Training Needs Assessment:  A Systematic Approach
“Remember, training is notwhat is ultimately important…performance is.”        Marc Rosenberg
Did you know...“Not more than 6-10 % ofexpenditures in training actuallyresult in transfer to the job.”           Broad an...
Key SkillAsking questions…      ???Asking the RIGHTquestions!
In the “Real World”   You cannot afford to not do a front-    end analysis   Something is better than nothing   Do the ...
Needs Assessment DefinitionA needs assessment is the processof identifying performancerequirements and the "gap" betweenwh...
Macro vs. Micro        Macro               Microaligned with     initiated by strategic goals   performancethree levels...
Instructional Design      Process ANALYZE      DESIGN DEVELOP     IMPLEMENT       EVALUATE
Why ISD?On the job      GAP      Classroom orperformance              other type of                         training or   ...
Analyze What is the problem?             Problem Analysis Is it a training problem?             Performance Analysis ...
What is Problem andPerformance Analysis?Clearly defining the problem or opportunityA formal procedure used to analyze de...
Robert Mager1. Define the problem?2. Determine the importance   Is it worth solving?3. Determine the cause(s)4. Identify ...
Step 1: Define the problem      Describe Discrepancy  DESIRED PERFORMANCE (Optimals) - ACTUAL PERFORMANCE (Actuals)    = P...
Step 2: Is it important?Why is it important?What if you did nothing?How big is it? (Quantify if possible)Who cares?“I...
If the answer is no…..    IGNORE                  REJOICE
Step 3: Determine Cause(s)       Is it a problem of skill                   or         a problem of will?        I don’t  ...
Yes, it is a skill deficiency   Arrange Formal     no    Used to       Training             do it?                        ...
Other questions   Change the      Job          Simpler                    way?   Arrange on-      the-job     training    ...
If a skill deficiency..Provide trainingProvide practiceProvide feedbackSimplify the taskDevelop a job aidOJTTransfe...
P. 37Yes, it is a problem of will...                          Remove      Performance      punishing?         Punishment  ...
And one last question...    Obstacles?      Remove                   Obstacles
Step 4: To train or not to                 P. 39train?                          Calculate costFirst determine cause(s)   ...
To solve a performanceissue Training may not be the answer Training may not be the only answer
P. 39       Cause              SolutionIf   skill or knowledge……….trainingIf   lack feedback……………..feedback, standardsI...
P. 40If training is the answer….Formal trainingSelf studyTechnology basedJob related/workplace approaches
P. 42    Outcomes of Problem and     Performance AnalysisMore complete picture of problemIs it training? Is it training ...
Task/Competency Analysis   “What do learners need to learn?”     Task Analysis      Competency AnalysisFor more skill    ...
Steps in Task AnalysisBreak job into major functionsBreak functions into major tasksBreak tasks into stepsIdentify tra...
Task Analysis InterviewsManagersBest performersJob incumbentsSubject matter experts
Competency AnalysisWhat are competencies?  Enduring characteristics of a person that   result in superior on-the-job per...
What is a competencymodel?Identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, ...
What do you want to   P.                           61           know?General characteristicsSpecific knowledge and skill...
Information is Used inThree Important Ways  To help determine   where to begin the   content of the   training program  ...
Methods for collectingdataData gathering is cornerstone of any needs assessment projectCan be time consuming
Data Collection MethodsInterviewsSurveys/QuestionnairesFocus GroupsObservationExisting Data
Final ExamWhy do we bother with needs analysis?Where does TNA fit in the ISD process?T or F: Training is the solution t...
“If you think trainingis expensive,tryignorance.”
ThankYou!
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Assessing training needs

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Assessing training needs

  1. 1. Training Needs Assessment: A Systematic Approach
  2. 2. “Remember, training is notwhat is ultimately important…performance is.” Marc Rosenberg
  3. 3. Did you know...“Not more than 6-10 % ofexpenditures in training actuallyresult in transfer to the job.” Broad and Newstrom
  4. 4. Key SkillAsking questions… ???Asking the RIGHTquestions!
  5. 5. In the “Real World” You cannot afford to not do a front- end analysis Something is better than nothing Do the best you can Need to have a theoretical base Key skill: Focus your questions
  6. 6. Needs Assessment DefinitionA needs assessment is the processof identifying performancerequirements and the "gap" betweenwhat performance is required andwhat presently exists.
  7. 7. Macro vs. Micro Macro Microaligned with initiated by strategic goals performancethree levels problems or change organizational assessment done to clarify problem, occupational determine if training individual is the solution, analyze performance, and characteristics of trainees
  8. 8. Instructional Design Process ANALYZE DESIGN DEVELOP IMPLEMENT EVALUATE
  9. 9. Why ISD?On the job GAP Classroom orperformance other type of training or intervention
  10. 10. Analyze What is the problem? Problem Analysis Is it a training problem? Performance Analysis What skills and knowledge should Task/Competency be included in the Analysis training program? Who needs to be Learner Analysis trained?
  11. 11. What is Problem andPerformance Analysis?Clearly defining the problem or opportunityA formal procedure used to analyze defined needs to determine their causes and identify appropriate solutions.
  12. 12. Robert Mager1. Define the problem?2. Determine the importance Is it worth solving?3. Determine the cause(s)4. Identify training vs. non-training solutions5. Select the best (most cost-effective) solutions
  13. 13. Step 1: Define the problem Describe Discrepancy DESIRED PERFORMANCE (Optimals) - ACTUAL PERFORMANCE (Actuals) = POSSIBLE TRAINING NEED
  14. 14. Step 2: Is it important?Why is it important?What if you did nothing?How big is it? (Quantify if possible)Who cares?“Is the cost of the discrepancy high enough that it seems worth pursuing a solution?”
  15. 15. If the answer is no….. IGNORE REJOICE
  16. 16. Step 3: Determine Cause(s) Is it a problem of skill or a problem of will? I don’t I don’t wanna! wanna! I don’t know how.
  17. 17. Yes, it is a skill deficiency Arrange Formal no Used to Training do it? yes Arrange Practice no Used often? Arrange Feedback yes
  18. 18. Other questions Change the Job Simpler way? Arrange on- the-job training Potential Transfer or ? terminate
  19. 19. If a skill deficiency..Provide trainingProvide practiceProvide feedbackSimplify the taskDevelop a job aidOJTTransferTerminate
  20. 20. P. 37Yes, it is a problem of will... Remove Performance punishing? Punishment Non-performance Arrange rewarded? Positive Consequences Arrange Does performance consequences matter?
  21. 21. And one last question... Obstacles? Remove Obstacles
  22. 22. Step 4: To train or not to P. 39train? Calculate costFirst determine cause(s) Select best solution(s)Only then look at possible solutions ImplementSeek integrated solution systems that get to the root of the problem
  23. 23. To solve a performanceissue Training may not be the answer Training may not be the only answer
  24. 24. P. 39 Cause SolutionIf skill or knowledge……….trainingIf lack feedback……………..feedback, standardsIf not motivated…………….rewards, consequencesIf unclear expectations…..std, measure, discussIf job environment…………change environmentIf potential……………………change personnel
  25. 25. P. 40If training is the answer….Formal trainingSelf studyTechnology basedJob related/workplace approaches
  26. 26. P. 42 Outcomes of Problem and Performance AnalysisMore complete picture of problemIs it training? Is it training plus…Make solid recommendationsIf is training or job aid….on to task or competency analysis!
  27. 27. Task/Competency Analysis “What do learners need to learn?” Task Analysis Competency AnalysisFor more skill Soft skills training oriented jobs such as mgmt,When need consistent supervision set of training  Professional jobs requirements Career pathing Leadership development
  28. 28. Steps in Task AnalysisBreak job into major functionsBreak functions into major tasksBreak tasks into stepsIdentify training outcomes
  29. 29. Task Analysis InterviewsManagersBest performersJob incumbentsSubject matter experts
  30. 30. Competency AnalysisWhat are competencies? Enduring characteristics of a person that result in superior on-the-job performance Areas of personal capability that enable employees to successfully perform their jobs by achieving outcomes or successfully performing tasks
  31. 31. What is a competencymodel?Identifies the competencies necessary for each job as well as the knowledge, skills, behavior, and personality characteristics underlying each competency.
  32. 32. What do you want to P. 61 know?General characteristicsSpecific knowledge and skillLearning stylesSpecial needs
  33. 33. Information is Used inThree Important Ways To help determine where to begin the content of the training program To determine how to present the content To get buy-in
  34. 34. Methods for collectingdataData gathering is cornerstone of any needs assessment projectCan be time consuming
  35. 35. Data Collection MethodsInterviewsSurveys/QuestionnairesFocus GroupsObservationExisting Data
  36. 36. Final ExamWhy do we bother with needs analysis?Where does TNA fit in the ISD process?T or F: Training is the solution to most performance problems.What are at least 4 methods of collecting data?What is the key skill one must use in conducting an effective needs analysis?
  37. 37. “If you think trainingis expensive,tryignorance.”
  38. 38. ThankYou!
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