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  • 1. In this Module, we look at • what we mean by a “process” • software development products, processes & resources • several models of the software development process • tools & techniques for process modeling Back Next
  • 2. - Process is a series of steps involving activities constraints and resources that produce an intended output of some kind.- in building a software product, process is refer to a life cycle- software development process is sometimescalled- software life cycle than a procedure a process is more- a process may require design to occur before coding, many different design may be used
  • 3. - Process guides our actions by allowing use examine, control and improve that comprise the process.Characteristics of a Process- The process prescribes all of the major process activities.- The process uses resources, subject to a set of constraints (such schedule) and produces intermediate and final product.- The process may be composed that are linked in some way. The process may be defined as hierarchy of process, organized so that each sub- process has its own process models
  • 4. - Each process activity has entry and exit criteria, so that when the activity begins and ends.- The activities are organized in sequence, so that it is clear when one activity is performed relative to the other activities.- Every process has a guiding principles that explain the goals of each activity.- Constraints or controls may apply to an activity, resource or product.
  • 5. Reasons for Modeling Process - It forms common understanding of the activities, resources and constraints involved in software development. - It helps the development team find inconsistencies, redundancies and omissions inthe- process and in its constituent parts. such as It reflects the goals of development building high-quality software, finding faults in early development and meeting required budget and schedule constraints.
  • 6. - It helps the development team understand where tailoring is to occur for the special situation.
  • 7. - The waterfall model is a sequential software development model (a process for the creation of software) in which development is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of software developmet.- Winston W. Royce (1929–1995), present this model cited in his article published in 1970.- It is very useful in helping the developers lay out what they need to do.- The biggest problem with the waterfall model is does not reflect the way the code is really developed.
  • 8. In Royces original waterfall model, the followingphases are followed in order:1.Requirements specification2.Design3.Construction (AKA implementation or coding)4.Integration5.Testing and debugging (AKA validation)6.Installation7.Maintenance
  • 9. Requirement Analysis System Design Program Design Coding Unit & Integration Testing System Testing Acceptance Testing Operation &The Waterfall Model Maintenance
  • 10. The software development process in reality.
  • 11. - The sashimi model (so called because it features overlapping phases, like the overlapping fish of Japanese sashimi) was originated by Peter DeGrace.- also referred as the waterfall model with overlapping phases or with feedback
  • 12. Instructor’s idea about the Sashimi Model Requirement Analysis ystem S DesignProgram Design Coding Unit & Integration Testing ystem S Testing Acceptance Testing Operation & MaintenanceThe Waterfall Model with overlapping phases / The WaterfallModel with feedback
  • 13. - Prototyping is a partially developed product that enables customers and developers to examine some aspect of the proposed system and decide if it is suitable or appropriate for the finished product.- Design prototyping helps developers assess alternative design strategies and decide which is the best for a particular project.
  • 14. Validation Requirement Analysis System Design Verify Program Design Coding Unit & Integration Testing Prototyping System Testing Acceptance Testing Operation &The Waterfall Model Maintenance
  • 15. - The V-Model (or VEE model) is a systems development model designed to simplify the understanding of the complexity associated with developing systems- a variation of the waterfall model that demonstrate how the activities are related to analysis and design- the focus of the V-Model is on activity and correctness
  • 16. The V-Model
  • 17. - It requires investigation to ensure that the developer, user and customer have a common understanding both of what is needed and what is proposed.- it reduce risk and uncertainty in development- The process of prototyping involves the following steps: 1. Identify basic requirements 2. Develop initial prototype 3. Review 4. Revise and enhancing prototype
  • 18. The Prototyping Model.
  • 19. - The system requirments are evaluated orexecuted in a way that demonstrates the behavior of the- system. requirements are specified, it can be Once the enacted using the software package, so that their implication can be assess before design begins.
  • 20. The Operational Specification Model
  • 21. - It tries to reduce the opportunity for error by eliminating several major development steps.- It uses automated support- Sample transformation can include: (1) changing the data representation; (2) selecting algorithms; (3) optimizing; (4) Compiling.
  • 22. The Transformational Model
  • 23. - Cycle time is the time the documents are written and the time for the system was delivered.- To reduce the cycle time is to use development phase , where two systems functioning in parallel.- The Operational or Production System being used by the customer or user- The Development System is the next version that is being prepared to replace the current production system.
  • 24. The Phased Development Model
  • 25. - The system as specified in the requirements documents are partitioned into subsystems by functionality.- The releases are defined by beginning with one small, functional subsystem and then adding with each new releases.
  • 26. - It delivers the full system at the very beginning and it changes the functionality of each subsystem with each new releases.
  • 27. - The spiral model is a software development process combining elements of both design and prototyping-in-stages, in an effort to combine advantages of top-down and bottom-up concepts - also known as the spiral life cycle model - it is a systems development method (SDM) usedin- Information technology (IT) Prototyping Model a combination of features of and Waterfall Model defined by Barry Boehm (1988)- The spiral model is intended for large, expensive and complicated projects
  • 28. The Spiral Model.
  • 29. - It depicts the process, showing the inputs are transformed to outputs.- See… A Toolset for Supporting Static andDynamic Model Checking
  • 30. - It can enact the process, so that the user can see how intermediate and final products are transformed over time.- See… A Toolset for Supporting Static andDynamic Model Checking
  • 31. - Model Driven Development- User Experience- Top-Down to Bottom Design- Chaos Model- Evolutionary Prototyping- ICONIX Process- Unified Process- Extreme Programming (XP)