What is Emotion? Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others. • Emotions are private experiences. • We use operational definitions because we cannot actually see feelings. • We infer observable behavior associated with emotion.
What Are Emotions? AFFECT A broad range of feelings that people experience. EMOTIONS MOODSIntense feelings that are Feelings that tend to be less directed at someone or intense than emotions and something. that lack a contextual stimulus.
Four components of Emotion Feelings Social- Bodily Expressive Emotion Arousal Sense ofSignificant life event Purpose
Feeling component• Emotions are subjective feelings• Make us feel in a particular way.• Anger or joy.• Meaning and personal significance.• Vary in intensity and quality.• Rooted in mental processes (labeling).
Bodily Arousal• Biological activation.• Autonomic and hormonal systems.• Prepare and activate adaptive coping behavior during emotion.• Body prepared for action.• Alert posture, clenched fists.
Purposive component• Give emotion its goal-directed force.• Motivation to take action.• Cope with emotion-causing circumstances.• Why people benefit from emotions.• Social and evolutionary advantage.
Social-Expressive component• Emotion’s communicative aspect.• Postures, gestures, vocalizations, facial expressions make our emotions public.• Verbal and nonverbal communication.• Helps us interpret the situation.• How person reacts to event.
EMOTION DIMENSIONS• VARIETY OF EMOTIONS: – POSITIVE HUMAN EMOTIONS – NEGATIVE HUMAN EMOTIONS
FACTORS AFFECTING EMOTIONS
Emotional labor• Emotional labor is a form of emotional regulation wherein workers are expected to display certain emotions as part of their job, and to promote organizational goals.• The intended effects of these emotional displays are on other, targeted people, who can be clients, customers, subordinates or co- workers
Emotional labour• According to Hochschild, jobs involving emotional labor are defined as those that: – require face-to-face or voice-to-voice contact with the public – require the worker to produce an emotional state in another person – allow the employer, through training and supervision, to exercise a degree of control over the emotional activities of employees.
Forms of emotional labor• Employees can display organizationally-desired emotions by acting out the emotion.• Such acting can take two forms – Surface acting • involves "painting on" affective displays, or faking; • Surface acting involves an employees presenting emotions on his or her "surface" without actually feeling them. • The employee in this case puts on a facade as if the emotions are felt, like a "personal". – Deep acting • wherein they modify their inner feelings to match the emotion expressions the organization requires.
Emotional intelligence• Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to identify, assess, and control the emotions of oneself, of others, and of groups.
Four Components of Emotional Intelligence• There are four fundamental aspects of EI – Self-Awareness, – Self-Management, – Social Awareness, and – Relationship Management.
Components of EI• Self-awareness – The ability to recognize your own emotions and how they affect your thoughts and behavior, know your strengths and weaknesses, and have self-confidence.• Self-management – The ability to control impulsive feelings and behaviors, manage your emotions in healthy ways, take initiative, follow through on commitments, and adapt to changing circumstances.
Components of EI• Social awareness – The ability to understand the emotions, needs, and concerns of other people, pick up on emotional cues, feel comfortable socially, and recognize the power dynamics in a group or organization.• Relationship management – The ability to develop and maintain good relationships, communicate clearly, inspire and influence others, work well in a team, and manage conflict.
Advantages of EI• Greater productivity• Improved job performance• Fewer grievances• Better conflict resolution• Increased creativity and innovation• Better teamwork• High motivation• Better employee retention
Arguments of Emotional IntelligenceFor• Intuitive appeal• Emotional intelligence predicts criteria that matters• Emotional intelligence is biologically basedAgainst• Emotional intelligence is too vague• Emotional intelligence can’t be measured• The validity of emotional intelligence is suspect