodendron fascilatum Yellow: …………………….. Q7 7. Yellow legs are adapted for: Walking: …………… Sphaerius acaroides Swimming: ………… Gyrinus natator Dichotomous Key: Spiders 1. Yellow stripes on abdomen Yes …………Argiope keyserlingi No: …………………………………. Q2 2. Brown body Yes: …………………………………. Q3 No: …………………………………. Q6 3. Abdomen much larger than cephalothorax Yes: ………… Loxosceles reclusa No: …………………………………. Q4 4. White stripe on abdomen Yes: ………… Hogna colinensis No: …………………………………. Q5 5. Dark dots on abdomen Yes: …………Heteropoda maxima No: ………… Tegenaria agrestis 6. Red mark on abdomen Yes: ………… Latrodectus tredecimguttatus No: …………… Q7 7. Red fangs Yes: …………… male Missulena bradleyi No: ……………female Missulena bradleyi
  • 51. Images from wikipedia.
  • 52. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/species-identification/shark-identification-guide
  • 53. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/species-identification/shark-identification-guide
  • 54. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/species-identification/shark-identification-guide
  • 55. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/species-identification/shark-identification-guide
  • 56. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/species-identification/shark-identification-guide
  • 57. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/species-identification/shark-identification-guide
  • 58. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/species-identification/shark-identification-guide
  • 59. http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/species-identification/shark-identification-guide
  • 60. This is a Creative Commons presentation. It may be linked and embedded but not sold or re-hosted. Please consider a donation to charity via Biology4Good. Click here for more information about Biology4Good charity donations. @IBiologyStephen