Amphibians: What do we know about them?
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Amphibians: What do we know about them?

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Talk given at ATREE, 27th April 2010 on Bioresources workshop.

Talk given at ATREE, 27th April 2010 on Bioresources workshop.

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Amphibians: What do we know about them? Amphibians: What do we know about them? Presentation Transcript

  • Amphibians: What do we know about them? Gururaja KV, Ph.D., Research Scientist, IISc, Bangalore gururajakv@gmail.com
  • Flow of the talk  Introduction to Amphibians  Uniqueness  Systematics  Research on them  As Bioresources
  • Common sight in and around your house! Duttaphrynus melanostictus Common Indian Toad
  • And near a lake!
  • Whom do you call amphibians?  Those vertebrates that live both in water as well as land  That means ...we too? Photo credit: http://divebarbados.net/Current%20Photos/Pictures/Green%20Turtle%201.jpg http://www.kidcyber.com.au/IMAGES/hippoaggro_s.jpg http://homepage.mac.com/wildlifeweb/reptile/gharial/gharial03tfk.jpg
  • In fact, amphibians are ...  Dual lifers ... ◦ Two stages in life – a tadpole stage and an adult stage ◦ From Greek, Amphi – dual, bian – life forms
  • What’s unique in them?  Generally, aquatic and terrestrial inhabitants, Some are arboreal, and some fussorial too
  • Metamorphosis They metamorphose from tadpole to adult Life span: from 10 months to 55 years
  • Ectotherms  Body temperature externally maintained Hiding away from Sun Basking in Sun
  • Skin breathers
  • Anamniotes Eggs of a bird Eggs of a frog
  • Ecosystem function  prey and predator
  • So also for US ...  Human Welfare ◦ Biocontroller of Pests ◦ Skin extract – pain killer: Bufotonin, Epibatidine, Anti microbial peptides ◦ Freeze tolerance Freezing North American Wood Frogs.flv ◦ Media for microbial culture ◦ Delicacy!!! ◦ Indicators of change in environment ◦ Culture, Rig Veda, verse 7, shloka103, ◦ Earthquake early warning system!! ◦ Biogeographic linkage ...
  • Amphibians indicate … Factors Process(es ) Climate change Temperature and precipitation patterns are altered so as to cause dis ruptions in micro or macro - climatic co nditions Habitat Deforestation and agric ulture; drained a nd filled modification wetlands, land filling Habitat Roads, introduced species, and low pH dissect fragmentation habitats, crea ting barriers to dispersal. Introduced Introduc ed predators, prey on/or compete with species native amphibians. UV-B radiation UV-B damages and/or kills cells , causing egg morta lity, lesions, malformations and increased susceptibility to dis ease and low pH. Chemical Toxins cause direct mortality of eggs and a dults, contamination mimic endocrine harmones, reduce the prey bas e, pesticidal effect; fluoranthene. Acid Toxins c reate barriers to dis persal and caus e high precipitatio n and egg and larval mortality. soil Disease Disease often causes death in amphibians (Chytridiomycosis)
  • Common Indian toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus up to 16cm, noctornal, terrestrial, human habitation, water bodies
  • Ferguson’s toad, Duttaphrynus scaber up to 5cm, noctornal, terrestrial, human habitation, water bodies
  • Malabar tree toad, Pedostibes tuberculosus, Endemic up to 6cm, noctornal, arboreal, forest streams
  • Indian burrowing frog, Sphearotheca breviceps up to 6cm, noctornal, fussorial, human habitation, water bodies
  • Ornate narrow mouthed frog, Microhyla ornata up to 3cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, human habitation, water bodies
  • Red narrow mouthed frog, Microhyla rubra up to 3cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, human habitation, water bodies
  • Karnataka night frog, Nyctibatrachus karnatakaensis Endemic up to 9cm, noctornal, aquatic, forest streams
  • Castlerock night frog, Nyctibatrachus petraeus Endemic up to 5cm, noctornal, aquatic and arboreal, forest streams
  • Aloysius skittering frog, Euphlyctis aloysii up to 5cm, noctornal, aquatic, human habitation, water bodies
  • Common skittering frog, Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis up to 6cm, noctornal, aquatic, human habitation, water bodies
  • Golden frog, Hylarana aurantiaca Endemic up to 5cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, streams, paddy fields, ponds
  • Bronzed frog, Hylarana temporalis Endemic up to 6cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, river, streams
  • Wrinkled cricket frog, Fejervarya caperata up to 4cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, paddy fields, pools
  • Kudremukh cricket frog, Fejervarya kudremukhensis up to 5cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, ponds, pools, water bodies
  • Reddish cricket frog, Fejervarya rufescens Endemic up to 5cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, laterite rocks, ponds, pools
  • Indian bull frog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus up to 25cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, ponds, streams, paddy fields
  • Small torrent frog, Micrixalus saxicola Endemic up to 4cm, diurnal, semi-aquatic, stream/river falls
  • Amboli bush frog, Pseudophilautus amboli Endemic up to 3.5cm, noctornal, arboreal, shrubs, bushes, tree bark
  • Common tree frog, Polypedates maculatus up to 6cm, noctornal, arboreal, tree trunks, bushes, walls
  • Malabar gliding frog, Rhacophorus malabaricus Endemic up to 7cm, noctornal, tree trunks, shrubs, bushes
  • Bicolored frog, Clinotarsus curtipes Endemic south India up to 6cm, nocturnal, semi-aquatic, reservoirs, streams, river
  • Fungoid frog, Hylarana malabarica Endemic up to 7cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, ponds, pools, water bodies
  • Sahyadri minervarya frog, Minervarya sahyadris Endemic up to 3cm, noctornal, semi-aquatic, paddy fields, ponds, pools
  • Small leaping frog, Indirana semipalmata Endemic up to 4cm, diurnal, semi-aquatic, stream beds, leaf litter, crevices
  • Know a few frog friends
  • Know a few frog friends …
  • Few more …
  • Gems from the Western Ghats
  • Few more…
  • Bamboo bush frog!
  • Evolution About 360 million years ago, late Devonian period Early amphibian!!! Triadobatrachus Beelzebufo ampinga
  • Systematics • Globally: 6639 species 3 orders – Apoda (183species) Caudata (597) Anura (5859) • India: 3 orders – 309 species; Apoda (33) Caudata (1), Anura (275) caudata apoda anura
  • Batrachology in India  As of today 309 species, belonging to 14 families, 55 genera (4.64% of 6638 species in the world), 249 Species described from India (80.5%)  1254 authors, single species description to as many as 43 species  Since 2000, 82 new species (33%) with 47 papers on Taxonomy and taxonomy related issues, 12 on ecology, 6 on reproduction, 10 on others  So Taxonomy ‘rules’ at present Indian Batrachology!!!
  • Habitat occupancy! Peak Frequency (kHz) Snout vent length (mm)
  • Research in Batrachology  Viviparity in caecilians Geneophis seshachari Gower et al., 2008. J Evol Biol. 21(5):1220-6
  • Other issues…  Frog skipping tadpole stage Gururaja and Ramachandra, 2006. Curr. Sci. 90(3):450-454
  • Other issues… Biju and Bossyut, 2003. Nature. 425: 711–714
  • India’s smallest frog Biju et al., 2007. Current Science 93(6): 854-858.
  • Skin extracts and pesticidal impacts… 1. Giri et al., 2006. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.06.011 2. Sai et al., 2001. doi:10.1074/jbc.M006615200 3. Gurushankara et al., 2007. doi:10.1007/s00244-006-0015-5
  • Conservation and Management Das, A., Krishnaswamy, J., Bawa, K. S., Kiran, M. C., Srinivas, V., Kumar, N. S., et al. 2006. Prioritization of conservation areas in the Western Ghats, India. Biological Conservation, 133, 16−31. Gururaja KV, Sameer Ali and Ramachandra TV. 2008. Influence of land-use changes in river basins on diversity and distribution of amphibians. In: Environment Education for Ecosystem Conservation
  • Advance wishes for SAVE THE FROG DAY (APRIL 30TH 2010) Thank you