The particular learning difficulty or the combination of learning difficulties experienced by a student with a Learning Disability affects the student’s ability to study and to learn. This is not because the student is unable to study or learn, but because so much of the teaching and learning that takes place in educational institutions is dependent upon the academic skills of reading and writing of printed materials. With flexible presentation of teaching and learning materials and alternative assessment of tasks, the student with a Learning Disability is not only able to learn, but is able to demonstrate their understanding and competence in the content of the subject being offered.
The Australian Learning Disability Association recognises this definition as the most accurate available and it is included in the OAO II resource.
People with learning disabilities are able to contribute positively to our global society in all walks of life. People who have contributed in the past include: Albert Einstien Agatha Christie Winston Churchill Thomas Edison People who are contributing now include: Richard Branson Robin Williams Whoopi Goldberg Tom Cruise
Scenarios• Manpreet (4 years old) has trouble settling in at nursery because he gets very upset and angry when the other children don’t understand him• Tariq (8 years old) is having real difficulty with reading but he seems very bright. His teacher has just found out that he had difficulty learning to talk.
• Manisha (6 years old) got into trouble at school today with a new teacher because she didn’t do what the teacher wanted but Manisha didn’t understand what the teacher meant.• Harish (12) doesn’t want to go to school, he doesn’t seem to have any friends and his parents think he is being bullied because of his speech
ADDRESSING NEEDS OFCHILDREN WITH LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES PRESENTED BY: Ms. GURKIRAT KAUR ASST. PROF. CHITKARA UNIVERSITY
Who is a Student with a Learning Disability? A student with a Learning Disability is a student with learning abilities who: • falls within the range of intellectual ability from average to superior intelligence; • is able to learn; • has disabilities in one or more of the academic skills of reading, writing, spelling or mathematics.
Definition of Learning Disability LD Association of Ontario - Learning disabilities refers to a variety of disorders that affect the acquisition, retention, understanding, organization or use of verbal and/or non-verbal information. The impairments are generally life-long. Some impairments may be noted during the pre-school years by low academic achievement, while others may not become evident until much later.
Definition of Learning Disability cont . Learning disabilities range in severity and invariably interfere with the acquisition and use of one or more of the following important skills: • oral language (listening, speaking and understanding) • reading (decoding and comprehension) • written language (spelling and written expression) • mathematics (computation and problem solving) Learning disabilities may also cause difficulties with organizational skills, and social interaction.
Types of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia Central Auditory Processing A language and reading disability Disorder Difficulty processing and Dyscalculia remembering language-related Problems with arithmetic and math tasks concepts Non-Verbal Learning Disorders Trouble with nonverbal cues, e.g., Dysgraphia body language; poor coordination, A writing disorder resulting in clumsy illegibility Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Deficit Reverses letters; cannot copy Disorder) accurately; Problems with motor coordination Language Disorders (Aphasia/Dysphasia) Trouble understanding spoken language; poor reading comprehension
Celebrities with dyslexia• Tom Cruise • Abhishek Bachchan• Walt Disney • Albert Einstein
• Dyslexia involves difficulty with LANGUAGE • Intelligence is not the problem• There is an expected GAP between their potential for learning and their school achievement
• Individuals with dyslexia have a wide range of talents e.g. art, drama, entrepreneurial work etc.• They often have difficulty organizing themselves • Each dyslexic individual has different strengths and weaknesses • Often other members of the family have dyslexia or similar difficulties
Identifying symptoms delay in talking difficulty with rhymes and rhythm difficulty with remembering rote information, e.g. telephone no., namesdifficulty in remembering and following directions
Identifying symptomsdifficulty in learning letter /character symbols and their sounds unusual reading and writing errorsdifficulty in remembering words over timedifficulty in comprehension from textdifficulty in organizing ideas in text writing
• Other common features accompanying dyslexia: – poor pencil grip and handwriting – poor sense of time – poor organization and ability to keep belongings – poor study habits
What is Dyscalculia?• Developmental Dyscalculia was first recognised by Dept for education and Skills 2001 and defined as ‘a condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Even if they produce a correct answer or use a correct method they may do so mechanically and without confidence.’
How do I recognise a child who has Dyscalculia?• the child will be performing below teacher’s expectations with no obvious reason such as illness• This underachievement may manifest itself in specifics such as knowing the value of numbers, realising 9 is 1 less that 10• They may have no understanding of why or what the result means in a sum• Do not be surprised that those who have difficulties in decoding and understanding written words and learning patterns involving symbols also experience in learning facts, symbols which are used in Mathematics
Dyscalculic pupils may:• Have sound technical reading skills but fail to understand the mathematical language• Difficulty linking mathematical words to numerals• Fails to remember the sequence of calculations in multi-step word problem• Forget the formula• Unable to read the time• Difficulty with mathematical language of money
Dyscalculic pupils:• Are worried that they work more slowly and incorrectly• Lack confidence – even when they produce the correct answer• Will adopt avoidance strategies• Dislike whole group interactive sessions
Bill Gates Thomas EdisonBenjamin Franklin Albert Einstein
What is dyspraxia?An impairment or immaturity in the organisation of movement Associated difficulties include: • Language delay • Perceptual difficulties • Difficulties in planning and organising thought • Self-esteem and emotional Difficulties Daniel Radcliffe
How do we diagnose it?• Usually presented by parents or teacher• Often a history of poor motor development e.g. late walking, falling over a lot, poor ball catching skills etc• Immature or poor drawing skills• Difficulty with personal skills especially dressing, eating, toileting, shoe laces etc
How do we diagnose it?• Disorganised – constantly losing things, forgetting equipment, can’t follow timetables, forgets homework• Late learning motor skills such as riding a bike
What is dysgraphia?• A learning disability that affects writing abilities. • Illegible handwriting • Irregular and inconsistent letter formations • Write legibly but very slowly and/or very small • Ability to express ideas is interfered
Diagnosis of dysgraphia• Dysgraphia cannot be diagnosed solely by looking at handwriting samples.• Not only the finished product is assessed, but also the process (The International Dyslexia Association, 1996-2007).
Types of error• letter substitution errors “apple” --> aBBel• letter omission errors “swing” --> swin• letter addition errors “across -> acccross• case substitution errors Queen --> quEEn• crab --> craB; ladder --> laDDer; apple --> aBBel
Accommodations for Dyslexia• Timing/Scheduling – more time in completing written work / exams – avoid closely packed multiple exam sessions
• Presentation Format – Larger print with less crowding – Questions and answers on same page – Directions in simple wording, child’s understanding checked – Test items read to student
• Setting – Testing in a small separate group – Limit distractions
• Response Format – answers on large-spaced paper – students answers verbally – spelling etc requirements waived – aids allowed e.g. dictionaries
Accommodations for Dyscalculia • First step must be to identify a student’s strengths and weaknesses, understand how a student learns best • Use tutoring outside the classroom, with a one-on-one instructor
• Use graph paper to organize work and ideas • Use different approaches to memorizing math facts, formulas, rules, etc. • Encourage students to work hard to “visualize” math problems, draw pictures, look at diagrams, etc.
• Encourage verbalizing while problem solving, this uses auditory skills which may be a strength• Try to relate problems to real life experiences• Use rhythm or music to help memorize math facts, etc.• Monitor student progress on a frequent basis BE PATIENT
Accommodations for Dyspraxia• Multi-disciplinary approach to tackle learning, motor skills and self esteem Interventions to make life easier and learn skills which are difficult eg: – List of equipment on inside of school bag or pencil case – Practising ball skills, using cutlery, drawing, PC instead of handwriting
Accommodations for DYSGRAPHIA •Use paper with raised lines for a sensory guide to staying within the lines. •Try different pens and pencils to find one thats most comfortable. •Practice writing letters and numbers in the air with big arm movements to improve motor memory of theseimportant shapes. Also practice letters and numbers with smaller hand or finger motions. •Encourage proper grip, posture and paper positioning for writing. Its important to reinforce this early as its difficult for students to unlearn bad habits later on. •Be patient and positive, encourage practice and praiseeffort - becoming a good writer takes time and practice.
A Student with a LANGUAGE DISABILITY is a Student with SPEACIAL ABILITIES who can SUCCEED at ACADEMIC STUDY