2. LEARNING• In Psychology “learning” is defined as a relatively permanent change in, or acquisition of, knowledge or behaviour.• For example, your friend teaches you how to play tennis, but later you get a qualified instructor who modifies and improves your technique.
4. Stimulus response theories• There are 3 important stimulus response theories, – Classical conditioning by Pavlov, – Instrumental conditioning by Thorndike, – Operant conditioning by Skinner.
5. Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936)
6. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING• In this simple experiment, Pavlov showed how a reflex (salivation, a natural bodily response) could become conditioned (modified) to an external stimulus (the bell) thereby creating a conditioned reflex/response.
7. Components Involved In Classical Conditioning The Unconditioned Stimulus (food) Conditioned Stimulus (bell) Unconditioned Reflex (salivation) Conditioned Reflex (salivation in response to bell)
8. Classical conditioning theory• Classical conditioning is a very common occurrence in everyday life.• E.g. in a class room learning, classical conditioning primarily influences emotional behavior.• This can be noticed in a students orientation towards a particular teacher or subject.• If a subject or teacher produces a feeling of either fear and anxiety or excitement in a student, then in the first case the student will be scared of and avoid the subject or the teacher, but in the second case, will eagerly look forward to attend the class.
9. • When you smell one of your favorite foods, you may immediately feel very hungry.• Classical conditioning is widely used in advertising. Advertisers often include pleasant music and beautiful scenery in the ads for their products.
10. Instrumental conditioning• Thorndike in the US was working on cats, chicks, and dogs to understand the learning process.• Thorndike placed his animals in a puzzle box, from which they were required to escape, by manipulating the correct lever or pulley, in order to obtain food reward.• Through the process of trial and error animals eventually learned.• For Thorndike response was more important for learning than the stimulus.• His theory can therefore be called response generalization theory.
11. Operant conditioning• Skinner trained pigeons to do various things including dancing and bowling in a mini alley.• His experiments led to the technology of operant shaping, which can be employed to change attitudes.• Operant conditioning is used widely in org management, as most behavior in org is learned rather than natural.• Emp learn all kinds of behavior before and after joining a company.• The kind of behavior that emp display either are rewarded or punished depending on the values and cultures of the org
12. Operant conditioning• Reinforcement is an important element in skinners theory of operant conditioning.• Reinforcement is a positive( reward) or negative experience ( punishment) which can alter behaviors of animals and human beings.
13. Positive reinforcement• Positive reinforcement: is used to increase the frequency of the desired behavior among emp in org by giving some kind of reward for behaving in the desired way.• E.g. Boss appreciates for submitting a report before the deadline using the words such as good job or excellent or gives a pat on his back, thanks for finishing work in time, so the subordinate is likely to make an effort and repeat the same kind of behavior in the future as well.• Bonus the salesperson receives on meeting his target
14. Negative reinforcement• It is used to increase the frequency of the desired behavior in people by helping them understand the consequences of undesirable behavior.• E.g. Boss reprimands his secretary every time she makes spelling mistakes in the letters she types but does not when he sees a letter without any mistakes and he is using a negative reinforcement method.• If emp come late to office, on 2 consecutive days, most org count it as a days leave for the emp. This practice reinforces punctuality in emp.
15. Punishment• Punishment means creating an undesirable situation to decrease an undesirable behavior.• Negative reinforcement is always confused with punishment, but they are not the same.• Punishment is one of the most common methods used in org to discourage certain kinds of behavior.• But many learning experts suggest that it should be used only if +ve and -ve reinforcement cannot be used or have failed to produce the necessary results.• E.g. demoting emp, suspending
16. Extinction• It is somewhat similar to punishment, i.e., it is used to reduce or decrease undesirable behavior, but the process of extinction is different.• E.g. we stop responding or reacting to sarcasm of a colleague behavior• Emp complete his work but receives no praise or recognition he may lose interest and become less efficient
17. Cognitive dissonance theory• Individuals tend to seek consistency among their cognitions ( Knowledge, belief, opinions)• When there is an inconsistency b/w attitudes or behavior ( dissonance) something must change to eliminate the dissonance.
18. Adult learning theories• The main adult learning theories are the theory of andragogy and cross theory of adult learning.• Andragogy has been used extensively in the design of org training programmes.• Andragogy main principles: – Adults need to be involved in the planning and evaluation of their instruction. – Experience ( include mistakes) provides the basis for learning activities. – Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their jobs or personal life – Adult learning is problem centered rather than content oriented.
19. Cross theory of adult learning• The model consists of 2 classes of variables: personal characteristics( age, life phases and developmental stages) and situational characteristics. – Age( eye sight, hearing, reaction time) – Life phases and developmental phases( marriage, job change, retirement)• The main principles of CAL: – ALP should capitalize on the exp of participants. – ALP should adapt to the aging limitations of the participants. – Adults should be challenged to move to increasingly advance stages of personal development. – Adults should have as much choice as possible in the availability and organization of learning programmes
20. Experimental learning theories• “ Nothing ever becomes real till it is experienced” is perhaps the best analogy of experimental learning.• We take information through our senses, yet we learn only by doing.• E.g. learning how to ride bicycle, use a computer, dance etc.• Experience and reflection can teach more than any books or lecture can ever hope to.
21. Characteristics of experimental learning• It recognizes that people learn best from their own exp and their own reviews.• It subscribes to the notion that what people do is more imp than what they know.• It moves beyond knowledge to applying the skill by generating a learning exp.• It understands that to be remembered and retained, the learning process should be enjoyable, motivating, and rewarding.
22. Characteristics of experimental learning• It respects the individuals ideas and choices.• It provides an opportunity to take on the challenge in an atmosphere of support.• It generates space and time to allow one to stand back and reflect when pressures or double become too strong.• It cultivates a realization that the attempt at doing something new or different is more significant than the result.• It produces an awareness that effective learning requires small controlled steps outside comfort zones.
23. Specific organizational applications• Learning organizations• Learning management systems
24. Learning organizations• “ Learning org are org where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole world together”. - Peter Senge• Peter Senge explains the five disciplines of learning org they are: – Systems thinking – Personal mastery – Mental models – Shared vision – Team learning
25. Learning Management System• Learning Management System :LMS is “an information system that administers instructor-led and e-learning courses and keeps track of employee progress.• Used internally by large enterprises for their employees, an LMS can be used to monitor the effectiveness of the organizations education and training.
26. Advantages of LMS• Centralized Learning Environment to Ensure Consistency• Tracking and Reporting for Enhanced Performance• Immediate Capabilities Evaluation• Continuous Product and Service Proficiency for Employees who Interact with Customers and Clients