Designing for Social Sharing Rashmi Sinha www.uzanto.com www.rashmisinha.com
browsing alone
Osmond Lab 2 Auditoriums:  • 341  • 152
Hetzel Union Building 2 Auditoriums:  • 475  • 385  • Posters in Alumni Hall
Penn State Campus Main Presentation Sites: <  4 Thomas Aud’s (726, 242, 171, 94) Wartik  (70)  > Osmond  (341, 152) >   HU...
Auditoriums & Meeting Rooms* <ul><li>Walk Time from </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Seats Eisenhower   </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhowe...
Penn State Campus <ul><li>Nittany Lion Inn </li></ul><ul><li>Council Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Banquets </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>  Walk Time to </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Beaver Stadium Tuesday Night Banquet* 15 minut...
Hintz Alumni Center Evening Mixers:  • 400 Indoors  • 400 Patio Seating
Beaver Stadium Tuesday Night Banquet  -  Tailgate Party and Old Fashioned Ice Cream Party and Sock-Hop Nittany Club Sports...
Posters, Exhibits & Socials  <ul><li>  Walk Time to </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Capacities Eisenhower  </li></ul><ul><li>Hetze...
Penn State has a full-service catering company on campus for breaks and meals. We also have our own bakery which supplies ...
Hotels <ul><li>Nittany Lion Inn </li></ul><ul><li>Council Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Banquets </li></ul>Banquet & Social V...
Nittany Lion Inn   The Nittany Lion Inn  is a gracious, colonial style hotel right on-campus. A 15 minute walk to ASV sess...
A  National Trust  historic  hotel •   For Banquets & Council Meetings  •  220 Sleeping Rooms Nittany Lion Inn
 
Courtyard Inn Nittany Lion Inn Days Inn Hampton Inn Hilton Garden Inn Ramada Inn Atherton Penn Stater 2 mi from campus >
Conference Center •  2 miles From Campus •  300 Luxury Rooms
Exhibits
Penn State Campus Main Presentation Sites: < Eisenhower Auditorium (2,500)
Downtown State College flanks the south side of campus, a five-minute walk from campus housing, and a 12 minute walk from ...
MEALS ON-CAMPUS Breakfast $ 5.75 Lunch  $ 8.25 Dinner $10.00 Banquet  $45.00 HOUSING ON-CAMPUS * Single Room in Eastview T...
Budget
 
 
 
WOW is millions of people with diverse backgrounds collaborating, socializing, and learning while having fun. It represent...
240,000 users
Wells Fargo StageCoach Island
American Apparel
Four draws of such games <ul><li>the ability to socialize </li></ul><ul><li>an achievement system that gives players an in...
Alone together <ul><li>Social interaction in online gaming (Ducheneaut et al. 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by ot...
The web has become a social sphere Massively multiplayer online games Rich interfaces enable richer interactions
Part II
Part II: What is social sharing?
 
Hi I found you while I was searching my network at LinkedIn. Let's connect directly, so we can help each other with referr...
First generation Social Networks (Friendster, LinkedIn…) 1) I am linked to ->   -> to you ---> --->You are linked to her -...
Object mediated social networks “… call for the rethinking of sociality along lines that include objects in the concept of...
Coffee Dance performance Tomatoes
Second generation social networks  <ul><li>Put objects at the center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sharing </li></ul></ul><...
Social sharing of our stuff  (social networks with objects in between) e.g., Flickr, Yahoo answers 1) I share my pics ->  ...
Viral sharing  (passing on interesting stuff) e.g., YouTube videos 1) I send video I like  ->   -> to you. You pass on -->...
Tag-based social sharing  (linked by concepts…) e.g., Flickr, del.icio.us 1) I tag my bookmarks   -> you see my tags  -->Y...
Social news creation  (rating news stories) e.g., digg, Newsvine 1) I find interesting story   -> you rate story  -->Other...
Objects invite us to <ul><li>Connect </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>React </li></ul><ul><li>Reach out </li></ul>
Part III: So you want to design for social sharing?
Forget the ipod!
Web 2.0 and Virtual Worlds Roo Reynolds Metaverse Evangelist [email_address]
Your innocent laughter was so pure
To my pain it was the cure
My heart fills with pain so much
To see all the lives of people that you have touched..
memories of you are so sweet …
But sometimes <ul><li>they make me weep … </li></ul>
A story of an African Safari An adventure experienced by three little boys. PART ONE
It was November 2006…. <ul><li>The three boys were together in the back of the car. It was hot and sticky. They had been d...
<ul><li>Oupa suggested a contest: the first one to see an animal would be the winner.  He explained that it was an old fam...
<ul><li>“ SNAKE!!!” Leon shouted.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nonsense,” said Daniel.  That’s just a silly old stick.” </li></ul>...
Looking out different windows <ul><li>When Papa looked out the window on his side of the car, he could see this.   </li></...
Which snake do you think it is? Me! It is me! I’m a puff adder.  The book says I’m ‘large, thick bodied, sluggish, broad h...
<ul><li>The snake in the picture was the first puffadder that Ouma had ever seen. She had to ask her brother, Guillaume, w...
Does Leon win? Is a snake an animal? No! I’m a banana, not a snake.  (How can I get them to come closer so I can SHOW THEM...
<ul><li>The way to avoid puff adders is to look in the path in front of  you when you walk and to make a small amount of n...
But what about the stick on the other side of the car? No, a stick is not an animal. A stick comes from a tree, so it is p...
Compare two of the  little boys  to the elephant in SIZE Why is Taz holding his nose???
… .because he’s never ever smelled anything like an elephant before Elephant poo!
<ul><li>Elephants are MUCH bigger in real life than the ones one sees on TV.  </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants in Kruger Park a...
You can tell how recently an elephant passed by, based on the elephant dung. <ul><li>Can you guess how? </li></ul><ul><li>...
They carried on driving….. <ul><li>Although it was very hot, Uncle Eric  </li></ul><ul><li>(Dad, to you, Daniel!) insisted...
The boys decided to have a counting competition – each had to pick a species, and the one who counted the most members of ...
Once there were so  many buffaloes crossing the road  that we just had to sit and wait.  You don't argue  with a herd of  ...
Did we see lions? Not everyone sees lions. But Eric is usually lucky.  So make sure you're close to Eric!
They  searched between the trees in the  distance …. <ul><li>They looked  right beside  the road; </li></ul><ul><li>Then D...
He had spotted an eagle: An African fish eagle
Then we approached a bridge. There was something sitting on the railing
One of the fishermen of the region. A heron.
The heron didn't like  the noise from the car  and left
Oupa stopped the car.  He ALWAYS stops the car  on a bridge. WHY?
Because there are almost always things to see... IN the river  OR next to the river This time it was a saddle-bill stork
And ME – Baz  saw me too, and pointed me out to the boys.  He asked them what was the difference between a turtle and a to...
And sausages growing on a sausage tree!
<ul><li>Check emails regularly for the next exciting instalment of A STORY OF AN AFRICAN SAFARI </li></ul>
I’m sorry … for the bad times  we had to share
I’m thankful … <ul><li>for the sad times you’ve helped me bare. </li></ul>
that have known you. <ul><li>i am proud to be one amongst tons of </li></ul><ul><li>others </li></ul>
So many people you have helped with just a smile
you were the type that was worth waiting for a while … <ul><li>so many memories  </li></ul><ul><li>filled with laughter </...
if only they keep going forever after
years went by it seems so long ago but at the same time i can’t let you go i can’t seem to get over the fact that you’re g...
you were such a young person and you opened my eyes <ul><li>Always a legend you will be in my eyes </li></ul>
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 examples (then and now) <ul><li>Personal websites  ->  blogs  </li></ul><ul><li>Britannica Online  ->  Wikipedia  ...
Web 2.0 components / characteristics The Web  as “ The Platform” Tools: RSS, AJAX, PHP, Ruby Services, not packaged softwa...
Key themes to remember <ul><li>Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated content </li></ul>
Web 2.0 attitude <ul><li>“  Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology.  It’s about enabling and encouraging  participation t...
Web 2.0  is understood – so what’s next?
Games?!  A few numbers… <ul><li>69% of American heads of households play computer or video games </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005...
Virtual Worlds - background <ul><li>Online Games </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Quake, Half-Life, … </li></ul><ul><li>MMORPGs  (Ma...
Virtual Worlds <ul><li>Second Life   ( http://secondlife.com ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,600,000+ user accounts and growing ...
BBC –  One Big Weekend  concert with streaming audio and video
Major League Baseball event hosted in virtual stadium
Regina Spektor – marketed in-world by Warner Bros.
American Apparel  virtual store
Reuters have a Second Life office, complete with embedded journalist
Why does IBM care?
Meetings
IBM Alumni event (http://greateribm.com)
IBM Innovation Jam results: Funding for ‘3D Internet’
IBM 12 island innovation complex
Circuit City
Sears
Wimbledon demo… Integrating real-world ‘Hawkeye’ ball tracking data with Second Life for Wimbledon demo July 2006
Australian Open Jan 2007
More possibilities <ul><ul><li>Marketing, brand promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Har...
What’s next? <ul><li>rooreynolds.com </li></ul><ul><li>eightbar.co.uk </li></ul>
Give up control This is messy!
Some principles…
1: Make system personally useful <ul><li>For end-user system should have strong personal use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorab...
Bite-sized self-expression <ul><li>Creative self-expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic expression (Flickr, YouTube) </...
2: Identify symbiotic relationship between personal & social <ul><li>Personal snippets > Social stream </li></ul><ul><ul><...
3: Create porous boundary between public & private <ul><li>Earlier systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (Personal Deskto...
4. Allow for levels of participation <ul><li>Everyone does not need to create! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit creation (cr...
Why do people digg? “ commenting, digging, burying comments, typing descriptions, reading hundreds of articles and… … for ...
how to encourage participation <ul><li>Insights from Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight unique contribution...
5. Let people feel the presence of others <ul><li>What paths are well worn </li></ul><ul><li>User profiles / photos </li><...
6. And yet, moments of Independence… <ul><li>Choreography:  when alone, when part of group </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent mobs ...
Allow for alternative viewpoints & perspectives <ul><li>Social sharing can lead to tyranny of dominant view </li></ul><ul>...
Create conditions for wise crowds <ul><li>Cognitive Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Decentraliz...
Wise Crowds: Cognitive Diversity <ul><li>Need many perspectives for good answers </li></ul><ul><li>Groups become homogenou...
Wise Crowds: Independence <ul><li>Keeps people’s mistakes from getting correlated (uncorrelated mistakes averaged out) </l...
Wise Crowds: Decentralization “ A crowd of decentralized people working to solve a problem on their own without any centra...
Wise Crowds: Easy Aggregation <ul><li>A decentralized system can pick right solution  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With easy way ...
7. Enable Serendipity  <ul><li>Don’t make navigation all about popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to some popular stu...
8. Most of all, allow for play
Things to try at home! <ul><li>Create an account on myspace.com </li></ul><ul><li>Read Emergence, Wisdom of Crowds </li></...
Questions? www.rashmisinha.com www.uzanto.com
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    1. 1. Designing for Social Sharing Rashmi Sinha www.uzanto.com www.rashmisinha.com
    2. 2. browsing alone
    3. 3. Osmond Lab 2 Auditoriums: • 341 • 152
    4. 4. Hetzel Union Building 2 Auditoriums: • 475 • 385 • Posters in Alumni Hall
    5. 5. Penn State Campus Main Presentation Sites: < 4 Thomas Aud’s (726, 242, 171, 94) Wartik (70) > Osmond (341, 152) > HUB > 2 Aud’s (475, 385), Hall for Posters Life Sciences (182) v < White Gym (Exhibits ) < Chemistry (70) < Eisenhower Auditorium (2,500)
    6. 6. Auditoriums & Meeting Rooms* <ul><li>Walk Time from </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Seats Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Eisenhower Auditorium 2,595 /1,755 Home Base </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Auditoriums 726, 242, 171 2 minutes HUB Auditoriums 475, 385 5 minutes Osmond Classrooms 341, 152 5 minutes Life Sciences 186 2 minutes Wartik Auditoriums 171, 153 4 minutes </li></ul>* > 15 smaller classrooms within 6 minutes’ walk, (50-150 seats)
    7. 7. Penn State Campus <ul><li>Nittany Lion Inn </li></ul><ul><li>Council Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Banquets </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni Center </li></ul><ul><li>Evening Mixers </li></ul><ul><li>Beaver Stadium </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tuesday Banquet Tailgate Party and Old-Fashioned Ice Cream Social and Sock-Hop </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Banquet & Social Venues
    8. 8. <ul><li> Walk Time to </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Beaver Stadium Tuesday Night Banquet* 15 minutes Mt. Nittany Club All Sports Museum </li></ul><ul><li>* Tailgate Party w/ Old-Fashioned Ice Cream Social & Sock Hop </li></ul><ul><li>Hintz Alumni Building For Evening Mixers 12 minutes </li></ul>Social Events
    9. 9. Hintz Alumni Center Evening Mixers: • 400 Indoors • 400 Patio Seating
    10. 10. Beaver Stadium Tuesday Night Banquet - Tailgate Party and Old Fashioned Ice Cream Party and Sock-Hop Nittany Club Sports Museum
    11. 11. Posters, Exhibits & Socials <ul><li> Walk Time to </li></ul><ul><li>Venue Capacities Eisenhower </li></ul><ul><li>Hetzel Union Building (HUB) 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni Hall Posters up to 550 </li></ul><ul><li>HUB Eateries Seating for 900 </li></ul><ul><li>White Gym Exhibits 7 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Nittany Lion Inn 15 minutes Ballroom Banquets up to 500 3 Banquet Rooms Banquets up to 160 </li></ul><ul><li>4 Meeting Rooms Banquets up to 100 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Penn State has a full-service catering company on campus for breaks and meals. We also have our own bakery which supplies Java Co. Catering
    13. 13. Hotels <ul><li>Nittany Lion Inn </li></ul><ul><li>Council Meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Banquets </li></ul>Banquet & Social Venues
    14. 14. Nittany Lion Inn The Nittany Lion Inn is a gracious, colonial style hotel right on-campus. A 15 minute walk to ASV sessions A National Trust historic hotel
    15. 15. A National Trust historic hotel • For Banquets & Council Meetings • 220 Sleeping Rooms Nittany Lion Inn
    16. 17. Courtyard Inn Nittany Lion Inn Days Inn Hampton Inn Hilton Garden Inn Ramada Inn Atherton Penn Stater 2 mi from campus >
    17. 18. Conference Center • 2 miles From Campus • 300 Luxury Rooms
    18. 19. Exhibits
    19. 20. Penn State Campus Main Presentation Sites: < Eisenhower Auditorium (2,500)
    20. 21. Downtown State College flanks the south side of campus, a five-minute walk from campus housing, and a 12 minute walk from Eisenhower Auditorium.
    21. 22. MEALS ON-CAMPUS Breakfast $ 5.75 Lunch $ 8.25 Dinner $10.00 Banquet $45.00 HOUSING ON-CAMPUS * Single Room in Eastview Terrace $57.00/night Double Room Nittany Suites $40.00/night * Includes Breakfast
    22. 23. Budget
    23. 27. WOW is millions of people with diverse backgrounds collaborating, socializing, and learning while having fun. It represents the future of real-time collaborative teams in an always-on, diversity-intensive, real-time environment. WOW is a glimpse into our future. Joi Ito in Wired Magazine
    24. 28. 240,000 users
    25. 29. Wells Fargo StageCoach Island
    26. 30. American Apparel
    27. 31. Four draws of such games <ul><li>the ability to socialize </li></ul><ul><li>an achievement system that gives players an incentive to improve </li></ul><ul><li>complex and satisfying strategy that makes combat fun </li></ul><ul><li>underlying narrative that players want to learn more about </li></ul><ul><li>Many games also update continuously, adding features and addressing user requests </li></ul>
    28. 32. Alone together <ul><li>Social interaction in online gaming (Ducheneaut et al. 2006) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surrounded by others. Feel their presence, not interacting all the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy: Reading book in a cafe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectacle: Performing for an audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analogy: Playing pinball with others watching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social facilitation (Zajonc, 1960) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved performance in presence of others (even if presence is passive) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed even in cockroaches! </li></ul></ul>
    29. 33. The web has become a social sphere Massively multiplayer online games Rich interfaces enable richer interactions
    30. 34. Part II
    31. 35. Part II: What is social sharing?
    32. 37. Hi I found you while I was searching my network at LinkedIn. Let's connect directly, so we can help each other with referrals. If we connect, both of our networks will grow. To add me as your connection, just follow the link below.
    33. 38. First generation Social Networks (Friendster, LinkedIn…) 1) I am linked to -> -> to you ---> --->You are linked to her -> ---> so on… <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships can be marked, hubs identified </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of six degrees of separation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Are you my friend” type of awkwardness </li></ul>
    34. 39. Object mediated social networks “… call for the rethinking of sociality along lines that include objects in the concept of social relations.” Katrin-Knorr Cetina
    35. 40. Coffee Dance performance Tomatoes
    36. 41. Second generation social networks <ul><li>Put objects at the center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tagging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viral sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social News Creation </li></ul></ul>
    37. 42. Social sharing of our stuff (social networks with objects in between) e.g., Flickr, Yahoo answers 1) I share my pics -> -> with you ---> -->You share your pics -> ---> with him <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>People share objects and watch others </li></ul><ul><li>Social connections are through objects </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of social streams of information with emergence of popular, interesting items </li></ul>
    38. 43. Viral sharing (passing on interesting stuff) e.g., YouTube videos 1) I send video I like -> -> to you. You pass on --> --> to her, who sends on to her, who passes on… <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Individual to individual to individual </li></ul><ul><li>Popularity based navigation helps track “viral” items </li></ul>
    39. 44. Tag-based social sharing (linked by concepts…) e.g., Flickr, del.icio.us 1) I tag my bookmarks -> you see my tags -->You share your tags -> <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Saving & tagging your stuff (creating bookmarks). </li></ul><ul><li>Tags mediate social connections </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of social/conceptual information streams. Emergence of popular, interesting items </li></ul>politics lebanon Global voices politics technology Global voices web JAVA CNN networks blogs science science science brain
    40. 45. Social news creation (rating news stories) e.g., digg, Newsvine 1) I find interesting story -> you rate story -->Others rate stories <ul><li>How it works </li></ul><ul><li>Finding and rating stories </li></ul><ul><li>Popular stories rise to top </li></ul>5 4
    41. 46. Objects invite us to <ul><li>Connect </li></ul><ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>React </li></ul><ul><li>Reach out </li></ul>
    42. 47. Part III: So you want to design for social sharing?
    43. 48. Forget the ipod!
    44. 49. Web 2.0 and Virtual Worlds Roo Reynolds Metaverse Evangelist [email_address]
    45. 50. Your innocent laughter was so pure
    46. 51. To my pain it was the cure
    47. 52. My heart fills with pain so much
    48. 53. To see all the lives of people that you have touched..
    49. 54. memories of you are so sweet …
    50. 55. But sometimes <ul><li>they make me weep … </li></ul>
    51. 56. A story of an African Safari An adventure experienced by three little boys. PART ONE
    52. 57. It was November 2006…. <ul><li>The three boys were together in the back of the car. It was hot and sticky. They had been driving a long time. They were getting kind of cranky but Taz kept reminding the other two that they were about to see LOTS OF AFRICAN ANIMALS. </li></ul><ul><li>He knew, because Ouma had told him so. </li></ul>
    53. 58. <ul><li>Oupa suggested a contest: the first one to see an animal would be the winner. He explained that it was an old family tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>And then, Leon saw what looked like a stick on the side of the road…. </li></ul>
    54. 59. <ul><li>“ SNAKE!!!” Leon shouted. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Nonsense,” said Daniel. That’s just a silly old stick.” </li></ul>“ No,” said Taz, look, it’s moving…it IS a snake!”
    55. 60. Looking out different windows <ul><li>When Papa looked out the window on his side of the car, he could see this. </li></ul>When Mama looked out the window on HER side of the car, she could see this. There was a snake AND a stick.
    56. 61. Which snake do you think it is? Me! It is me! I’m a puff adder. The book says I’m ‘large, thick bodied, sluggish, broad head is covered in small scales. Tail very short. Body scales rough. Body yellowish to light brown with numerous dark chevrons… active at dusk, Up to 30 young born in late summer. May give deep warning hiss. Bites readily. Venom causes swelling and pain, occasionally death. Found throughout Africa.’
    57. 62. <ul><li>The snake in the picture was the first puffadder that Ouma had ever seen. She had to ask her brother, Guillaume, what kind of snake it was. Guillaume is a hiker and a mountaineer so he knows more about snakes than she does. He immediately knew the answer. </li></ul>
    58. 63. Does Leon win? Is a snake an animal? No! I’m a banana, not a snake. (How can I get them to come closer so I can SHOW THEM my FANGS?) A snake is a reptile. Reptiles are members of the animal kingdom. So yes, Leon won – the snake IS an animal.
    59. 64. <ul><li>The way to avoid puff adders is to look in the path in front of you when you walk and to make a small amount of noise – like tapping a stick against the rocks in the path. The puff adder then gets a fright and gets out of your way. </li></ul><ul><li>(Shouting is a BAD IDEA because then it frightens all the other animals away too.) </li></ul>
    60. 65. But what about the stick on the other side of the car? No, a stick is not an animal. A stick comes from a tree, so it is part of a plant. HOWEVER, a stick can be an insect. During their exploration of the camp the boys saw several stick insects. BUT THIS STICK? It is a very special thing. It is a message – a signal. There’s one animal in the African bush that likes breaking such leafy sticks off trees to carry around until they get bored, then they drop them. The boys soon found out what that animal is….
    61. 66. Compare two of the little boys to the elephant in SIZE Why is Taz holding his nose???
    62. 67. … .because he’s never ever smelled anything like an elephant before Elephant poo!
    63. 68. <ul><li>Elephants are MUCH bigger in real life than the ones one sees on TV. </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants in Kruger Park are very used to cars and buses and sometimes will allow us to get quite close to them – THEN you can see exactly how big they are. </li></ul>
    64. 69. You can tell how recently an elephant passed by, based on the elephant dung. <ul><li>Can you guess how? </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe you already know? </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t and would like to, ask your father. </li></ul>
    65. 70. They carried on driving….. <ul><li>Although it was very hot, Uncle Eric </li></ul><ul><li>(Dad, to you, Daniel!) insisted that they kept the windows open and the air conditioner off. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Only with the windows open will you hear the birds and the insects and smell the bushveld smells,” he said. </li></ul>
    66. 71. The boys decided to have a counting competition – each had to pick a species, and the one who counted the most members of that species on a day would be the winner. Guess who picked the impala to count?
    67. 72. Once there were so many buffaloes crossing the road that we just had to sit and wait. You don't argue with a herd of buffaloes!
    68. 73. Did we see lions? Not everyone sees lions. But Eric is usually lucky. So make sure you're close to Eric!
    69. 74. They searched between the trees in the distance …. <ul><li>They looked right beside the road; </li></ul><ul><li>Then Daniel looked UP….. </li></ul>
    70. 75. He had spotted an eagle: An African fish eagle
    71. 76. Then we approached a bridge. There was something sitting on the railing
    72. 77. One of the fishermen of the region. A heron.
    73. 78. The heron didn't like the noise from the car and left
    74. 79. Oupa stopped the car. He ALWAYS stops the car on a bridge. WHY?
    75. 80. Because there are almost always things to see... IN the river OR next to the river This time it was a saddle-bill stork
    76. 81. And ME – Baz saw me too, and pointed me out to the boys. He asked them what was the difference between a turtle and a tortoise and THEY DIDN’T KNOW! Imagine that!
    77. 82. And sausages growing on a sausage tree!
    78. 83. <ul><li>Check emails regularly for the next exciting instalment of A STORY OF AN AFRICAN SAFARI </li></ul>
    79. 84. I’m sorry … for the bad times we had to share
    80. 85. I’m thankful … <ul><li>for the sad times you’ve helped me bare. </li></ul>
    81. 86. that have known you. <ul><li>i am proud to be one amongst tons of </li></ul><ul><li>others </li></ul>
    82. 87. So many people you have helped with just a smile
    83. 88. you were the type that was worth waiting for a while … <ul><li>so many memories </li></ul><ul><li>filled with laughter </li></ul>
    84. 89. if only they keep going forever after
    85. 90. years went by it seems so long ago but at the same time i can’t let you go i can’t seem to get over the fact that you’re gone <ul><li>i keep expecting you to show up for more laughs and fun </li></ul>
    86. 91. you were such a young person and you opened my eyes <ul><li>Always a legend you will be in my eyes </li></ul>
    87. 92. Web 2.0
    88. 93. Web 2.0 examples (then and now) <ul><li>Personal websites -> blogs </li></ul><ul><li>Britannica Online -> Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>DoubleClick -> Google AdSense </li></ul><ul><li>Domain name speculation -> search engine optimisation </li></ul><ul><li>Screen scraping -> web services </li></ul><ul><li>Content management systems -> wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Directories (taxonomy) -> tagging (&quot;folksonomy&quot;) </li></ul>
    89. 94. Web 2.0 components / characteristics The Web as “ The Platform” Tools: RSS, AJAX, PHP, Ruby Services, not packaged software Architecture of participation Small pieces loosely joined, or “re-mixed” Harnessing collective intelligence Software that gets better as more people use it Standards: REST, XHTML Techniques: Mash-up, wiki, tagging, blogging Rich user experience Light-weight programming models
    90. 95. Key themes to remember <ul><li>Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated content </li></ul>
    91. 96. Web 2.0 attitude <ul><li>“ Web 2.0 is an attitude not a technology. It’s about enabling and encouraging participation through open applications and services . By open I mean technically open with appropriate APIs but also, more importantly, socially open , with rights granted to use the content in new and exciting contexts.” </li></ul><ul><li>Ian Davis http://iandavis.com/blog/2005/07/talis-web-20-and-all-that </li></ul>
    92. 97. Web 2.0 is understood – so what’s next?
    93. 98. Games?! A few numbers… <ul><li>69% of American heads of households play computer or video games </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, 25% of gamers were over the age of 50 </li></ul><ul><li>The average game player age is 33 </li></ul><ul><li>44% of most frequent game players say they play games online </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, video and computer games sales came in at $7billion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly down on 2004 – due to new consoles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: Entertainment Software Association., “Essential Facts about the Computer and Video Game Industry, 2006” </li></ul>
    94. 99. Virtual Worlds - background <ul><li>Online Games </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Quake, Half-Life, … </li></ul><ul><li>MMORPGs (Massively multiplayer online role-playing games) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Everquest, Project Entropia, World of Warcraft, … </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent online world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Virtual Worlds - Massively multiplayer (but not role-playing games) </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. There.com, Second Life, Big World, … </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The users generate the content </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not really a game; no objectives – ‘just’ a platform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A place for meeting, building, selling, collaborating and exploring. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    95. 100. Virtual Worlds <ul><li>Second Life ( http://secondlife.com ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3,600,000+ user accounts and growing fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1,100,000+ logged on in past 2 months. Usually 15,000+ concurrently online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Active economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Millions of US$ changes hands between players every month. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media coverage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BBC, Wired, Economist, Business Week, Observer, Sunday Times, Guardian, Channel 4, CBS, USA Today, The Register, Forbes, … everyone </li></ul></ul>
    96. 101. BBC – One Big Weekend concert with streaming audio and video
    97. 102. Major League Baseball event hosted in virtual stadium
    98. 103. Regina Spektor – marketed in-world by Warner Bros.
    99. 104. American Apparel virtual store
    100. 105. Reuters have a Second Life office, complete with embedded journalist
    101. 106. Why does IBM care?
    102. 107. Meetings
    103. 108. IBM Alumni event (http://greateribm.com)
    104. 109. IBM Innovation Jam results: Funding for ‘3D Internet’
    105. 110. IBM 12 island innovation complex
    106. 111. Circuit City
    107. 112. Sears
    108. 113. Wimbledon demo… Integrating real-world ‘Hawkeye’ ball tracking data with Second Life for Wimbledon demo July 2006
    109. 114. Australian Open Jan 2007
    110. 115. More possibilities <ul><ul><li>Marketing, brand promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware / Storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media and entertainment (TV?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modelling (visualisation, simulation, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research, including monitoring (and data-mining) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education (e-learning, blended learning, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
    111. 116. What’s next? <ul><li>rooreynolds.com </li></ul><ul><li>eightbar.co.uk </li></ul>
    112. 117. Give up control This is messy!
    113. 118. Some principles…
    114. 119. 1: Make system personally useful <ul><li>For end-user system should have strong personal use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memorable Personal Snippets (e.g., Del.icio.us & Flickr) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-expression (e.g., Newsvine) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social status: Digg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t count on altruism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System should thrive on people’s selfishness </li></ul></ul>
    115. 120. Bite-sized self-expression <ul><li>Creative self-expression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artistic expression (Flickr, YouTube) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humor (YouTube) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual piece should be small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create sets & lists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Mashups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple, guessable URLs for everything </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leave room for games & social play </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalking (some!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gossip </li></ul></ul>
    116. 121. 2: Identify symbiotic relationship between personal & social <ul><li>Personal snippets > Social stream </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures > Organized by Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music > Organized by Playlists </li></ul></ul>
    117. 122. 3: Create porous boundary between public & private <ul><li>Earlier systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (Personal Desktop Software, e.g., Picasa, EndNote) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR Social websites (Shutterfly) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rethink public & private </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People share for the right returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set defaults to public, allow easy change to private </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Give user control </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over individual pieces & sets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delete items from history </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reset /remove profile </li></ul></ul></ul>Privacy settings on Flickr
    118. 123. 4. Allow for levels of participation <ul><li>Everyone does not need to create! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implicit creation (creating by consuming) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remixing—adding value to others’ content </li></ul></ul>Source: Bradley Horowitz’s weblog, Elatable, Feb. 17, 2006, “Creators, Synthesizers, and Consumers”
    119. 124. Why do people digg? “ commenting, digging, burying comments, typing descriptions, reading hundreds of articles and… … for a lot of nerds, using digg is just a casual free-time activity. Entertaining. Fun. Engaging.”
    120. 125. how to encourage participation <ul><li>Insights from Social Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight unique contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for smaller local groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight benefit to self from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highlight benefit to group </li></ul></ul>Source: Using social psychology to motivate contributions to online communities, Ling et al. 2005
    121. 126. 5. Let people feel the presence of others <ul><li>What paths are well worn </li></ul><ul><li>User profiles / photos </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time updating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like a conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense that others are out there </li></ul></ul>What people are digging right now!
    122. 127. 6. And yet, moments of Independence… <ul><li>Choreography: when alone, when part of group </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent mobs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t make it too easy to mimic others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives for originality & uniqueness </li></ul></ul>
    123. 128. Allow for alternative viewpoints & perspectives <ul><li>Social sharing can lead to tyranny of dominant view </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People of a group agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Viewpoint rises to top (popularity lists, tag clouds) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    124. 129. Create conditions for wise crowds <ul><li>Cognitive Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><li>Easy Aggregation </li></ul>
    125. 130. Wise Crowds: Cognitive Diversity <ul><li>Need many perspectives for good answers </li></ul><ul><li>Groups become homogenous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members bring lesser new information in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity reduces groupthink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupthink works by shielding members from outside opinions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diversity reduces conformity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chance that you will change opinion to match group </li></ul></ul>
    126. 131. Wise Crowds: Independence <ul><li>Keeps people’s mistakes from getting correlated (uncorrelated mistakes averaged out) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages people to bring in new viewpoints (diversity) </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Social Proof </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milgram experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People assume that groups know what they are doing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming crowd is wise, leads to herd like behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can sometimes lead to good decisions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Cascades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of uninformed choices, building upon each other </li></ul></ul>
    127. 132. Wise Crowds: Decentralization “ A crowd of decentralized people working to solve a problem on their own without any central effort to guide them, come up with better solutions, rather than a top-down driven solution.” Suroweicki
    128. 133. Wise Crowds: Easy Aggregation <ul><li>A decentralized system can pick right solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With easy way for information to be aggregated across system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: votes on Digg </li></ul></ul>
    129. 134. 7. Enable Serendipity <ul><li>Don’t make navigation all about popularity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to some popular stuff (keep this fast moving) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make the “long tail” accessible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity as a jump off point to other ways of exploring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide personalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendations using collaborative filtering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar tags, content, others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ad-hoc groups? </li></ul>
    130. 135. 8. Most of all, allow for play
    131. 136. Things to try at home! <ul><li>Create an account on myspace.com </li></ul><ul><li>Read Emergence, Wisdom of Crowds </li></ul><ul><li>Play a Multiplayer Online Game (WOW, Second Life) </li></ul><ul><li>Play with an API (try GoogleMaps API) </li></ul><ul><li>Try a mobile social application (DodgeBall) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask your friends what they find “fun” on the web </li></ul>
    132. 137. Questions? www.rashmisinha.com www.uzanto.com
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