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A3 special issues in nutrition

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  • 1. Special Issues in Nutrition Option A: Human Nutrition & Health Stephen Taylor Image: ’I can drink by myself!’ Copyright, Stephen Taylor
  • 2. Assessment Statements Obj. Distinguish between the components of human milk and artificial milk for A2.1 2 bottlefeeding babies. A2.2 Discuss the benefits of breastfeeding. 3 A2.3 Outline the causes and symptoms of type II diabetes. 2 Explain the dietary advice that should be given to a patient who has A2.4 3 developed type II diabetes. Discuss the ethical issues concerning the eating of animal products, A2.5 3 including honey, eggs, milk and meat. Evaluate the benefits of reducing dietary cholesterol in lowering the risk of A2.6 3 coronary heart disease (CHD). Discuss the concept of food miles and the reasons for consumers choosing A2.7 3 foods to minimize food miles.Command terms: http://i-biology.net/ibdpbio/command-terms/ Assessment statements from: Online IB Biology Subject Guide
  • 3. Breast is Best How does human milk compare to formula milk? Breast-milk Formula Present in first feeds. Stimulates Colostrum Not present newborn digestion. Present in colostrum in high doses, Antibodies Not present and subsequent milk. Lower, but more easily digested Higher, but harder to digest and absorb. Protein and absorbed. Human. Bovine sources. Higher in lactose, linked to brain Lower in lactose. May come from Carbohydrates development. glucose. Fatty acids Human fatty acids. Palm oil or alternatives .Vitamins and minerals May be lower, but easier to absorb. Higher, but harder to absorb. Image: bottle V http://www.flickr.com/photos/21524179@N08/3668580431 Found on flickrcc.net
  • 4. Breast is BestWhat are the benefits of breastfeeding? Benefit Effect Colostrum and early breastmilk contain high concentrations of Immunity antibodies, protecting the infant from infections. Colostrum stimulates digestive tract function and eases Digestive function defecation. Easier to digest than formula milk. Breastmilk is free and readily available as long as the mother Cost remains healthy Bonding Aids in mother-child bonding and communication More complete than formula and changes in composition to Nutrition match the needs of the infant Aids in weight-loss, reduces risk of breast cancer, type II Mother’s health diabetes and post-partum depression. Find out more: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/breastfeeding/en/index.html
  • 5. Type II DiabetesWhat are the symptoms and causes? Analyse the graphs and follow the links. What is the relationship between obesity and type II diabetes (insulin resistance)? What is the effect of increasing access to sugar on the prevalance of diabetes? http://notunlikeresearch.typepad.com/something-not- unlike-rese/2011/07/new-cdc-report-on-physical- inactivity-obesity-and-diabetes.html “Using econometric models of repeated cross- sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries, we found that every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) was associated with increased diabetes prevalence by 1.1% (p <0.001).”http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0057873
  • 6. Type II DiabetesWhat are the symptoms and causes?Causes• Prolonged excessive intake of high-energy foods, particularly sugars and carbohydrates• Insulin resistance develops as a result as insulin receptors on the liver become less sensitive• Strong link to obesity (excess energy is stored http://www.doctoroz.com/vp-videos/diabetes-animation as fat)• Genetic factors (some are more susceptible to developing type II diabetes)Symptoms• Glucose in the urine (too much glucose in the blood, not all can be re-uptaken by the kidney so some remains in urine)• Dehydration, excessive urination• Damaged blood vessels• Weight loss as fat storage is affected• Sleep loss, tiredness• Blurred vision/ potential loss of sight (retinopathy) http://www.medmovie.com/mmdatabase/MediaPlayer.aspx?ClientID=89
  • 7. Type II DiabetesWhat dietary* advice would a patient receive and why? Advice Scientific Reason Eat low GI foods. Cut out sugars & refined carbohydrates Eat high fibre foods Small, regular meals Choose ‘diabetic alternatives’ Read the food labels Image: Squirrel Heaven http://www.flickr.com/photos/12187063@N02/3943984935 Found on flickrcc.net
  • 8. Type II DiabetesWhat dietary* advice would a patient receive and why? Advice Scientific Reason Some foods release energy more slowly - they have a lower Eat low GI foods. glycemic index (GI). Eating these reduces ‘spikes’ in blood sugar. These are high GI foods – they are broken down into sugars and Cut out sugars & absorbed quickly, causing blood sugar to rise quickly. They include refined carbohydrates sugary snacks, white bread and pasta. High fibre makes one feel without providing too much energy. High Eat high fibre foods fibre diets can also help reduce the effects of diabetes. Smaller releases of energy more frequently result in less dramatic Small, regular meals blood sugar changes than large, infrequent meals. Choose ‘diabetic Some packaged foods may be labeled to show that they have alternatives’ reduced sugars or carbohydrates, suitable for diabetics. Learn how to read and interpret food labels to avoid eating Read the food labels unsuitable foods. Image: Squirrel Heaven http://www.flickr.com/photos/12187063@N02/3943984935 Found on flickrcc.net*Yup, getting more exercise would be useful too (but that’s not dietary).
  • 9. Eating AnimalsWhat are the ethical issues associated with animal products?Image: Matadero Iruya IVhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/54028939@N00/1304768250Found on flickrcc.net
  • 10. Eating AnimalsWhat are the ethical issues associated with animal products? Food Product Advantages Ethical Concerns • Animal welfare issues in intensively-farmed cattle, poultry. Pain and suffering in slaughter. • Growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and new strains of viruses as a result of Source of proteins, some overuse of medication. Use of growth hormones may affect human health, such as Meat vitamins and minerals. earlier onset of puberty. • Huge demand for land and water to grow crops to feed animals is no longer sustainable and results in clearing of rainforests and habitat destruction. Methane and other emissions from farming livestock contribute to global warming. Source of proteins and helpful • Many fish species are endangered due to overfishing. Fish fatty acids. • Concerns of bio-magnification of toxins in the food chain and risks to human health. • Animal welfare issues in intensively-farmed cattle, poultry. • Growth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and new strains of viruses as a result of Source of energy, protein, overuse of medication. Milk calcium • Huge demand for land and water to grow crops to feed animals is no longer sustainable and results in clearing of rainforests and habitat destruction. Methane and other emissions from farming livestock contribute to global warming. • Cholesterol health risks associated with too much egg yolk consumption. Source of protein and fats, a • Battery-farmed chickens fed hormones, in cramped conditions and can be treated Eggs ‘meat’ alternative in some inhumanely. Living spaces can be dirty and encourage spread of illness. cultures • Male chicks are routinely culled as they cannot produce eggs. Honey is a natural sweetener. • Farmed bees compete with local insect and bee populations for nectar. Artificial Honey Bees pollinate many flower selection of bees will result in a genetic shift in bee populations. species.Image: Matadero Iruya IVhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/54028939@N00/1304768250Found on flickrcc.net
  • 11. Reducing CholesterolWhat are the health benefits and where is the evidence? Cholesterol is needed in small amounts in the body to produce hormones and plasma membranes. In excess it is thought to contribute to atherosclerosis by forming deposits in the arteries. Rupture of plaques can cause clots, or CHD. However, this is a paradigm that is being challenged and it highlight the correlation-cause argument. In a review of studies, it has been suggested that the link between dietary cholesterol intake and CHD is not logical, and that the more likely cause of CHD is a diet high in saturated fats. Diets high in saturated fats tend to be high in cholesterol, so there is a correlation without necessarily causation. With moderate cholesterol intake, the body is able to remove excess with no harmful effect – dietary cholesterol is not necessarily converted into plasma cholesterol. Plasma cholesterol can be HDL (not harmful), or LDL (plaque-forming). Extreme intakes may lead to a greater buildup of LDL in atherosclerosis. Although there is a small risk of cholesterol leading to CHD, the risks of smoking, inactivity and heredity are much stronger and more closely related to CHD. Although a cholesterol-controlled diet may slow or reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, it must be combined with a healthy diet and lifestyle if it is to have a significant effect on reducing the risk of CHD. Image: Cholesterol King http://www.flickr.com/photos/89338458@N00/3539966530 Found on flickrcc.net
  • 12. Food MilesWhat is the footprint of your food? Food miles are a measure of the distance a food product travels from ’plough to plate’. It is an indicator of the environmental impact of the foods we eat, as this travel involves costs in fuel, emissions, packaging and time: the further a product travels, the less sustainable it is. Some imported foods cost more in energy per gram for their transport than they provide for the consumer. Some consumers prefer to choose locally grown or farmed food products to reduce the costs, use of packaging and preservatives, use of oil/fuel and emissions. They may also hope to encourage outlets to use local providers of produce rather than imported goods. Image: Pina Colada & Pineapple - Boca del Drago, Isla Colon - Bocas del+Toro,+Panama http://www.flickr.com/photos/34325628@N05/6671205461 Found on flickrcc.net
  • 13. Image: ’I can drink by myself!’ Copyright, Stephen Taylor@IBiologyStephen Please consider a donation to charity via Biology4Good. Click here for more information about Biology4Good charity donations. This is a Creative Commons presentation. It may be linked and embedded but not sold or re-hosted.