On October 23rd, 2014, we updated our
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What is a group?• Two or more individuals interacting who have come together to achieve a particular goal.• Two or more interacting individuals with a stable pattern of relationship between them who perceive themselves as a group.
Group – Two or more people who interact with each other to accomplish certain goals or meet certain needs. 15-3
Team – A group whose members work intensely with each other to achieve a specific, common goal or objective. – All teams are groups but not all groups are teams. • Teams often are difficult to form. • It takes time for members to learn how to work together. 15-4
Two characteristics distinguish teams from groups – Intensity with which team members work together – Presence of a specific, overriding team goal or objective 15-5
Reasons for joining groups1. security: group reducesinsecurity and standing alonesyndrome.
2. Status : recognition andstatus same as that of group
3. Self-Esteem: Selfimportance
4.Affiliation: Fulfills need ofaffection
5. Power: There is power innumber
6. Goal achievement: pool oftalent, skills and knowledege
Groups’ and Teams’ Contributions toOrganizational EffectivenessFigure 15.1 15-12
The Types of Group inOrganizations Figure 15.2 15-13
The Types of Groups andTeams Formal Group – A group that managers establish to achieve organization goals. 15-14
Formal Groups Cross-functional teams – composed of members from different departments Cross-cultural teams – composed of members from different cultures or countries 15-15
The Types of Groups andTeams Informal Group – A group that managers or nonmanagerial employees form to help achieve their own goals or to meet their own needs. 15-16
The Types of Groups andTeams Type of Team Top-management A group composed of the CEO, the president, team and the heads of the most important departments Research and A team whose members have the expertise development team and experience needed to develop new products Command groups A group composed of subordinates who report to the same supervisor, also called a department or unit, Task forces A committee of managers or nonmanagerial employees from various departments or divisions who meet to solve a specific, mutual problem; also called an “ad hoc” committee 15-17
The Types of Groups andTeams Type of Team Self-managed work A group of employees who supervise their team own activities and monitor the quality of the goods and services they provide. Virtual team A team whose members rarely or never meet face to face and interact by using various forms of information technology such as email, computer networks, telephone, fax and video conferences. Friendship group An informal group composed of employees who enjoy each other’s company and socialize with each other. Interest group An informal group composed of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization. 15-18
Virtual Teams A team whose members rarely meet face-to- face Interact by using various forms of information technology Email, computer networks, telephone, fax, and videoconferences 15-19
Friendship Groups An informal group composed of employees who enjoy one another’s company and socialize with one another 15-20
Interest Groups An informal group of employees seeking to achieve a common goal related to their membership in an organization 15-21
Group Size Advantage of small groups – Interact more with each other and easier to coordinate their efforts – More motivated, satisfied, and committed – Easier to share information – Better able to see the importance of their personal contributions 15-22
Group Size Advantages of large groups – More resources at their disposal to achieve group goals – Enables managers to obtain division of labor advantages 15-23
Group Size Disadvantages of large groups – Problem of communication and coordination – Lower level of motivation – Members might not think their efforts are really needed 15-24
The Stages of GroupDevelopment Figure 15.4 15-25
STAGES OF GROUPFORMATION STAGE -I FORMING: CONFUSION- not certain about purpose, task and leadership.
STAGE IISTORMING:conflict and confrontation(disagreements).
STAGE IVPERFORMING: group fully functional, devoted to task at hand.
STAGE VADJOURNING: end of group/ new modified group happy sad depressed
Stages of Group Development Forming – Group members get to know each other and reach common goals. Storming – Group members disagree on direction and leadership. Managers need to be sure the conflict stays focused. Norming – Close ties and consensus begin to develop between group members. 15-31
Stages of Group Development Performing – The group begins to do its real work. Adjourning – Only for task forces that are temporary. – Note that these steps take time! 15-32
Group Norms Group Norms – Shared guidelines or rules for behavior that most group members follow – Managers should encourage members to develop norms that contribute to group performance and the attainment of group goals 15-33
Group Cohesiveness The degree to which members are attracted to their group Three major consequences – Level of participation – Level of conformity to group norms – Emphasis on group goal accomplishment 15-34
Sources and Consequences ofGroup Cohesiveness Figure 15.6 15-35
Factors Leading to GroupCohesiveness Factor Group Size Smaller groups allow for high cohesiveness; Low cohesiveness groups with many members can benefit from splitting into two groups. Managed Diversity Diverse groups often come up with better solutions. Group Identity Encouraging a group to adopt a unique identity and engage in competition with others can increase cohesiveness. Success Cohesiveness increases with success; finding ways for a group to have some small successes increases cohesiveness. 15-36
Social loafing – The human tendency to put forth less effort in a group than individually. – Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to attain group goals 15-37
Managing Groups and Teamsfor High Performance Reducing social loafing: – Make individual efforts identifiable and accountable. – Emphasize the valuable contributions of individual members. – Keep group size at an appropriate level. 15-38
Three Ways to Reduce SocialLoafing Figure 15.7 15-39