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Proposed Criteria Matrix

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    Proposed Criteria Matrix Proposed Criteria Matrix Document Transcript

    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX II READ ME FIRST Date: 2 September, 2005 R1 Purpose and outline R 1.1 This document was prepared by the partners of the ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION project with the help of external experts. It complements proposals for improved procedures for amendments to Annex II of EU Regulation 2092/91 (i.e. Fertilizers and Soil conditioners (F&SC) and Plant Protection Products (PPP)), which are available at www.organicinputs.org. This Excel workbook contains detailed information, guidance and forms, which should be used in the different steps of the proposed procedure. R 1.2 These proposals represent the current state of progress of the above mentioned project. A Public Conference: quot;Evaluating inputs for organic farming - a new systemquot; will be held in Brussels on October 13, 2005. This will provide an opportunity for discussion and comment on the proposals. Following this the proposals will be amended and finalised. R 1.3 The consortium recommends that the final version of this workbook is published as a Guidance Document of the Commission, to complement the proposed changes in Art. 7 of Regulation 2092/91. R 1.4 The editors gratefully acknowledge financial support from the Commission of the European Communities, under Key Action 5 of the Fifth Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (QLK5-CT-2002-02565, 'ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION') and co-funding by the Swiss Federal Office for Education and Science (BBW 02.0113). R 1.5 This document does not necessarily reflect the Commission's views and in no way anticipate the Commission's future policy in this area. The contents of the articles in this volume are the sole responsibility of the authors. The information contained herein, including any expression of opinion and any projection or forecast, has been obtained from sources believed by the authors to be reliable but is not guaranteed as to accuracy or completeness. The information is supplied without obligation and on the understanding that any person who acts upon it or otherwise changes his/her position in reliance thereon does so entirely at his/her own risk. R2 Application Form R 2.1 This form requires all the information necessary for an evaluation of the proposed addition to or amendment of/withdrawal from Annex II of the Organic Regulation 2092/91. Note that some questions or sections refer specifically either to fertilizers and soil conditioners (FS&C) or plant protection products (PPP) - complete as appropriate. R 2.2 Applicants should complete every cell. If not applicable, state 'NA'. Summarize all relevant information. Guidance is provided (in italics) to help applicants provide relevant and complete information. Please note that abbreviations and definitions are provided in worksheet 6. Avoid duplicate statements; if necessary, make cross-reference to other cells. R 2.3 The expert panel will review this form for completeness and correctness, and provide additional comments where necessary. In this case, it is recommended that the experts contact the applicant and try to reach consensus. R 2.4 Additional information: The information provided in the 'Applicant statements' should be sufficient for evaluation of the application. In case of need, original reports may be appended as separate numbered documents that must be clearly identifiable. In this case, state details of appended documents under A 9.01. 1_ READ ME FIRST, page 1
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX II READ ME FIRST Date: 2 September, 2005 R3 Quick Screening R 3.1 Individuals, institutions or Member States who are uncertain whether or not to engage in an application procedure may consult the Quick Screening as a decision-making aid. The Quick Screening provides an indication (without obligation) of the product's chances of passing a full application/evaluation procedure. Please note that the Quick Screening is neither part of the full application/evaluation procedure, nor does it anticipate the outcome of the final evaluation. R 3.2 The Quick Screening is a combination of selected questions from the Application Form (for statements) and from the Evaluation Form (for scores). If a full application and evaluation is to be done, the Quick Screening need not be done. R 3.3 The Quick Screening may be provided together with an application and may help applicants complete the Application Form. R4 Evaluation Form R 4.1 This form lists all criteria for an evaluation of the proposed addition to, or amendment of, Annex II A & B of the Organic Regulation 2092/91. Note that some criteria or sections refer specifically either to FS&C or PPP - complete as appropriate. R 4.2 Applicants are not required to fill in the evaluation form. However, it is advised that they consult the evaluation form to ensure that the the information provided in the application form allows for a complete evaluation. R 4.3 The expert panel will provide suggestions for an evaluation statement and a score for all cells, considering all relevant information. If not applicable, state 'NA'. Scores should reflect the evaluation statement (see instructions below). R 4.4 The Member States will provide evaluation statements where necessary, and they will provide a score for each cell. R 4.5 Structure: Each of the Criteria headings (section 2-8) relates to specific principles of organic farming (see also Abbreviations & Definitions). These are specified in the heading. It is expected that the principle will be satisfied provided that each of the specific criteria are met. Other information relevant to organic principles can be provided in Section 9. A summary of the key issues should be provided in Section 10. R 4.6 The final outcome of the evaluation is the recommendation, to be given in section E 11. R 4.7 Scoring instructions: Scores provide the shortest summary of the evaluation, to be compared across different MS (see sheet 4. Comparison). Their range is: +2 (very good, beneficial); +1 (good); 0 (neutral, has no effect); -1 (negative); -2 (very poor, does not meet requirements). For each question, the benchmarks for scoring are given, but the exact score is left up to the evaluator's judgement Normally a score of -2 for any criterion represents a critical issue. It is likely to invalidate an application unless there are very strong reasons for inclusion (on grounds of need, non- availability of an alternative etc.). It is not intended that scores for different criteria are added together, each is independent and they are non-commensurate. R 4.8 Precautionary approach: the following precautionary measures shall be taken. (1) In case of uncertainty about relevant impacts of a product, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically, and the Applicant should bear the burden of proof. Alternatively, the decision may be postponed until the uncertainty is removed. (2) If an evaluation question covers several issues, the score should reflect the most critical issue. 1_ READ ME FIRST, page 2
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX II READ ME FIRST Date: 2 September, 2005 R 4.9 Precedents, as listed under A 1.2.6 may provide guidance for the evaluation of specific aspects. Taking note of precedents will contribute to the consistency of Annex II and is therefore encouraged, but there is no obligation to do so. R5 Comparison R 5.1 The Comparison form provides a comparison of the scores of the EU Commission Expert Panel and all Member States. There is no calculation of a total or other manipulation of the scores (e.g. average), since the scores for different criteria are non-commensurate. Some variation in scores is anticipated as normal; most importantly, scores of +2 or -2 provide an indication which issues are regarded as critical by the experts or a Member State. For further information, the reader will have to refer to the evaluation statements. R 5.2 Based on the various MS evaluations, the expert panel will make a final recommendation to the Standing Committe on Organic Farming (SCOF) in the last section of this worksheet. R6 Abbreviations and Definitions R 6.1 Abbreviations and definitions are provided for terms included in this document - these use common or legal definitions, included in EU Regulations or Directives where available. 1_ READ ME FIRST, page 3
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION - AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX II FORM FOR APPLICATION product: Applicant statement Experts' comments Requested data Provide statement for each cell. Provide statement only if necessary. General information Applicant details Enter contact details which allow the expert panel to contact a representative of the applicant MS in case of need. Completion date Nature of request Specify whether this is a request to include a new product, to withdraw an existing product or to change the specifications for an existing product. In the latter case, give details. A 1.0 Identification A 1.0.1 Chemical name(s) A 1.0.2 Other names Give synonyms, including common names. Selected trade names may be given, if desired A 1.0.3 CAS name and number(s) Give CAS name and number(s), where appropriate A 1.0.4 IUPAC name Give IUPAC name, where appropriate A 1.0.5 Other identification codes Give other identification codes, if available A 1 .1 Characterization A 1.1.1 Composition List main ingredients of the product (impurities to be listed under A 1.1.9). A 1.1.2 Concentration of main ingredients Give concentration range of main ingredients (in g/litre or g/kg). 2_ Application Form, page 4
    • Applicant statement Experts' comments Requested data Provide statement for each cell. Provide statement only if necessary. A 1.1.3 Analytical methods Mainly for PPP. If substances are identified, there should be a validated method for analysis; if not identified, a method of analysis of any available marker. Methods of analysis of the substance in water, soil and air may be necessary if exposure of either compartment is likely, and contribution compared to background levels likely to be substantial. For toxic substances, relevant to human or animal health or environment, validated methods of analysis may be required. A 1.1.4 Quality control Describe the quality control measures used to ensure consistency of composition and performance. A 1.1.5 Nutrient contents For F&SC, give the concentration range of macro- nutrients (N, P, K etc.); where appropriate, also of micronutrients. For fertilizers rich in N, indicate whether nitrogen is present as NO3, NH4, or Norg (organically bound nitrogen). A 1.1.6 Physical form Indicate whether solid, liquid, powder etc; give relative density, particle size for powders and other relevant information A 1.1.7 Chemical properties Give pH, redox potential, stability at ambient conditions and other relevant information A 1.1.8 Storage stability Give length of storage ('shelf life') and recommended/required storage conditions A 1.1.9 Impurities List potentially dangerous impurities such as xenobiotics, microorganisms (identified to genus, species or strain level, according to what is possible) and heavy metals which may occur in the product, and indicate their concentration ranges. A 1.1.10 Risk phrases List all R-phrases relevant for the product, and possibly also for commercial products based on it. A 1.1.11 Safety phrases List all S-phrases relevant for the product, and possibly also for commercial products based on it. 2_ Application Form, page 5
    • Applicant statement Experts' comments Requested data Provide statement for each cell. Provide statement only if necessary. A 1.1.12 Low risk product Is the product food or feed grade, or has it been affirmed GRAS (generally recognized as safe)? If so, give details. A 1.2 Legal status and status in organic farming standards A 1.2.1 Approval in EU List EU Member States, where product is approved for use under relevant national regulations. States where approval is expected may be listed separately. A 1.2.2 Approval outside EU Give a representative range of non-EU Member States, where product is approved for use under relevant national regulations A 1.2.3 IFOAM status State whether allowed by IFOAM Basic standards. If allowed, give category/type definition and any conditions of use and/or restrictions. A 1.2.4 Codex Alimentarius status State whether allowed for organic farming by Alinorm GL 32. If allowed, give category/type definition and any conditions of use and/or restrictions. A 1.2.5 Status in other organic standards State whether allowed by non-EU national organic standards. If allowed, give category/type definition and any conditions of use and/or restrictions. A 1.2.6 Precedents in 2092/91 EEC If appropriate, describe in which respect products already listed in Annex II of Reg. 2092/91 set a precedent for specific aspects of this application (e.g. the raw material, manufacture, use etc.) A 1.3 Purpose & intended use A 1.3.1 Intended use category Specify use category (fertiliser, soil conditioner, fungicide, insecticide, etc.) A 1.3.2 Intended specifications Describe intended specifications/restrictions to be included in Annex II. A 1.3.3 Organism(s) to be controlled PPP only. The organism(s) to be controlled should be named (ideally at species level). Describe the damage done to the plant by the organism(s), and the degree of protection achieved with the product. 2_ Application Form, page 6
    • Applicant statement Experts' comments Requested data Provide statement for each cell. Provide statement only if necessary. A 1.3.4 Mode of action PPP only. Where known, specify how the substance achieves effect against the organism(s) identified in A 1.3.3. A 1.3.5 Crops Specify the crop(s) on which the product will be used. A 1.3.6 Application method Specify application equipment and whether applied to the soil or the plant (see also A 1.3.6). A 1.3.7 Plant parts Specify plant parts where product is applied, and stage of plant development A 1.3.8 Dosage and application rate Specify range of dosage and application rates. A 1.3.9 Phytotoxic side effects Describe any phytotoxic side-effects observed. A 2 Origin A 2.01 Origin of materials List the origin of all materials included in the product. Specify whether they are of plant, animal, microbial or mineral origin, or describe if other. A 2.02 GMO origin Are the materials of origin GMOs or not (see Abbreviations and Definitions for guidance)? A 2.03 Factory farming origin Are the materials of origin from factory farming or not (see Abbreviations and Definitions for guidance)? A 2.04 Origin of plant material For products derived from plants, name species and origin, part(s) of plant used and growth stage. Indicate whether plants are wild harvested or cultivated. A 2.05 Renewable sources Indicate whether the product is derived from a renewable source. If not, the likely extent of resource depletion should be explained. A 3 Manufacturing A 3.01 Manufacturing methods Describe manufacturing methods and process; list physical, microbial and enzymatic and chemical treatments applied during manufacture 2_ Application Form, page 7
    • Applicant statement Experts' comments Requested data Provide statement for each cell. Provide statement only if necessary. A 3.02 Use of GMOs Does manufacture involve GMOs or products made from GMOs (see Abbreviations and Definitions for guidance)? A 4 Use and necessity A 4.01 Traditional use State whether, where and for what purpose the substance has or has had a traditional use in organic farming. A 4.02 Alternative methods List plant breeding, husbandry or management practices and alternative products already authorized for organic farming, which have a comparable effect. Explain specific advantages and disadvantages of the proposed product over these alternatives. A 4.03 Efficacy Summarize the effect of the product on crop growth, yield or quality. A 4.04 Economic importance Provide an estimate of the economic importance of the product, as far as is practicable. Where possible, indicate variability due to region, altitude, climate, soil type, crop, traditional use, local specialities etc.. The claim for economic importance must take account of organic farming principles (see Abbreviations & Definitions), local conditions, traditional practices etc. A 4.05 Likely extent of use Provide a rough estimate of the likely extent of use, for example the number or proportion of organic farmers, or land area likely to be treated. This will depend on the crops (A 1.3.5) and the organisms to be controlled (A 1.3.3). A 4.06 Resistance PPP only. Describe the likelyhood of pests or pathogens developing resistance against the product. Where appropriate, describe measures to prevent resistance development. A 5 Environmental impact Note: All statements in section 5 should be consistent with R-phrases listed under A 1.1.10. 2_ Application Form, page 8
    • Applicant statement Experts' comments Requested data Provide statement for each cell. Provide statement only if necessary. A 5.01 Manufacturing Does the manufacturing process (see A 3.0.1) risk polluting the environment? Evidence and/or reasoned argument should be provided to explain the environmental impact. A 5.02 Environmental fate Provide information on fate and behaviour in the environment (i.e. How fast does it break down, and into what? How mobile are the product and its metabolites, and do they accumulate somewhere in the environment?). Where appropriate, information on half life and potential for bioaccumulation (e.g. Kow) should be provided. If exposure of water, soil or air is likely to occur, available information from literature on natural background levels should be provided. A 5.03 Use Does the use of the product or its metabolites risk to pollute the environment? Evidence and/or reasoned argument should be provided to explain the environmental impact. Effects on animals, plants and soil to be detailed under A 5.06 - 5.08. A 5.04 Effects of impurities The release of the substances listed under A 1.1.9 must be considered at the likely application rate (see A 1.3.8). A 5.05 Release of biocontrol agents Describe impact of release, particularly for non-native biological control agents. A 5.06 Effects on animals Indicate whether effects on non-target animals are possible. If so, give details of effects (e.g. LD50 or LC50, likelihood of exposure etc.). Mention particularly farm animals, bees, beneficial insects, wildlife and endangeres species. A 5.07 Effects on plants Indicate whether phyto-toxic or nutrient supply effects on non-target plants are possible. If so, give details of effects (e.g. cress toxicity test for compost). Mention particularly crops and native botanicals. A 5.08 Effects on soil Indicate whether effects on soil (including soil fertility & erosion) or microorganisms are possible. If so give details. Where appropriate, give salinity index. 2_ Application Form, page 9
    • Applicant statement Experts' comments Requested data Provide statement for each cell. Provide statement only if necessary. A 6 Human health impact Note: All statements in section 5 should be consistent with R-phrases listed under A 1.1.10 and S-phrases listed under A 1.1.11. A 6.01 Impacts on human health Summarize all available toxicological information on reported or possible adverse impacts on human health, including studies, publications, evaluations done in OECD countries, and where relevant also for uses other than as PPP or F&SC. A 6.02 Risks of manufacturing process Discuss human health risks of the manufacturing process, as described under A 3.01. A 6.03 Risks of application Discuss human health risks from application of the product, as described under A 1.3. A 6.04 Residues Summarise any residue data available. Use reasoned argument for likely presence or absence of residues in or on treated food and feed products. Where presence is likely, document concentration with analytical data. A 6.05 Risks from residues If residues may occur (see A 6.04), compare with tolerances from national registration or other approval. Where not available, compare with toxicological data. Discuss toxicological relevance. A 7 Animal welfare impact A 7.01 Effect on animal health and welfare Describe positive and negative impacts on animal health and welfare, or absence thereof. A 8 Socio-economic aspects A 8.01 Public perception: consumption-related views. Summarize consumption-related issues of public perception, especially product quality, availablilty, storage, price etc. Where appropriate, indicate range of variability (note: such considerations may also be expressed by stakeholders other than consumers). 2_ Application Form, page 10
    • Applicant statement Experts' comments Requested data Provide statement for each cell. Provide statement only if necessary. A 8.02 Public perception: farming practice-related views. Summarise issues of public perception relating to farming practices and their perception by the farming community (organic and conventional). Consistency with organic farming principles (see Abbreviations & Definitions) provides guidance. A 8.03 Public perception: other stakeholder views. Summarize other issues of public perception, particularly ethical aspects such as animal welfare, fair trade etc. and environmental impact. A 8.04 Effects on rural development Explain the possible effects on rural development and rural living conditions from the point of view of organic farming system development. A 8.05 Social justice State whether the substance will affect social justice, or the scope for fair trade through contributing to the development of organic systems. A 8.06 Cultural, ethical, religious issues Address cultural, ethical or religious concerns (e.g. for vegetarians, animal based products may be an issue; certain religions require specific slaughtering procedures or exclude some animal species). A 9 Other relevant information A 9.01 Other information (1) Give any other information considered relevant to the application or to support specific statements made in the Application Form. (2) List numbered documents and attach to the complete Application. A 10 Key issues A 10.01 Key issues in favour Summarise the key issues in favour of the product. A 10.02 Key issues causing concern Summarise the key issues that give cause for concern. 2_ Application Form, page 11
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION FORM FOR QUICK SCREENING (facultative) statement Score Quick screening criteria For further guidance, see corresponding numbers See Eval. in Application Form. Form General information Product State the product assessed Q 1.3.1 Intended use category Specify use category (fertiliser, soil conditioner, fungicide, insecticide, etc.) Evaluator State who carried out this assessment Completion date Q 2 Origin Q 2.01 Origin of materials List the origin of all materials included in the product. Specify whether they are of plant, animal, microbial or mineral origin, or describe if other. Q 2.02 GMO origin Are the materials of origin GMOs or not)? Q 2.03 Factory farming origin Are the materials of origin from factory farming or not? Q 3 Manufacturing Q 3.01 Manufacturing methods Describe manufacturing methods and process; list physical, microbial and enzymatic and chemical treatments applied during manufacture Q 3.02 Use of GMOs Does manufacture involve GMOs or products made from GMOs? Q 5 Environmental impact Principle: manufacture, use and disposal of the substance do not result in, or contribute to, harmful effects on the environment and at least maintain or ideally improve agro-ecosystem health. Note: This section should not duplicate efforts for registration or other legal approval. Only address issues which exceed the requirements of such processes. Where possible, rely on R-phrases (see A 1.1.10) and consider low-risk status (see A 1.1.12). Q 5.02 Environmental fate Provide information on fate and behaviour in the environment. Where appropriate, information on half life and potential for bioaccumulation should be provided. Q 5.03 Use Does the use of the product or its metabolites risk to pollute the environment? Q 5.05 Release of biocontrol agents Describe impact of release, particularly for non-native biological control agents. Q 6 Human health impact Q 6.01 Impacts on human health Summarize all available toxicological information on reported or possible adverse impacts on human health. Q 6.05 Risks from residues If residues may occur, discuss toxicological relevance. Q 9 Other relevant aspects Q 9.01 Other information Give any other information considered relevant to the quick screening. Quick Screening Scores -2 Count the number of scores of -2. 3_ Quick Screening, page 12
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION FORM FOR QUICK SCREENING (facultative) statement Score Quick screening criteria For further guidance, see corresponding numbers See Eval. in Application Form. Form Decision-making aid If there are no scores of -2, the product is likely to successfully complete the evaluation. It is advisable to engage in a full application/evaluation. If there are one or more scores of -2, the product has reduced chances of passing the evaluation. Think carefully before engageing in a full application/evaluation. Note: The Quick Screening does not anticipate the outcome of a full application/evaluation procedure! 3_ Quick Screening, page 13
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION - AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX FORM FOR EVALUATION product: Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. General information Country Member States only: state which country. Completion date E 1.0 Identification Principle: The product must be clearly identifiable. No further evaluation necessary. E 1.0.1 Identification The product should be clearly identifiable (see A 1.01-1.05). This may be at a generic level or very specific. (scores: indentifiable=0; otherwise negative) E 1.1 Characterization Principle: The product must be able to be characterised. E 1.1.1 Characterization The product should be able to be characterised. For complex products, the source or type of material may be sufficient to characterise the product. (scores: characterized=0; otherwise negative) E 1.1.2 Quality control Within the range indicated under A 1.1.2, 1.1.5, 1.1.8 & 4.03, the material should be consistent over time, both in terms of composition and performance. (scores: consistent=0; otherwise negative) E. 1.2 Legal status and status in organic farming standards Principles: (1) Preferably, the product should be approved for use within the EU. (2) Preferably, the product should be allowed by other organic farming standards. E 1.2.1 Approval for use The product should normally be approved for use under relevant national regulations in at least one EU Member State (see A 1.2.1); under specific circumstances, approval to be expected soon or approval outside the EU (see A 1.2.2) may be sufficient. (scores: approved=0; not approved=negative) 4_ Evaluation Form, page 14
    • Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. E 1.2.2 Organic farming standards Preferably, the product should be allowed by other organic farming standards (see A 1.2.3-1.2.5) with similar conditions of use and/or restrictions. (scores: allowed=positive; evaluated and not allowed=negative; not yet evaluated=0) E 1.3 Purpose & intended use Principle: Products listed in Annex II (a) and (b) should only be used insofar as the methods of organic production described in Annex I are insufficient to provide adequate nutrient supply or crop protection. E 1.3.1 Mode of action (PPP only, see A 1.3.4). Direct toxic effects are less desirable than those that act through another biological/physiological mechanism (e.g. repellents, pheromones). (scores: toxic effect=-1; other mechanisms=0) E 1.3.2 Phytotoxic side effects With the indended use, phytotoxic side effects should be minimal. (scores: phytotoxic effects=negative; no effects=0) E 2 Origin Principles: (1) Products should be of plant, animal, microbial or mineral origin; if substances from such sources are not available in sufficient quantities or qualities, additional sources for these products may exceptionally be included. (2) Products must not be of GMO or factory farming origin. E 2.01 Origin of materials Products must be of plant, animal, microbial or mineral origin. If products from such sources are not available in sufficient quantities or qualities, additional sources for these products may exceptionally be included provided that they are in the same form and their use precludes any direct contact with the edible parts of the crop (e.g. pheromones) (see also Abbreviations & Definitions). (scores: plant, animal, microbial or mineral origin=0; otherwise negative; synthetic & not occurring in nature=-2). E 2.02 GMO origin Products from GMO origin (see Abbreviations & Definitions) are not permitted in organic farming. At the moment, this is particularly relevant for products of plant or microbial origin. (scores: GMO origin=-2; not GMO origin=0). 4_ Evaluation Form, page 15
    • Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. E 2.03 Factory farming origin Products from factory farming (see Abbreviations & Definitions) origin are not desirable in organic farming. Animal excreta may not come from factory farming, while for slaughterhouse wastes, there is currently no such restriction. (scores: not from factory farming=0; otherwise negative; excreta from factory farming=-2). E 2.04 Origin of plant material In the case of products derived from plants, collection of the material should not threat local populations. Material from cultivated plants is preferable to wild harvested plants. (scores: no threat=0; otherwise negative). E 2.05 Renewable sources The material should be derived from a renewable source. Where non-renewable resources are used, acceptability is considered on a case by case basis, taking into account the likely extent and speed of resource depletion. Scores: renewable=0; otherwise negative). E 3 Manufacturing Principles: (1) Products may undergo the following processes: physical treatment (e.g. milling, heating, purification), microbial and enzymatic (e.g. fermentation, composting, hydrolysis); exceptionally simple chemical treatment (see definitions) may be used. (2) Manufacture must not involve GMOs or products made from GMOs. E 3.01 Manufacturing methods Production methods may include the following: physical treatments (e.g. milling, heating, purification) and microbial and enzymatic treatment (e.g. fermentation, composting, hydrolysis) processes. Exceptionally, 'simple chemical processes' can be allowed on a case by case basis (see Abbreviations and Definitions), if the resulting substance occurs in nature, but the naturally occurring source cannot be exploited. Priorities and scores are as follows (from most to least preferred): (i) no treatment (score=+1), (ii) physical treatment and microbial/enzymatic treatment under natural conditions (e.g. composting; score=0), (iii) microbial/enzymatic treatment under industrial conditions (e.g. fermentation; score=-1), (iv) simple chemical treatment (score=-1), (v) other chemical treatment (score=-2). 4_ Evaluation Form, page 16
    • Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. E 3.02 Use of GMOs Manufacture must not involve GMOs or products made from GMOs (this applies particularly to microorganisms and enzymes). (scores: GMO origin=-2; not GMO origin=0). E 4 Use and necessity Principle: Products should be necesary for their intended use; use of products in Annex II should only be made if the methods outlined in Annex I are insufficient to meet the required level of nutrient supply (Annex II A), crop protection (Annex II B) required, or for other purposes for crop production (Annex II F) E 4.01 Traditional use If possible, traditional organic farming practices should be respected. Therefore, if there is evidence of traditional use of a product in a specific region or organic farming system type, this should be considered in favour of the product. In the case of re-evaluation of products listed in Annex II, the product is considered to be in traditional use. (scores: no traditional use=0; otherwise positive; traditional active rejection of use (e.g. synthetic pesticides)=negative). E 4.02 Alternative methods PPP only. New PPP should only be allowed if the intended purpose cannot be satisfactorily achieved with plant breeding or management practices or with alternative products already authorized for organic farming, or if the new PPP has advantages over the existing alternatives (in that case, the advantages should be stated). Advantages may be: better effectiveness for the intended use, less negative impacts on environment, human or animal health, better compabtibility with public perception or with organic farming principles. (scores: no alternatives/product has advantages=positive; alternatives/product has no advantages=negative). 4_ Evaluation Form, page 17
    • Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. E 4.03 Necessity Products should be necessary for the intended use. This means that (i) They must be effective for the intended use (see A 4.03) and should have little phytotoxic effects (see A 1.3.9). However, there is no requirement that PPP must be similarly effective or reliable as other products used in conventional agriculture. (ii) their use must be economic (see A 4.04). (iii) In the case of PPP, approved plant breeding or management practices and alternative products are not available, less effective or less desirable (see A&E 4.02). High extent of likely use (see A 4.06) provides an indication of the necessity of the product. (scores: necessary=positive; not necessary=negative). E 4.04 Resistance PPP only. With the indended use, the likelyhood of resistance development in target organisms should be small. Where appropriate, the product should be evaluated in the context of the entire crop management system including other, allowed products. (scores: no resistance=0; resistance development=negative; slower than in other products/reduces resistance development in other products=positive). E 5 Environmental impact Principle: manufacture, use and disposal of the substance do not result in, or contribute to, harmful effects on the environment and at least maintain or ideally improve agro- ecosystem health. Note: This section should not duplicate efforts for registration or other legal approval. Only address issues which exceed the requirements of such processes. Where possible, rely on R-phrases (see A 1.1.10) and consider low-risk status (see A 1.1.12). E 5.01 Manufacturing The manufacturing process should not result in, or contribute to, harmful effects on the environment. (scores: no negative effect=0; otherwise negative). E 5.02 Use Use of the product should not result in, or contribute to, harmful effects on the environment. This includes also metabolites of the product which occur during breakdown (see A 5.02). (scores: no negative effect=0; otherwise negative). 4_ Evaluation Form, page 18
    • Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. E 5.03 Effects of impurities Levels of contaminants such as xenobiotics (e.g. antibiotics, pesticides, biocides, persistent substances or other substances of concern), microorganisms and heavy metals should be minimal and must not pose environmental risks at normal application rate. (scores: no risk=0; otherwise negative). E 5.04 Release of biocontrol agents Release of biocontrol agents must not have a negative impact on the native fauna. Special care must be taken in the case of non-native biological control agents, particularly if they might establish permanent populations. (scores: no risk=0; otherwise negative). E 5.05 Environmental fate Products should rapidly and completely break down in the environment, and neither the product nor its metabolites should accumulate in water, soil, air or the food chain. (scores: rapid and complete breakdown without accumulation=0; slow or incomplete breakdown=negative). E 5.06 Effects on animals The intended use should have the lowest negative impact on animals (consider particularly farm animals, bees, beneficial insects, wildlife and endangeres species). (scores: no negative effect=0; otherwise negative). E 5.07 Effects on plants The intended use should have the lowest negative impact on non-target plants and should not threat native botanicals. (scores: no negative effect=0; otherwise negative). Positive effects on crops to be stated under E 4.03. E 5.08 Effects on soil The intended use should have the lowest negative impact on soil (including soil fertility & erosion) and microorganisms, or possibly a positive impact. (scores: positive impact=positive score; no impact=0; negative impact=negative score). E 6 Human health impact Principles: (1) Products should have the lowest negative impact on human health and quality of life. (2) Products should contribute to the production of healthy food. Note: This section should not duplicate efforts for registration or other legal approval. Only address issues which exceed the requirements of such processes. Where possible, rely on R- and S-phrases and consider low-risk status (see A 1.1.10 - 1.1.12). 4_ Evaluation Form, page 19
    • Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. E 6.01 Impacts on human health Reported or possible adverse impacts on human health cause concern and must be considered in the context of the intended use. Where there is uncertainty about possible impact on human health, precautionary approach should be adopted. (scores: certainly no adverse impacts=0; possibly or certainly adverse impacts=negative). E 6.02 Risks of manufacturing process Human health risks during manufacture cause concern and must be taken into account. (scores: no risks=0; risks=negative). E 6.03 Risks of use Human health risks associated with the intended use cause concern and must be taken into account. (scores: no risks=0; risks=negative). E 6.04 Residues Products which leave no residues in food or feed are preferable. If necessary, use of the product must be restricted in such a way that residues are minimal. (scores: no residues=0; otherwise negative). E 6.05 Risks from residues Intended use of products must not pose a proven or suspected risk to human health from consumption of residues. Where there is uncertainty about possible impact on human health, precautionary approach should be adopted. (scores: no health risk=0; proven or suspected health risk=-2). E 7 Animal welfare impact Principle: products should have the lowest negative impact on animal health and quality of life. E 7.01 Effect on animal health and welfare Products should have the lowest negative impact on animal welfare, and possibly a positive effect. (scores: positive impact=positive score; no impact=0; negative impact=negative score). E 8 Socio-economic aspects Principle: use of the substances should have the lowest possible impact on society, including public perception by stakeholders. 4_ Evaluation Form, page 20
    • Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. E 8.01 Public perception: consumption-related views. Stakeholders should not object to, and possibly approve, the use of the product with respect to consumption- related issues (see A 8.01). Whenever possible, organic products should be perceived as superior to other products. (scores: approval=positive score; not of great importance=0; objection=negative score). E 8.02 Public perception: farming practice-related views Stakeholders should not object to the use of the product with respect to farming practices (see A 8.02). Whenever possible, organic farming practice should be perceived as superior to regional conventional practice. (scores: approval=positive score; not of great importance=0; objection=negative score). E 8.03 Public perception: other stakeholder views Stakeholders should not object to the use of the product with respect to other issues, particularly animal welfare, fair trade and environmental impact (see A 8.03). Whenever possible, organic farming practice should be perceived as superior to regional conventional practice. (scores: approval=positive score; not of great importance=0; objection=negative score). E 8.04 Effects on rural development The product should not lead to a decline in rural development and rural living conditions, or possibly promote them. (scores: positive effect=positive score; little or no effect=0; negative effect=negative score). E 8.05 Social justice Social justice and fair trade should not be compromised, and if possible enhanced. (scores: positive effect=positive score; little or no effect=0; negative effect=negative score). E 8.06 Cultural, ethical, religious issues The substance in use should not be discriminatory. Cultural, ethical or religious concerns should not be compromised. (scores: concerns=negative; otherwise=0). 4_ Evaluation Form, page 21
    • Experts' evaluation statement Experts' MS comments Evaluation criteria score Provide statement only if necessary. Provide statement & score for each cell. E 9 Other relevant aspects E 9.01 Other information Evaluate information according to organic farming principles (see Abbreviations & Definitions). (scores: positive effect=positive score; little or no effect=0; negative effect=negative score). E 10 Key issues Principle: This section is intended to facilitate overview by summarizing the key issues identified in the previous sections. No scoring is needed. E 10.01 Key issues in favour Summarise the key issues in favour of the product. This should include all criteria where the score is +2, but may also comprise other criteria. Refer to numbering of criteria. No scores required here. E 10.02 Key issues causing concern Summarise the key issues that give cause for concern. This should include all criteria where the score is -2, but may also comprise other criteria. Refer to numbering of criteria. No scores required here. E 11 Recommendation Recommendation concerning inclusion of the product in Annex II (possibilities A, B, C or D, instead of scores). E 11.01 Product Specify the term to be included in Annex II, as per A 1.0.1 or 1.0.2. No scores required here. E 11.02 Intended use As per A 1.3.1. No scores required here. A/B/C/D E 11.03 Recommendation concerning inclusion of the product in Annex Enter A, B, C or D into the score field, whereby A=include without restrictions; B=include with restrictions; C=further information required before recommendation can be made; D=do not include/withdraw E 11.04 Proposed restrictions In case of recommendation B, specify in detail the proposed restrictions. No scores required here. E 11.05 Required information In case of recommendation C, specify in detail the required further information. No scores required here. 4_ Evaluation Form, page 22
    • MS score Provide for each cell. andards. 4_ Evaluation Form, page 23
    • MS score Provide for each cell. rovide adequate qualities, additional 4_ Evaluation Form, page 24
    • MS score Provide for each cell. tation, composting, . 4_ Evaluation Form, page 25
    • MS score Provide for each cell. fficient to meet the 4_ Evaluation Form, page 26
    • MS score Provide for each cell. ally improve agro- es. Where 4_ Evaluation Form, page 27
    • MS score Provide for each cell. althy food. es. Where 4_ Evaluation Form, page 28
    • MS score Provide for each cell. 4_ Evaluation Form, page 29
    • MS score Provide for each cell. 4_ Evaluation Form, page 30
    • MS score Provide for each cell. A/B/C/D 4_ Evaluation Form, page 31
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION - AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX II FORM FOR COMPARISON product: Scores by the Expert Panel will be entered automatically (quot;- - -quot;=no score entered). Scores from MS evaluation on this document will be entered automatically under quot;MS 1quot;. Scores from other MS have to be entered manually (create additional columns, if needed). Key issues Highlight issues which have been scored either Expert +2 or -2 by at least one MS. No panel MS 1 MS 2 MS 3 MS 4 MS 5 MS 6 MS 7 MS 8 MS n E 1 Identification, characterization, status & intended use E 1.0.1 --- --- E 1.1.1 --- --- E 1.1.2 --- --- E 1.2.1 --- --- E 1.2.2 --- --- E 1.3.1 --- --- E 1.3.2 --- --- E 2 Origin E 2.01 --- --- E 2.02 --- --- E 2.03 --- --- E 2.04 --- --- E 2.05 --- --- E 3 Manufacturing E 3.01 --- --- E 3.02 --- --- E 4 Use & necessity E 4.01 --- --- E 4.02 --- --- E 4.03 --- --- E 4.04 --- --- E 5 Envirnomental impact --- --- E 5.01 E 5.02 --- --- E 5.03 --- --- E 5.04 --- --- E 5.05 --- --- E 5.06 --- --- E 5.07 --- --- E 5.08 --- --- 5_ Comparison, page 32
    • Key issues Highlight issues which have been scored either Expert +2 or -2 by at least one MS. No panel MS 1 MS 2 MS 3 MS 4 MS 5 MS 6 MS 7 MS 8 MS n E 6 Human health impact E 6.01 --- --- E 6.02 --- --- E 6.03 --- --- E 6.04 --- --- E 6.05 --- --- E 7 Animal welfare impact E 7.01 --- --- E 8 Socio-economic aspects E 8.01 --- --- E 8.02 --- --- E 8.03 --- --- E 8.04 --- --- E 8.05 --- --- E 8.06 --- --- E 9 Other relevant aspects E 9.01 --- --- E 11 Recommendation: A/B/C/D E 11.03 --- --- Final Recommendations of the expert panel Recommendation statement Recommendation 1: Should the product be included in Annex II? (state 'yes' or 'no') Recommendation 2: If the product is included: where? (state 'Annex II A', 'Annex II B' or 'Annex II F') Recommendation 3: If the product is included: give restrictions, if necessary (give text of restriction) 5_ Comparison, page 33
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX II Abbreviations and Definitions of terms used in this Workbook (in alphabetic order) Active substances Substances or micro-organisms including viruses, having general or specific action: 1) against harmful organisms; or 2) on plants, parts of plants or plant products. (EU Dir. 91/414) Animals 1) Animals belonging to species normally fed and kept or consumed by man. (EU Dir. 91/414). 2) Other animal species as may be used for production of PPP or F&SC. Art 14 Committee Standing Committee on Organic Farming under Article 14 of the EU Regulation 2092/91 (abbreviation: 'SCOF') CAS Chemical Abstracts Service Codex Alimentarius Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme setting international food standards (see: www.codexalimentarius.net). Codex Alimentarius quot;Guidelines for the production, processing, labelling and marketing of organically produced norms foodquot;. Codex Alimentarius, GL 32-1999, Rev.1-2001. Download from ftp://ftp.fao.org/codex/standard/en/CXG_032e.pdf Compost means the stabilized organic material resulting from the composting process. Compost The compost is free from offensive odours and rich in heavily degradable organic matter (i.e. humus). Compost can be used as an organic soil conditioner (soil improver) and slow release fertiliser. The content of organic matter should minimum constitute 20 % of the dry matter content (in accordance with the Commission Decision 2001/688/EC of August 28, 2001: Establishing ecological criteria for the award of the Community Eco- label to soil improvers and growing media). Composting means the autothermic biological decomposition of organic waste products Composting of animal and plant origin in the presence of oxygen by the action of micro- and macro- organisms producing compost. (Slightly modified definition of quot;compostingquot; taken from Working Document Biological Treatment of Biowaste 2nd draft elaborated by DG ENV. A.2, Brussels, February 12, 2001). Different composting methods and composting times may be applied resulting in different degrees of hygienization and stabilization. Digestion Digestion means the biological decomposition of organic materials of plant and/or animal origin carried out by micro-organisms in the presence of oxygen (composting) or absence of oxygen (anaerobic fermentation or biogasification). Efficacy The efficacy of a PPP is a measure of the level (extent) of control of the the target (pest, disease etc.) achieved by using the substance as indicated on the label. The efficacy of a FSC is a measure of the improvement in crop growth (during one season or over a longer period) by using the substance as indicated. Minimum levels of efficacy are defined in PPP or F&SC regulations. In the case of PPP, the level of efficacy required for substances for organic production may be less than is required for conventional substances, and efficacy may only be achieved through use of other methods of pest/disease management. The conventional efficacy requirements can be reduced in accordance with EPPO (2000) guidelines. Efficacy of a PPP may change over time. [EPPO (2000) Guidelines for the efficacy evaluation of plant protection products. Guideline PP 1/214) 'Principles of Acceptable Efficacy. European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation] Environment Water, air or land, wild species of fauna and flora, and any interrelationship between them, as well as any relationship with living organisms. (EU Dir. 91/414) EPPO European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organisation - see Efficacy Exceptionally E 2.01 (quot;… other sources may exceptionally be included…quot;) & E 3.01 (quot;... Exceptionally, simple chemical processes can be allowed…quot;). Products of such origin or manufacture should not normally be included in Annex II, and the applicant has no right to demand that they are included. However, if the evaluators decide that the non-compliant origin or manufacture is overriden by important features in favour of the product, exceptions may be made on a case by case basis. Extensive husbandry Not factory farming (see definition) and in accordance with Article 6(5) of EC Regulation No 2328/91, as amended by EC Regulation No 3669/93. Note: Fresh and dried farmyard manure and dehydrated poultry manure are only allowed, if they originate from extensive husbandry (Reg. 2992/91, Annex II A). Factory farming Currently, there is no official definition of this term at EU level. National definitions should be compliant with EEC guidelines 5684/VI/95-rev. 5 and will be characterized by the following: (i) animals are confined, tethered and cannot turn 360 degrees OR (ii) animals are kept predominantly in the dark, with low light or with no natural light OR (iii) animals are kept predominantly without beds OR (iv) animal husbandry is separated from agricultural activity, in particular forage production. Note: Composted animal excrements including poultry manure and farmyard manure and liquid animal excrements (slurry, urine etc.) shall not originate from factory farming. 6_ Abbreviations _ Definitions, page 34
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX II Abbreviations and Definitions of terms used in this Workbook (in alphabetic order) Fertiliser Substance, the main function of which is to provide nutrients for plants. (according to EU Reg 2003/03) F&SC Fertiliser and/or soil conditioner GMO GMO = genetically modified organism. An organism in which the genetic material has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination (Dir. 90/220/EEC; Annex I lists the techniques included and non-included in the definition). Note: GMOs and substances produced by GMOs are not allowed. For this evaluation, the production chain for the input is traced back to the last reproducing organism. For details of interpretation, including examples, see http://www.infoxgen.com/dynamisch/datenbank/wartung/temp/dwnfiles/ALOG %20Interpretation_E.pdf GRAS Generally recognized as safe; a status affirmed to food additives. Harmful organisms Pests of plants or plant products belonging to the animal or plant kingdom, and also viruses, bacteria, mycoplasmas and other pathogens. (EU Dir. 91/414) IFOAM International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements IFOAM Basic standards quot;IFOAM Basic Standards for Organic Production and Processingquot;. download from http://www.ifoam.org/standard/norms/cover.html Impurities Under 'impurities', all toxicologically relevant substances or microorganisms should be described which are not deliberately added to the product, but are likely to be regularly present (e.g.xenobiotics, microorganisms, heavy metals). Which impurities are likely to occur in which products is up to the evaluators' decision. As a general rule, heavy metals should be considered likely in all materials derived from household wastes, Chromium in materials derived from tannery and microorganisms in products likely to be colonized by potentially harmful microorganisms. IUPAC International Union of Pure & Applied Chemistry NA Not applicable Nature identical Chemically synthesized substance, which is identical in chemical composition with a naturally occurring substance Natural origin Derived from plants, animals, microorganisms or minerals. Need recognized The organic inspection body or control authority accepts the requirement for an input (fertiliser, soil conditioner, plant protection product) on the organic production unit. The use may either be authorized in each specific case; or is generally authorized for use by any organic operator in a country, or at the level of the region or area; or it may be restricted to a certain crop or type of production system; or where a specified nutrient content or soil physical character is determined by soil analysis Pesticide see plant protection product Plant products Products in the unprocessed state or having undergone only simple preparation such as milling, drying or pressing, derived from plants, but excluding plants themselves as defined. (EU Dir. 91/414) Plants Live plants and live parts of plants, including fresh fruit and seeds. (EU Dir. 91/414) Plant protection product Active substances and preparations containing one or more active substances, put up in the form in which they are supplied to the user, intended to 1) Protect plant products against all harmful organisms or prevent the action of such organisms, in fact insofar as such substances or preparations are not otherwise defined below; 2) influence the life processes of plants, other than as a nutrient (i.e. growth regulation); 3) Preserve plant products, in so far as such subsants or products are not subject to special Council or Commission provisions on preservatives; 4) destroy undesired plants; 5) destroy parts of plants, check or prevent undesired growth of plants. (EU Dir 91/414) PPE Personal protective equipment, e.g. gloves, respiratory protection, protective clothing PPP Plant protection product PPP made from plants or Product intended for use in plant protection which contains plants, plant extracts and possibly plant extracts formulants. (Sanco/10472/2003-rev.0 - Guidance document for applications on plant protection products made from plants or plant extracts) Preparations Mixtures or solutions composed of two or more substances of which at least one is an active substance, intended for use as PPP. (EU Dir. 91/414) 6_ Abbreviations _ Definitions, page 35
    • ORGANIC INPUTS EVALUATION AMENDMENT TO REG. 2092/91 - ANNEX II Abbreviations and Definitions of terms used in this Workbook (in alphabetic order) Principles of organic Principles of organic farming are not strictly defined and vary over time and in different regions. farming They include: promotion of agroecosystem health, biodiversity, soil biological activity and long- term fertility and biological cycles; recycling of plant and animal wastes to return nutrients to the land; use of on-farm inputs in preference to off-farm inputs; use of renewable resources; use of soil, water and air which minimizes all forms of pollution (adapted from Codex Alimentarius norms). In addition, social equity and conditions for workers in all parts of production should be considered. The project 'Organic Revision' will provide a definition. The relevant principles in each of the sections detailing criteria are provided at the start of each section. It is expected that in each case, if the criteria are met, then the principle will also be met. Recommendation Four possible alternative recommendations for amendments of Annex II may be made: A) Recommended for inclusion with no restriction or conditional requirements B) Recommended for inclusion with restriction or conditional requirements, these must be clearly specified C) Not possible to complete evaluation - further information required D) Not recommended for inclusion / recommended to withdraw Residues of PPP One or more substances present in or on plants or products of plant origin, edible animal products or elsewhere in the environment and resulting from the use of a PPP, including their metabolites and products resulting from their degradation or reaction (EU Dir. 91/414) Risk phrases (R-phrases) Risk phrases (R-phrases) describe the risks associated with hazardous chemicals. R-phrases consist of the letter R followed by a number. Phrases R1-49 and R60 onwards describe human health risks, while R50-59 describe environmental risks. Active ingredients of PPPs are classified by the EU Classification and Labelling Group (http://ecb.jrc.it/classification-labelling/), whilst commercial products in the countries based on the Company Proposal based on the quot;Dangerous Preparations Directivequot; Dir. 99/45/EC). Safety phrases (S- Safety phrases (S-phrases) describe safety measures to be taken with hazardous chemicals. S- phrases) phrases consist of the letter S followed by a number. Individual S-phrases may serve to prevent human health or environmental risks, or both. Classification: see Risk phrases. SCOF See Article 14 Committee Scores Scores range from +2 (very good, beneficial); +1 (good); 0 (neutral, has no effect); -1 (negative); to -2 (very poor, does not meet requirements). Benchmarks for scoring are given for each evaluation criterion. Normally a score of -2 for any criterion represents a critical issue. Introduction of such a substance would require good reasons for inclusion (on grounds of need, non-availability of an alternative etc.). It is not intended that scores for different criteria are added together or that an average is calculated, each is independent and they are non-commensurate. Simple chemical (Term used in E 3.01). There is no agreed definition of this term; for the present purpose, we processes propose: (i) Treatment with inorganic acids or bases (e.g. change of pH, hydrolysis) shall be allowed, provided that such treatment is consistent with the requirements regarding environmental impact and human health. (ii) Treatment with other substances may be considered only if there is a high degree of consensus among the evaluators that this is acceptable. Note: all simple chemical processes shall only be allowed exceptionally (see separate definition). Soil Conditioner (also soil A material that is added to the soil with the main function of contributing to the improvement of improver) physical and biological properties of the soil, while it does not provide significant quantities of available nutrients. Substances Chemical elements and their compounds, as they occur naturally or by manufacture, including any impurity inevitable resulting from the manufacturing process. (EU Dir. 91/414) Substance of natural Substance derived from plants, animals, microorganisms or minerals. origin 6_ Abbreviations _ Definitions, page 36