Jean Piaget was born in Neuchatel, Switzerland, on August 9, 1896. He was the oldest child of Arthur Piaget, professor of medieval literature at the University, and of Rebecca Jackson. In his early years, he studied about mollusks and he love sciences Eventually, Piaget changed his study from mollusks to the study of philosophy.
After high school, he attended the University of Neuchatel, where he eventually obtained his Doctorate in Science in 1918. During university, he had two philosophical essays published, which were important to the general orientation of his thinking He worked for a year at psychology labs in Zurich and at Bleuler’s famous psychiatric clinic. After a semester at the University of Zurich where he developed an interest for psychoanalysis, he left Switzerland for France.
In 1919, he taught psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris. Here he did research intelligence testing. In 1921, he became director of studies at the J.J. Rousseau Institute in Geneva. In 1923, he married Valentine Chatenay and had three children, whose intellectual development from infancy to language as studied by Piaget. He died in Geneva on September 16, 1980
Schema/Scheme: A representation in the mind of a set of ideas or actions which go together Assimilation: The process of taking in information into our previously existing schemas. Accommodation: Involves altering existing ideas or schemas as a result of new information or new experiences. Equilibration: A mechanism that assists children in achieving a balance between assimilation and accommodation
Piaget proposed that children’s thinking does not develop completely smoothly Instead there are certain points at which it takes off and progresses into completely new areas and abilities. In his view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions which later progress into changes in mental operations.
1. Each stage is a structured whole and in a state of equilibrium The stages are qualitative within the structures and quantitative between structures2. Each stage derives from the previous stage and incorporate and transform to prepare for the next No going back
3. The stages follow an invariant sequence. There is no skipping stages.4. The stages are universal. Culture does not impact the stages. Children everywhere go through the same stages no matter what their cultural background is. 5. Each stage is a coming into being. There is a gradual progression from stage to stage (Brainerd, 1978).
1. Piaget’s theory is based on the idea that the SENSORIMOTOR developing child builds cognitive structures STAGE (networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or her environment) 2. PRE- Jean Piaget formulated four stages of intellectual- OPERATIONAL cognitive development and the process by which STAGE children progress through them. During all development stages, the child 3. experiences his or her environment using what ever CONCRETE OPERATIONAL mental maps he or she has consulted so far. STAGE 4. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
Sensorimotor Stage (Infancy): In this periods intelligence is demonstrated through motor activity, without the use of symbols. Knowledge of the world is developing but limited because of how it is based on physical interactions and experiences.Pre-operational stage (Toddler and Early Childhood): Intelligence is demonstrated through the use of symbols, language use matures, and memory and imagination are developed in this period. Egocentric thinking predominates.
Concrete operational stage (Elementary and early adolescence): In this stage intelligence is demonstrated through logical and systematic manipulation of symbols related to concrete objects. Operational thinking develops and egocentric thought diminishesFormal operational stage (Adolescence and adulthood): Intelligence is demonstrated through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts (conceptual reasoning). Early in the period egocentric thought revisits.
Sensory contact understanding. The child explores the world surrounding them using it’s senses Initially sucking/grasping reflex and moving onto reaching for objects out of reach.
Major development within this stage. Initially the baby cannot understand a object exists out of sight. As the baby reaches around 7/8 months a child will begin to understand the object/person still exists when out of sight.
Toddler can understand the use of symbols and language. This is an example of symbolic thinking. I.E pretend play. Language is now understood.
Animism…child understands ‘bad table’, believes inanimate objects have feelings as they do. Egocentricism…Can only see the world from their own point of view All these developments take place in the Pre- Operational Stage.
Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years)•"Operation" - Forms of mental actionthrough which older children solveproblems and reason logically•Key feature of stage is extensiverepresentation•Pre-op kids develop “theory of mind”(understanding of mental processes)
Limits of preoperational stage•Still very egocentric –Mountain task
The children are now able to conserve, They understand that although the appearance has changed the thing it self does not.
What is CONSERVATION?“the awareness that a quantity remainsthe same despite a change in itsappearance” =
Most of previous characteristics discussed have now developed. The child shows logical thinking and is able to work through abstract problems and use logic without the presence of concrete manipulation. E.g. If Kelly is taller than John and John is taller than Pete who is the tallest? This is an example of inferential reasoning.
Stages of Cognitive Development Continued These stages form what Piaget called an invariant developmental sequence. He believed that children progress through the stages in exactly the order in which they are listed. They cannot skip any of these stages because each succeeding stage builds on the previous one and correspond to a more intricate way of thinking.
Jean Piaget’s theories are imbedded into the school system in the sense that the curriculum is based on his stage theory. The curriculum is designed to teach students at the first stage and progressively teach new learning to change the schemas in order to move students through each stage. The teacher starts at the basics introducing a new sublet and once the knowledge of that subject is mastered, they would create a schema.
Underestimated the importance of knowledge Gagne: Complex skills can be acquired easily once simpler prerequisite skills have been learned. Development is based on LEARNING new skills - continuous not discontinuous. Underestimated the ability of children . Tasks were methodologically flawed Underestimated the impact of CULTURE: Piaget’s tasks are culturally biased Schooling and literacy affect rates of development This suggest that there were design flaws with Piagets original study.
Demand characteristics:- the children may have wanted to please the experimenter therefore changing their behaviour. Social setting:-Piaget ignored the effect of the social setting upon the child.The way adults use language and gestures.
Strengths•Active rather than passive view of thechild.•Revealed important invariants incognitive development.•Errors informative.•Perceptual-motor learning rather thanlanguage important for development.•Tasks.
In Summary…….•Piaget’s theory is wide-rangingand influential.•Source of continued controversy.•People continue to address manyof the questions he raised, butusing different methods andconcepts.
1. Jane has learned to feed herself with a spoon. When her mother gives her a fork, she immediately begins to feed herself. Jane has __________ the fork into her schema for utensils a) accommodated b)appropriated c)assimilated
2. A schema is a... a) Category of knowledge that allows us to interpret and understand the world. b)Process of taking in new information. c)Process of balancing old knowledge and new information. d)None of the above
3. Jean Piaget was a _____________. a) Child psychologist b)Developmental psychologist c)Biologist d) Genetic epistemologist
4. The ability to think abstractly and systematically solve problems emerges during the ___________. a) concrete operational stage b)sensorimotor stage c) formal operational stage d)preoperational stage