AttitudeAttitude is defined as “alearned predisposition to respondin a consistently favorable orunfavorable manner with respectto a given object.”That is, attitudes affect behaviorat a different level than dovalues…
AttitudesAttitudes are positive, negative or neutral views of an "attitude object": i.e. a person, behaviour or event. They reflect how one feels about something.
The Nature and Dimensions of Attitudes“Attitudes” Persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some objectCharacteristics of Attitudes They tend to persist unless something is done to change them. They can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. They are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings and beliefs.
Attitude Components Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
Attitudes and Influencing Attitudes Attitude Components and Manifestations
My supervisor gavepromotion to my co-worker who deserved itless than me.My supervisor is unfair. Negative attitudeI dislike my supervisor towards supervisorI am looking for someother job
Attitude Formation/ Sources of attitudeDirect experienceSocial learning The process of deriving attitudes from family, peer groups, religious organizations, and culture.Acquired from parents, teachers, and peer group members. There are “genetic” predispositions. Observations, attitudes that we imitate.
Sources of attitude cont’dMere exposureSocial learning/observational learningOperant conditioningGenetics
Sources of attitude
Sources of attitude
Sources of attitude
Sources of attitude
Attitude TypesMost of the research in OB has been concerned with threeattitudes… Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
Job satisfactionJob satisfaction essentially reflects the extent to which an individual likes his or her job. Formally defined, job satisfaction is an affective or emotional response toward various facets of one’s job…
Determinants of Job Satisfaction
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction• Job Performance – Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! – The causality may run both ways.• Organizational Citizenship Behaviors – Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness.• Customer Satisfaction – Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.• Absenteeism – Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work.
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Turnover Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Many moderating variables in this relationship. • Economic environment and tenure. • Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. Workplace Deviance Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw.
Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction• Exit – Behavior directed toward leaving the organization• Voice – Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions• Neglect – Allowing conditions to worsen• Loyalty – Passively waiting for conditions to improve
Organizational Commitment The strength of an individual’s identification with an organization. Three kinds of organizational commitment: 1. Affective 2. Continuance 3. Normative
Kinds of Organizational CommitmentAffectiveCommitment: The typeof organizationalcommitment that is Continuancebased on an individual’s Commitment: The type ofdesire to remain in an organizationalorganization. commitment that is based on the fact that anNormative individual cannot afford toCommitment: The type of leave.commitment that is basedon an individual’sperceived obligation toremain within anorganization.
Organizational Commitment* Refers to the strength of an employee’s involvement in and identification with the organization Strong organizational commitment entails: Strong belief in/acceptance of an organization’s goals and values Willingness to exert considerable effort on behalf of the organization Strong desire to maintain membership in the organization Higher commitment is negatively related to absenteeism and turnover, and positively related to productivity
Changes in Organizational Commitment Initial Commitment Over Time individual is determined by characteristics and degree of congruence between their expectations and organizational realities Subsequent Commitment is influenced by job experiences, including many of the same factors which influence job satisfaction (such as pay, interpersonal relationships, working conditions, advancement opportunities, etc.)
Cognitive DissonanceA state of tension that isproduced when anindividual experiencesconflict betweenattitudes and behavior.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory Leon FestingerAny incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.Internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between two or more of their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior.
Cognitive Dissonance TheoryDissonance Reduction: Attitude or Behavior Change Adding new information Trivialization: downplaying the importance of the inconsistent attitudes or behavior
Cognitive Dissonance Theory Desire to reduce dissonance depends on the following factors:Importance of the elements creating the dissonance.Degree of influence the individual believes he / she has over the elementsRewards that may be involved in dissonance.
Self-Perception TheorySelf Perception Theory: Self-perception theory is developed bypsychologist, Daryl Bem.It asserts that we develop ourattitudes by observing our ownbehavior and concluding whatattitudes must have caused them.
Changing Attitudes• Employees’ attitudes can be changed and sometimes it is in the best interests of managements to try to do so.• For example, if employees believe that their employer does not look after their welfare, the management should try to change their attitude and help develop a more positive attitude in them.• However, the process of changing the attitude is not always easy.
Changing AttitudesSome of the possible ways of changingattitudes : Providing New Information. Use of Fear Resolving Discrepancies Influence of friends and peer Co-opting
Work related attitudes Loyalty, Attitudes toward sense of self-efficacy, employees, absenteeism, style of leadership, sense of self-worth, methods for managing alienation, burn-out, personality variables, type of work, sense of belonging, how work is set up, social behavior, Environmental conditions, corporate culture, discipline, corporate structure