What is Personality? People differ from People seem to showeach other in some consistency inmeaningful ways behavior Personality is defined as distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting
Personality “Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual REACTS and Personality INTERACTS with others.” Personality refers to a person‟s unique and relatively stable pattern the sum total of “Personality is of thoughts, feelings,an individual REACTS ways in which and actions Personality is an interactionothers.”biology and INTERACTS with between and environment Genetic studies suggest heritability of personality Other studies suggest learned components of personality
Determinants of Personality Heredity Environment Situation
Heredity and EnvironmentExample :Abhishek Bachchan, Kapoors and Deols family, TwinsExample :Sita - Gita, Mogali,Example: Amir khan - lagan movie
Personality traits Personality Traits-“Personality Traits are enduring characteristics that describe an individual‟s behavior” “Personality is a set of relatively stable characteristics or dimensions of people known as traits, that account for consistency in their behavior in various situations” Ex:- Shy, aggressive, submissive, ambitious, loyal
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) assessment is a psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions MBTI instrument, calls it "the worlds most widely used personality assessment"
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Based on Carl Jung‟s work People are fundamentally different People are fundamentally alike People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Extrovert (E) Type of Social Interaction Introvert (I)Preference for Sensing (S)Gathering Data Intuitive (N) Feeling (F) Preference forDecision Making Thinking (T) Perceptive (P) Style ofDecision Making Judgmental (J)
Extraversion Introversion Interest Orientation E Talkative, Shy, I Sociable, Reserved, Friendly, Quite, Outspoken
Sensing iNtuition Perception S Organised, Less Regular, N Practical, Unconscious, Focus Detail. Focus Big Picture
Thinking Feeling Judgment T Reliability of logical order Priorities based on F – cause and personal effect, importance and values, Sympathy
Judgment Perception Environment Orientation J Judging attitude – Spontaneity – Curious, awai P Control of ting events events and and adapting systematic to them, planning Flexible
MBTI Extroversion or Introversion Sensing or Intuition Thinking or Feeling Judging or Perceiving
ISTJ Serious, quiet, earn success by concentration and thoroughness. Practical, orderly, logical, realistic and dependable. See to it that every thing is well organized. Make up their own minds to what should be accomplished and work steadily, regardless of protests or distractions.
ISFJ Quiet, friendly, responsible, and conscientious. Work devotedly to meet their obligations. Lend stability to any project or group. Thorough, painstaking, and accurate. Can be patient with necessary details. Loyal, considerate, perceptive, and concerned with how others feel.
INFJ Succeeded by perseverance, originality and desire to do what ever is needed or wanted. Put their best efforts into their work. Quietly forceful, conscientious, concerned with others. Respected for their firm principles. Likely to be honored and followed for their clear visions as to how best to serve the common good.
INTJ Have original minds and great drive for their own ideas and purposes. Have long range vision. IN the fields that appeal to them, they have fine power to organize a job and carry it through. Doubting, critical, independent, and determined. Have high standards of competence and performance.
ISTP Cool, quiet, reserved, observing and analyzing life with detached curiosity. Usually interested in cause and effect, how and why mechanical things work and in organizing facts using logical principles. Excel at getting to the core of a practical problem and finding the solution.
ISFP Retiring, quietly friendly, sensitive, kind, modest about their abilities. Shun disagreements, do not force their opinions or values on others. Usually do not care to lead but are often loyal followers. Often relaxed about getting things done because they enjoy present moment and do not want to spoil it by undue haste or exertion.
INFP Quiet observers, idealistic, loyal. Important that outer life be congruent with inner values. Curious, quick to possibilities, adaptable and flexible unless a value is threatened. Want to understand people and ways of fulfilling human potential. Little concerned with possessions or surroundings
INTP Quiet and reserved. Especially enjoy theoretical or scientific pursuits. Like solving problems with logic and analysis. Interested mainly in ideas, with little liking for parties or small talk. Tend to have sharply defined interests and likes careers where some strong interests can be used.
ESTP Good at on the spot problem solving. Like action, enjoy what ever comes along. Tend to like mechanical things and sports with friends on the side. Adaptable, tolerant, pragmatic, focused in getting results. Dislike long explanations. Are best with real things that can be worked, handled.
ESFP Outgoing, accepting, friendly, enjoy everything and make things more fun for others by their enjoyment. Like actions and making things happen. Know what is going on and join in eagerly. Find remembering facts easier than mastering theories. Are best in situations that need sound common sense and practical ability with people.
ENFP Warmly enthusiastic, high spirited, ingenious, imaginative. Able to do any thing that interests them. Quick with a solution for any difficulty and ready to help anyone with problem. Often rely on their ability to improvise than preparing in advance. Can usually find compelling reasons for what ever they want.
ENTP Quick, ingenious, good at many things. Stimulating company, alert and outspoken. May argue for fun on either side of a question. Resourceful in solving new and challenging problems, but may neglect routine assignments. Apt to turn one new interest after another. Skillful in finding logical reasons for what they want.
ESTJ Practical, realistic, matter-of-fact with a natural head for business. Not interested in abstract theories, want learning to have direct and immediate application. Like to organize and run activities. Often make good administrators, are decisive, quickly move to implement decisions, take care of routine details.
ESFJ Warm- hearted, talkative, popular, conscientious, born cooperative, active committee members. Need harmony and may be good at creating it. Always good at doing something nice for someone. Work best with encouragement and praise. Main interest in things that directly visibly affect people‟s lives.
ENFJ Responsive and responsible. Feel real concern what others think or what, and try to handle things with due regard for other‟s feelings. Can present a proposal or lead a group discussion with ease and tact. Sociable, popular, sympathetic. Responsive to praise and criticism. Like to facilitate others and enable people to achieve their potential.
ENTJ Frank, decisive, leaders in activities. Develop and implement comprehensive systems to solve to solve organizational problems. Good in anything that requires reasoning and intelligent talk, such as public speaking. Are usually well informed and enjoy adding knowledge
ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ―Take Your Time ―On My Honor, to ―Catalyst for ―Competence +and Do It Right‖ Do My Duty…‖ Positive Change‖ Independence = Perfection‖ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP―Doing the Best I ―It’s the Thought ―Still Waters Run ―Ingenious Can With What That Counts‖ Deep‖ Problem Solvers‖ I’ve Got‖ ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP―Let’s Get Busy!‖ ―Don’t Worry, Be ―Anything’s ―Life’s Happy‖ Possible‖ Entrepreneurs‖ ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ―Taking Care of ―What Can I Do ―The Public ―Everything’s Business‖ For You?‖ Relations Fine – I’m in Specialist‖ Charge‖
Personality TheoriesTrait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traitsPsychodynamic/psychoanalytic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behaviorHumanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvementIntegrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual‟s psychological processes
Personality theories Trait theory: Lewis Goldberg proposed a five-dimension personality model, nicknamed the "Big Five" Psychoanalytic theory: Psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior in terms of the interaction of various components of personality.
The five-factor model of personality—the Big Five—offers a comprehensive, unifying framework for identifying personality dimensions. The dimension of extraversion captures one’s comfort level with relationships. Extroverts tend to maintain a large number of relationships. Introverts tend to be reserved and have fewer relationships. The dimension of agreeableness refers to a person’s propensity to defer to others. People high in this dimension value harmony more than having their own way. People low in this dimension focus on their own needs more than on the needs of others.
The dimension of conscientiousness refers to the number of goals on which a person focuses. Those high in this dimension pursue fewer goals and tend to be responsible, persistent, and achievement-oriented. Those low in this dimension tend to be more easily distracted, less focused, and more hedonistic. Emotional stability refers a person’s ability to withstand stress. People high on this dimension tend to be calm, enthusiastic, and secure. Those low in this dimension tend to be anxious, nervous, and insecure. Openness to experience refers to one’s range of interests. Those high in this dimension are fascinated by imaginative, creative, and intellectual activities. Those low in this dimension tend to be more conventional and prefer the familiar.
Extraversion AgreeablenessTheBig Five ConscientiousnessPersonalityModel Emotional Stability Openness to Experience
The Big Five Personality Dimensions Extraversion: Outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive Agreeableness: Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted Conscientiousness: Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent Emotional stability: Relaxed, secure, unworried Openness to experience: Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad mindedResearch finding: Conscientiousness is the best (but not a strong) predictor of job performance
Psychoanalytic theory Psychodynamic/psychoanalytic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior According to Freud, the mind can be divided into two main parts: Conscious mind Unconscious mind The conscious mind includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. A part of this includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness. Freud called this ordinary memory the preconscious.
Psychoanalytic theory The unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness. Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences.
According to Sigmund Freuds psychoanalytic theory of personality, personality is composed of three elements. These three elements of personality--known as: The id, The ego and The superego work together to create complex human behaviors
The Id The id is the only component of personality that is present from birth. This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes of the instinctive and primitive behaviors. According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary component of personality. The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infants needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met.
The Id However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other peoples hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need.
The Ego The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind. The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the ids desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways.
The Ego The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the ids impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place. The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the ids primary process.
The Superego The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five. There are two parts of the superego: The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value and accomplishment.
The Superego The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments or feelings of guilt and remorse. The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious and unconscious.
Freud‟s Structure ofPersonality Consciousness Conscious—Acute awareness Ego Preconscious—Just Superego under awareness; easily known Id Unconscious—Well below awareness; Difficult to know but very influential
How the iceberg works Id Functions on „pleasure principle‟ Immediate gratification of needs to reduce tension & discomfort regardless of consequences Superego Functions on „idealistic principle‟ Our moral guide/conscience Influenced by internalizing our parents‟ values & the voice of society Works against the Id by inflicting guilt
How the iceberg works (cont.) Ego Functions on „reality principle‟ Serves to balance the demands the Id and the Superego Assesses what is realistically possible in satisfying the Id and/or Superego (i.e., what society will deem acceptable) Ego uses defense mechanisms to protect itself Personality is result of the battle for control between id, ego & superego
How is Personality Measured?Projective Test - elicits an individual‟s response to abstract stimuliBehavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual‟s behavior in a controlled situationSelf-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual‟s responses to questionsMyers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung‟s theory of individual differences.
situations Situation 1 :- Suppose that you are new to the organisation, and not familiar to your colleague. You get a chance to interact with them in this party.What will you do in this situation?a) You will take the initiative to talkb) Feel strange and nervous so will not talk with othersc) You will wait for someone else to talk to youd) you will stand and smile to others.
Situation 2 :- If you go in a shopping mall, and you like one t-shirt, What would be your action? a) You will immediately buy it b) You will take a trial before purchasing. c) You will match the price with your budget and if it matches than only you will purchase it. d) You will look out for the discount shceme
Situation 3 :- If you are going for an important meeting . On the way to the office, you see an accident. How will you react in this situation? a) you will take the victim to the hospital b) you will call the victim‟s family member and inform about the accident and will go away from there. C) you will feel scared about it and will move away from there. d) Seen such critical situation, you start crying up. e) you wont even notice about the accident.
Situation 4 :- Announcement in the class that today I will take surprise presentation for the topic already been explained by me in the previously lecture. a) you will readily accept and will present only if i will call you c) you will take the initiative and start presenting d) you will hide your face so that you are not being noticed e) you will ask for some time to get information organized and then will present. f) you will get annoyed of not being informed earlier.
Situation 5 :- If girl is crossing the road, a group of boys starts harassing her by whistling or by passing comments or by making faces. If you are that girl how will you react to that time? a) you will go and slap that boy b) you will complaint to the police authority c) you wouldn‟t react and pass by d) you will call your brother or friend or boyfriend to threaten that group
Situation 6 :- You have been given a group project. You have made a mistake in between and only you are aware of it. How will you react on it? a) you will confess that you have made the mistake. b) you will held someone else to be responsible for the mistake c) you will try to find out the solution for it d) you will keep mum all through out the project.
Major Personality AttributesInfluencing OB Locus of Control Machiavellianism Self-Esteem Self- Monitoring Risk-Taking Type A Personality Type B Personality
Locus of Control Locus of Control is considered to be an important aspect of personality. The concept was developed originally Julian Rotter in the 1950s Locus of Control refers to an individuals perception about the underlying main causes of events in his/her life. Ones "locus" (Latin for "place" or "location") can either be internal (meaning the person believes that they control their life) or external (meaning they believe that their environment, some higher power, or other people control their decisions and their life).
Locus of control refers to the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe that events result primarily from their own behaviour and actions. Those with a high external locus of control believe that powerful others, fate, or chance primarily determine events. Those with a high internal locus of control have better control of their behaviour, tend to exhibit more political behaviours, and are more likely to attempt to influence other people than those with a high external locus of control; they are more likely to assume that their efforts will be successful. They are more active in seeking information and knowledge concerning their situation.
Locus of ControlInternal locus of control: belief that one controls key events and consequences in one’s life. External locus of control: One’s life outcomes attributed to environmental factors such as luck or fate.
FACTORS INTERNALS EXTERNALSJob Satisfied MoreSatisfaction dissatisfiedAbsenteeism Less Depends on absenteeism their luck or chanceTurnover No clear Depends on relationship their luck or chance As per 11th Edition
COMPARISION BETWEEN INTERNALS & EXTERNALS INTERNALS EXTERNALS Better job More compliant performance Follow direction Attempt to control Structured jobs their environment Routine jobs Good decision maker Sophisticated task Professional jobs Managerial jobs As per 11th Edition
JOB SUITABILITY Judge of court -Internals Teacher of driving school -Externals Watchman -Externals Financial adviser -Internals CEO of any co -Internals Salesman -internals Call center -Externals
Machiavellianism Named after Niccolo Machiavelli Machiavellianism is also a term that some social and personality psychologists use to describe a persons tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal gain Characteristics:- • Pragmatic • Maintains emotional distance • Believes that ends can justify the means
High Machs Manipulate more Win more Persuaded less Persuade others more
High Machs persuaded by :-Persuaded by 3 factors1. Face-to-face interaction2. Situation having minimum number of rules & regulations ,allowing latitude for improvisation3. Emotional involvement with details irrelevant
Job suitability For High Machs Job requiring bargaining skills ( such as labor negotiation ) Or that offer substantial rewards for winning ( as commissioned sales )
self esteem In psychology, self-esteem reflects a persons overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs (for example, "I am competent/incompetent") and emotions (for example, triumph/despair, pride/shame). Behaviour may reflect self-esteem (for example, assertiveness/shyness, confidence/ca ution).
Self Esteem The degree to which a person likes or dislikes himself It is directly related to expectations for success Two types:- 1. High Self Esteem 2. Low self Esteem
High Self Esteem They believe that they possess the ability they need to succeed at work Will take more risks in job selection And more likely to choose unconventional jobs than people with low self esteem They will not be susceptible to the external influences They are more satisfied with their job
Low Self Esteem They seek appreciation from others Seek approval from others and try to conform to the beliefs and behaviors of those they respect They try to please others and therefore they would not take unpopular stands than are high SEs
SELF - ESTEEM QUIZ1. I know I am a worthwhile person ------------------ SCORING SYSTEM2. I regularly give myself a " pat on ------------------ the back PLEASE RATE THE3. The goals I set in life are very ------------------ QUESTIONS WITH much my own THE FOLLOWING4. I know I will achieve my goals in ------------------ life SCORES5. I criticise my actions , not myself ------------------ NOT AT ALL LIKE ME 06. Trying new things in life is very ------------------ A LITTLE LIKE ME 1 stimulating for me QUITE A BIT LIKE ME 27. I allow myself to make mistake in ------------------ life VERY MUCH LIKE ME 38. I enjoy and seek out the company ----------------- EXACTLY LIKE ME 4 of very positive people9. I tend to stick up for my rights and ----------------- needs in life10. I have many successes I remember ----------------- in my past
INTERPRETATION OF SCORES 0-10: Low- Self Esteem 10-20: “Twilight Zone” Neither you have self esteem or poor self image 20-30: you have self esteem you can build on it 30-40: High- Self Esteem
Self-Monitoring Ability to adjust one‟s behaviour to external ,situational factors
self monitoring Self-monitoring theory is a contribution to the psychology of personality, proposed by Mark Snyder in 1974. The theory refers to the process through which people regulate their own behaviour in order to "look good" so that they will be perceived by others in a favourable manner. It distinguishes between high self-monitors, who monitor their behaviour to fit different situations, and low self- monitors, who are more cross-situationally consistent.
High self monitoring Capable of presenting striking contradictions between their public persona & private self Tend to pay closer behavior of others & more capable of conforming than low self monitoring Capable of putting different “faces” for different audiences
Personality Attributes influencing OB Risk Taking •Quick Decision making•Specific to jobs (stocks) (accounts)
A & B Types of Personality• Type „A‟ • Type „B‟ – Suffer high level of stress – Difficult to predict – Quantity over quality behavior – Time pressure/deadlines – Good decision makers – Rarely creative – Quality of work – Poor decision makers – No compromise on – Behavior is easier to health predict – Wiser than hasty – Creative / innovative solutions to same problem
Type A‟s and Type B‟s Type A Personality Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly. Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. Strive to think or do two or more things at once. Cannot cope with leisure time. Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type B Personality Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience. Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost. Can relax without guilt.