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Presentation for our final Environmental Science unit.

Presentation for our final Environmental Science unit.

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Atmosphere & Pollution Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Atmosphere & Pollution Introduction to Environmental Science Canadian Academy
  • 2. Atmosphere & Pollution Unit Questions: “How do human actions affect equilibrium?” Enduring Understandings: • Natural cycles are influenced by human activity • Consequences of human actions can be severe for the environment, other species and us Criterion Assessment Tasks A, B One World: Think Global, Act Local. Student-led action research project on school community impacts and potential solutions. C End of Year Exam: Atmosphere & Pollution D, E, F, B Greenhouse in a bottle student-designed lab (blog post)
  • 3. Atmosphere & Greenhouse Effect What is the atmosphere? What is it made of? How does the natural greenhouse effect work? How are we impacting it? 3http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0703/horizonmoon_nasa_big.jpg
  • 4. Atmosphere & Greenhouse Effect • Annotate a diagram to describe the composition of the Earths atmosphere • Analyse data to explain why temperature varies with altitude • Explain the natural greenhouse effect and its importance on Earth • State that water vapour, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and methane are greenhouse gases • Explain the enhanced greenhouse effect • Outline some effects of increasing global temperatures 4
  • 5. What do you think? It’s colder at the top because there is less atmosphere. It’s colder at the top because it is further from the ground. It’s warmer at the top because it is closer to the Sun. 5mountain from: http://www.easyvectors.com/browse/other/kliponius-mountain-in-a-cartoon-style-clip-art
  • 6. How do temperature and pressure change with altitude? Sketch your predictions on a whiteboard and explain to a partner. Altitude Altitude Temperature Pressure
  • 7. How do temperature and pressure change with altitude? Altitude Altitude Temperature PressurePlot the data. Annotate them to explain the patterns. Evaluate your predictions.
  • 8. A journey through the atmosphere http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CerJbZ-dm0 8
  • 9. Temperature and the AtmosphereLayers of the Atmosphere, from: http://burro.cwru.edu/Academics/Astr201/Atmosphere/atmosphere1.html
  • 10. Layers of the Atmosphere Layer Range (km) Characteristics Temperature increases with height Very low pressure, low density of molecules Mesopause* Thermosphere International Space Station orbits here to 350-800km Aurora borealis (Northern Lights) due to ionization of atmosphere by solar radiation Stratopause* Very cold Mesosphere Meteors burn up in this layer to 80-85km Temperature increases with height Tropopause* Stratosphere Ozone layer is here, protecting Earth from UV radiation to ≈51km Very low pressure Temperature decreases with height – heated from the ground up Surface to 9- Troposphere Atmosphere thins with height 17km Contains 80% of atmosphere (high density particles) Turbulent and changeable weather (lots of mixing)Layers of the Atmosphere, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_atmosphere
  • 11. Can you remember the Layers of the Atmosphere? Layer Range (km) Characteristics Mesopause* to 350-800km Stratopause* to 80-85km Tropopause* to ≈51km Surface to 9- 17km
  • 12. Layers of the Atmosphere Layer Range (km) Characteristics Temperature increases with height Very low pressure, low density of molecules Mesopause* Thermosphere International Space Station orbits here to 350-800km Aurora borealis (Northern Lights) due to ionization of atmosphere by solar radiation Stratopause* Very cold Mesosphere Meteors burn up in this layer to 80-85km Temperature increases with height Tropopause* Stratosphere Ozone layer is here, protecting Earth from UV radiation to ≈51km Very low pressure Temperature decreases with height – heated from the ground up Surface to 9- Troposphere Atmosphere thins with height 17km Contains 80% of atmosphere (high density particles) Turbulent and changeable weather (lots of mixing)Layers of the Atmosphere, from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth%27s_atmosphere
  • 13. Composition of the Atmosphere parts per million Gas % of atmosphere Sources by volume (ppmv) Nitrogen Volcanoes, decomposition of dead 780,840.00 ≈78 organic matter. (N2) Photosynthesis by land plants (about Oxygen (O2) 209,460.00 ≈21 50%) and phytoplankton (about 50%) Carbon Decomposition, respiration, dioxide 394.45 ≈0.04 combustion. (CO2) Nitrogen and oxygen are not greenhouse gases. They do not trap heat or contribute to warming. This small part of the atmosphere: CO2, water vapour, CH4, NO2 and O3 is responsible for heating.
  • 14. Changes in the AtmosphereNatural and anthropogenic (human) sources change the composition of the atmosphere. volcanoes & vents (CO2, NO2, S, CH4) Image source: NASA
  • 15. Greenhouse in a JarSet up the trial investigation on a sunny day and record your results. • Keep recording until the temperature stabilises (3 recordings in a row) • How will you get the jars to cool down to be reset for another run? Analyse your results. Explain your findings. How is this analagous to the greenhouse effect? Evaluate this method: • Sources of error/ limitations? • Sufficient relevant data? • What needs to be controlled better? Consider all of these in the design of your own project.
  • 16. Greenhouse in a Jar: Design Lab Design and carry out an investigation into the effect of one variable on the heating of a greenhouse jar. Your completed write-up will be presented as a blog post or regular lab in Turnitin. Assessed Criteria: • Criterion D: Scientific Inquiry • Criterion E: Processing Data • Criterion F: Attitudes in Science • Criterion B: Communication in Science Submit your planning/ method Submit your first full draft Submit your final draft
  • 17. Greenhouse in a Jar: Design Lab Compare these data sets. • Which shows the clearest difference? • Identify five ways in which the presentation of the data can be improved.
  • 18. Greenhouse in a Jar: Design Lab
  • 19. G10 Assessed Tasks: End of Semester 2Task Criteria Due DatesGreenhouse in a Jar Lab D, E, F, B Plan: 24 AprilBlog post or Turnitin Lab report Draft: 30 April Final: 7 MayOne World: Think Local, Act Global A, B Draft: 14 MayBlog post Final: 21 MayTest: Atmosphere & Pollution C Exams weekDon’t forget: If you are finding meeting deadlines a • Review tasks on Quia challenge come to MrT’s lunchtime 8.1 Atmosphere & Greenhouse Effect ‘club’ (Mon-Thurs) for some quiet time 8.2 Ozone Layer to sit and get work done. 8.3 Pollution • Keep on top of notes. You can bring your lunch.
  • 20. Ultraviolet is high-energy radiation. Frequency (Hz) Wavelength higher energy Visible Spectrum used in photosynthesis UV is high-energy. It is damaging to cells. green not used in photosynthesis used in Infra-red is low-energy. photosynthesis lower energy We detect it as heat. 20Spectrum adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
  • 21. Ultraviolet is high-energy radiation. 21Spectrum from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
  • 22. The natural greenhouse effect warms the planet
  • 23. The natural greenhouse effect warms the planet High-energy (short wavelength) radiation from the Sun some reflected back to space by cloud cover & absorbed by Some heat leaves the ozone layer atmosphere Greenhouse gases (H2O, CO2, CH4, NO2, O3), absorb and trap some heat. Atmosphere is warmed from the ground up. Some reflected back to space by the albedo effect of icecaps and light colours. Land and oceans absorb high-energy radiation and re-emit as lower energy heat.
  • 24. A closer look at the greenhouse effect How do greenhouse gases affect the climate? Explore the atmosphere during the ice age and today. What happens when you add clouds? Change the greenhouse gas concentration and see how the temperature changes. Then compare to the effect of glass panes. Zoom in and see how light interacts with molecules. Do all atmospheric gases contribute to the greenhouse effect?http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/greenhouse
  • 25. How have we affected GHG concentrations? ppm = parts per million Data and graphs from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/#mlo
  • 26. How have we affected GHG concentrations? ppm = parts per million Remember: • These GHG’s make up a very small part of the whole atmosphere, yet have a large impact on heating the planet. • So what appear to be small changes in the quantity of these gases in the atmosphere could be having significant warming impacts. Data and graphs from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/#mlo
  • 27. Analyse these recent CO2 data from Mauna Loa. What is the overall trend? What is the reason for the annual fluctuations? Data and graphs from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/#mlo
  • 28. Analyse these recent CO2 data from Mauna Loa. What is the overall trend? What is the reason for the annual fluctuations? Earth’s tilt and seasons:http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/earth.htm Data and graphs from NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/#mlo
  • 29. Global impacts of an enhanced greenhouse effect • Unstable weather patterns (climate change), and increased frequency of high-impact storms • Flooding in wet seasons (partly also as a result of deforestation and change in land use) • Drought and water shortages in dry seasons, with increasing severity • Seasonal changes leading to different bloom/ reproduction times for plants/ crops and the knock-on effects this will have on other species in the same ecosystems • Increasing average temperatures will lead to a geographical shift in biomes (moving towards the poles, polar biomes will decrease) • Increasing pest/ invasive species as biomes shift 29Climograph of biomes, from http://blog.nus.edu.sg/lsm3251/2008/08/19/world-biomes/
  • 30. http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard/ Access the NOAA’s most recent Arctic Report Card. Watch the video and look through the main chapters. Outline how the arctic ecosystem is changing over recent years. Think & Discuss What is the effect of reduced ice caps on: • The albedo effect? • Absorption of radiation from the Sun? • Warming? • Release of further GHG’s from dead organisms trapped in the ice? 30http://www.buzzfeed.com/expresident/animals-who-are-extremely-disappointed-in-you
  • 31. Write a headline for this image…http://gu.com/p/3653a
  • 32. Ozone layer scientist who saved the world dies F Sherwood Rowland: • What did he do? • How does the ozone layer work? • How have we damaged the ozone layer? • How can we repair the damage?http://gu.com/p/3653a
  • 33. Ozone Layer & Air Pollution • Describe the damaging effects of UV radiation on biological systems • Explain how the ozone layer shields the Earth from much of the Suns harmful radiation • Explain how chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) damage the ozone layer • Describe the formation and effects of a hole in the ozone layer • Discuss the impacts of the Montreal Protocol on the hole in the ozone layer • List five main air pollutants and their source • Identify the primary air pollutants in urban areas • Describe the formation of smog • Outline the effect of thermal inversion on trapping air pollution2006: Record ozone hole from: 33http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=7044
  • 34. There’s good ozone and there’s bad ozone…When it’s up in the stratosphere, ozone is broken from O3 to O2 by UVradiation. This reduces the levels of UV reaching the Earth. CFC’s andother chemicals have resulted in holes forming in this protective layer. Over 93% of UV radiation which reaches us is absorbed by the ozone layer. 2O3 UV energy 3O2 slowly reforms But when it’s down in the troposphere, the reactions of ozone can be very harmful to human health, damaging lungs. Vehicle exhausts are prime culprits. 34
  • 35. Ultraviolet is high-energy radiation. Frequency (Hz) Wavelength higher energy Visible Spectrum used in photosynthesis UV is high-energy. It is damaging to cells. green not used in photosynthesis used in Infra-red is low-energy. photosynthesis lower energy We detect it as heat. 35Spectrum adapted from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
  • 36. Ultraviolet is high-energy radiation. 36Spectrum from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
  • 37. UV radiation damages biological systems High-energy UV radiation coming in from the Sun is useful in the right amount, but damaging to biological systems in excess: • Damage to DNA  mutations, cancers and cell damage • Damage to plants and phytoplankton  reduced productivity • Increasing heat absorption of land and water and contributing to warming, ice melting, loss of habitats, forest fires, drought. What happens to productivity if UV radiation increases? http://www.ciesin.org/docs/011-467/011-467.html
  • 38. The Ozone layer protects us from UV radiation Over 93% of UV radiation which reaches us is absorbed by the ozone layer. 2O3 UV energy 3O2 slowly reforms Ozone is triatomic oxygen (O3), which usually only forms at high altitudes (it’s in the stratosphere). UV energy splits ozone into single diatomic oxygen molecules. This uses energy from the UV. Ozone molecules can re-form.
  • 39. The Ozone layer protects us from UV radiation Over 93% of UV radiation which reaches us is absorbed by the ozone layer. 2O3 UV energy 3O2 slowly reforms Ozone is triatomic oxygen (O3), which usually only forms at high altitudes (it’s in the stratosphere). UV energy splits ozone into single diatomic oxygen molecules. This uses energy from the UV. Ozone molecules can re-form. The formation of holes in the ozone layer as a result of CFC release into the atmosphere is disastrous. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s) are a result of: • Refrigeration • Air conditioning • De-greasing and cleaning agents • Foam-blowing • Aeorosol propellants Since it was recognised that CFC’s led to an ozone hole, much of their production is being phased out.
  • 40. Images from: http://www.bom.gov.au/lam/Students_Teachers/ozanim/ozoanim.shtml
  • 41. Why do holes form in the polar regions? We produced chemicals, such as CFC’s, which are released into the atmosphere. At very cold temperatures, these are split by UV radiation, releasing chlorine molecules, which then catalyse the breakdown of many ozone molecules. Complete breakdown of ozone leaves a hole in the ozone layer and reduced protection from UV radiation. NASA Explanation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qUfVMogIdr8
  • 42. The Montreal ProtocolThe Montreal Protocol on Substancesthat Deplete the Ozone Layer wassigned in 1987 and ratified by over 197states. It is an international agreementto phase out and eventually halt theproduction and use of CFC’s and otherknown ozone-depleting chemicals.Outline the patterns and trends in thedataset to the right.What have been the impacts of thetreaty on global atmospheric levels ofozone-depleting chemicals?Find out: What effect has this had onthe hole in the ozone layer? Atmospheric levels of chlorine: http://www.environment.gov.au/soe/2006/publications/drs/indicator/14/index.html
  • 43. The Montreal Protocol’s effects on ozone depletion The effects of the protocol are not instant.2006: A record year The hole has continued to increase in size, as CFC’s and other chemicals remain in the atmosphere for a long time. Also, the protocol calls for phasing-out, which means that some are still being produced, though in reduced amounts. Ozone-hole in 1996: http://ozonewatch.gsfc.nasa.gov/
  • 44. PollutionImage: Beijing smog 45http://www.flickr.com/photos/12836528@N00/386198516
  • 45. Pollution What was the effect of the Beijing Olympics on air quality? What does this study show about the impacts of air pollution on human health?Image: Beijing smog 46http://www.flickr.com/photos/12836528@N00/386198516 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SrQzPUn42VY
  • 46. Point-source and Non Point-source Pollution Point-source pollution comes from a single Non point-source pollution is more diffuse identifiable origin, such as a factory, pipe, and a single source is not easily identified. sewage outlet or smoke stack. It includes It includes agricultural run-off into single events, such as oil spills. waterways and trash blown from the land into the ocean. 47Image: sources of pollution from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/environmental-reporting/freshwater/river/nutrients/sources.html
  • 47. Point-source and Non Point-source Pollution Point-source pollution comes from a single Non point-source pollution is more diffuse identifiable origin, such as a factory, pipe, and a single source is not easily identified. sewage outlet or smoke stack. It includes It includes agricultural run-off into single events, such as oil spills. waterways and trash blown from the land into the ocean. Where the origin of point-source pollution can be more easily identified, measured and rectified, this is more difficult in the case of non point-source pollution. Non point-source pollution is cumulative and difficult to control. However, every type of pollution has a source, and our actions can make a difference to total pollution. Sources of pollution include: • Agricultural run-off • Urban outflow and air pollution • Industrial outflow and air pollution • Transport 48Image: sources of pollution from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/environmental-reporting/freshwater/river/nutrients/sources.html
  • 48. Air Pollution Primary Air Pollutants Sources: Natural and Anthropogenic Particulates Fine particles, such as in sea spray and volcanoes. Smoke and carbon particles from combustion, aerosols, dust. Ozone Fossil fuel combustion increases ground-level ozone. Nitrogen dioxide Brown haze as a result of high-temperature combustion or lightning strikes. Carbon monoxide Incomplete combustion, vehicle exhaust. Highly toxic. Sulphur dioxide Volcanoes and industrial combustion. Form acid rain. Up to 90% of urban air pollution is from vehicle exhausts. The human health impacts can be catastrophic, from asthma, emphysema and heart disease to cancers. Five main pollutants on five continents found to increase risk of heart attacks. Find out more here: http://www.environmentalhealthnews.org/ehs/news/ hearts-and-air-pollution/hearts-and-air-pollutionImage: Beijing smog 49http://www.flickr.com/photos/12836528@N00/386198516
  • 49. Smoke + Fog = SmogImage: The city of Los Angeles 50http://www.flickr.com/photos/11334344@N00/431927416
  • 50. Smoke + Fog = Smog Normally, air temperature decreases as altitude increases. However in calm, dry air inversion can occur. Low mixing of air and cool surface temperatures result in a trapped layer of heat above the surface. This in turn traps smog and pollutants. These pollutants can be photochemically reactive – they react with UV from the Sun to from photochemical smog, containing ozone and other harmful pollutants. Smog is a particular problem in cities with high From: vehicle use and industry. http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/climate/TemperatureI nversions.phpImage: The city of Los Angeles 51http://www.flickr.com/photos/11334344@N00/431927416
  • 51. Remember: Ozone in the stratosphere is good, it reduces levels of UV radiation reaching the Earth by about 93% But: Ground-level ozone, produced from nitric oxide, is very harmful to human health.http://www.knowabouthealth.com/smog-can-trigger-heart-diseases/4402/
  • 52. So UV radiation does a lot of damage… It causes mutations and damages biological molecules. It damages photosynthetic organisms, reducing productivity. It damages human health through tumours, eye damage, immune suppression. But it is also the high-energy radiation which splits apart molecules: 2O3 UV energy 3O2 But UV also splits CFC’s, releasing chlorine, catalysing ozone slowly reforms breakdown, resulting in holes. Stratospheric ozone is split by UV, absorbing most of the UV energy and protecting Earth. And UV splits NO, releasing free oxygen atoms which form ground- level ozone, which is very harmful to human health. 53
  • 53. Acid Precipitation SO2 and NOx react with water to form acid precipitation.Acid precipitation is harmful to biologicalsystems (changing pH of soil and water),as well as rock formations and buildings.Often pollutants from one country arecarried in air currents, forming acidprecipitation in another country. 54 From: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acid_rain
  • 54. Acid Precipitation SO2 and NOx react with water to form acid precipitation.Acid precipitation is harmful tobiological systems (changing pH ofsoil and water), as well as rockformations and buildings.The ability of plants to take up wateris compromised and leaves and pineneedles are damaged. Image: Dead forest acid rain; Czech Republic http://www.flickr.com/photos/39561704@N03/4288635612 Acidic waters absorb aluminium, concentrating toxins. Species not tolerant to pollution will not survive. Acid Rain diagram from: http://goo.gl/kxueT 55
  • 55. Acid Precipitation SO2 and NOx react with water to form acid precipitation.Through international cooperation, we can use lower-sulphur fuels, reduce emissionsthrough industry and take action to set laws and regulations on emissions fromsmoke stacks and car exhausts.Actions against acid precipitation: • Lead-free petrol • Shifting to renewable energy, not fossil fuels • Lower-temperature burners and filters in factories (expensive) • Increasing energy efficiencyOcean Acidification: the other CO2 problem• CO2 dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.• Small changes in pH affect enzymes of sensitive living organisms• This includes coral polyps, who produce reefs• Coral bleaching is the result of mass polyp death 56
  • 56. NO SO2 COO3 UV CO2 NO2 What is the importance of these CFC components or concepts? How are they connected? CH4 57
  • 57. There’s notreally verymuchwateronEarth…Picture of Earth showing if all Earths water (liquid, ice, freshwater, saline) was put into a sphere it would be about 860 miles(about 1,385 kilometers) in diameter. Diameter would be about the distance from Salt Lake City, Utah to Topeka, Kansas, 58USA. Credit: Illustration by Jack Cook, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (©); Howard Perlman, USGS.
  • 58. There’s not really verymuch water on Earth…… and we can’t use most of it. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/earthwherewater.html
  • 59. Surface water is visible and immediately available. It includes rivers, lakes and oceans. Ground water includes underground stores, such as aquifers and water stored in soil. Water from wells is ground water.Image: water is life 60http://www.flickr.com/photos/58117789@N00/281123380
  • 60. Types of water PollutionOxygen-depletingDetritivores and saprotrophs biodegrade organic matter. If too much organic matter is in thewater, their populations boom and use up oxygen. This leaves an opportunity for potentiallyharmful anaerobic species to thrive, producing toxins as waste from their metabolism.NutrientsOrganic and inorganic sources from agriculture and waste water can be toxic to animals andencourage growth of algae, leading to oxygen depletion and eutrophication.MicrobiologicalPathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and protozoa (parasites), can bereleased into water. Cholera is an example of a water-borne pathogen, which is evolving tobecome antibiotic resistant in the water systems of some slum areas.ChemicalThese are chemicals which are toxic to life in and around the water. This includes oil fromspills and industrial waste, heavy metals and pesticides. These are prone tobiomagnification through the trophic levels.Suspended MatterLarger particles are suspended in water, forming silt and sludge or choking marine life. Thisincludes plastic trash which is broken up by the waves. 61
  • 61. Types of water PollutionChemicalThese are chemicals which are toxic to life in and around the water. This includes oil fromspills and industrial waste, heavy metals and pesticides. These are prone tobiomagnification through the trophic levels.Image: Deepwater Horizon Fire - April 22, 2010 62http://www.flickr.com/photos/47684393@N00/4543311558
  • 62. Types of water Pollution Microbiological Pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and protozoa (parasites), can be released into water. Cholera is an example of a water-borne pathogen, which is evolving to become antibiotic resistant in the water systems of some slum areas. Read more here: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/201 1/apr/07/superbug-gene-rife-delhi- waterWoman washing in West Bengal, from 63http://www.flickr.com/photos/ilri/4573808909/in/photostream/
  • 63. Types of water Pollution Nutrients Organic and inorganic sources from agriculture and waste water can be toxic to animals and encourage growth of algae, leading to oxygen depletion and eutrophication. Oxygen-depleting Detritivores and saprotrophs biodegrade organic matter. If too much organic matter is in the water, their populations boom and use up oxygen. This leaves an opportunity for potentially harmful anaerobic species to thrive, producing toxins as waste from their metabolism. 64Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication
  • 64. Types of water Pollution Nutrients Organic and inorganic sources from agriculture and waste water can be toxic to animals and encourage growth of algae, leading to oxygen depletion and eutrophication. Oxygen-depleting Detritivores and saprotrophs NASA Discovers Ocean dead zones: biodegrade organic matter. If too much organic matter is in the water, their populations boom and use up oxygen. This leaves an opportunity for potentially harmful anaerobic species to thrive, producing toxins as waste from their metabolism. 65Image from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eutrophication http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XEZpo9uLIc0
  • 65. Types of water PollutionSuspended MatterLarger particles are suspended in water, forming siltand sludge or choking marine life. This includesplastic trash which is broken up by the waves. “Only humans produce waste which nature can’t biodegrade.” http://www.ted.com/talks/capt_charles_moore_on_the_seas_ of_plastic.html Image: Pacific trash shame http://gu.com/p/2cxbm 66
  • 66. Sources of Ocean Pollution Oil spills Debris and trash Chemical waste Agricultural wasteImage: Plastic Ocean 67http://www.flickr.com/photos/48889057888@N01/4408273247
  • 67. Issues of Water PollutionGroup 1Explain why ground water pollution is difficult to clean upGroup 2Explain the effects of pollution on an ecosystem “Explain: Give a detailed accountYour work is for the others in the class: including reasons or causes.”• Create a GoogleDoc or presentation• Share with group members and teacher This might include:• Publish to other class members • Draw and annotate diagrams • Outline processes • List or describe components 68
  • 68. Review: Analyse this graph What do the axes represent? What trends and patterns do you notice? Explain the reasoning for the trends and patterns based on what we have learned in class this unit. Taken from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature_recor
  • 69. Review: Analyse this graph What do the axes represent? What trends and patterns do you notice? Explain the reasoning for the trends and patterns based on what we have learned in class this unit. Taken from: http://www.environment.gov.au/soe/2006/publications/
  • 70. Review: Analyse these graphs What do the axes represent? What trends and patterns do you notice? Explain the reasoning for the trends and patterns based on what we have learned in class this unit. Taken from: http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/ozone.html
  • 71. Review: Analyse these graphs• What trends and patterns do you notice?• Explain the reasoning for the trends and patterns based on what we have learned in class this unit. Taken from: http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/aqtrends.html
  • 72. Review: Analyse these graphs• What trends and patterns do you notice?• Explain the reasoning for the trends and patterns based on what we have learned in class this unit. Taken from: http://www.na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/n_resource/buffer/part3.htm
  • 73. Review: Analyse this graphPrimary diagnoses mean the patient was admitted knowing it was for asthma.All diagnoses is when asthma has been diagnosed with asthma as a possible Taken from:cause. http://www.hesonline.org.uk/Ease/ContentServer?siteID
  • 74. What do you think? Ideas based on Concept Cartoons: http://www.conceptcartoons.comClipart people from: http://www.clker.com/search/krug/1
  • 75. For more resources. Please consider a donation to charity via Biology4Good. Click here for more information about Biology4Good charity donations.This is a Creative Commons presentation. It may be linked and embedded but not sold or re-hosted.