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  • 1. Foundations of Group Behavior
  • 2. Groups
    • Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives
    • Formal or informal
  • 3. Defining and Classifying Groups Formal Command Groups Tasks Groups Interest Groups Friendship Groups Informal
  • 4. Types of Groups
    • Formal
      • A designated work group defined by the organisation’s structure.
        • Command
          • A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.
        • Task
          • Those working together to complete a job task.
  • 5. Types of Groups
    • Informal
      • A group that is neither formally structures nor organisationally determined.
        • Interest
          • Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned.
        • Friendship
          • Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
  • 6. Stages of Group Development
    • The Five Stage Model
      • Forming stage characterised by much uncertainty.
      • Storming stage characterised by intragroup conflict.
      • Norming stage characterised by close relationships and cohesiveness.
      • Performing stage, when the group is fully functional.
      • Adjourning stage (for temporary gruops) characterised by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.
  • 7. Why People Join Groups
  • 8. Basic Group Concepts
    • Roles
    • Norms
    • Status
    • Cohesiveness
    • Size
    • Composition
  • 9. Roles
    • To engage in a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a social unit
  • 10. Roles
    • Role Identity: Certain attitudes and behaviour consistent with a role.
    • Role Perception: An individual’s view of how he or she is suppose to act in a given situation.
  • 11. Roles
    • Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation.
      • Psychological contract
        • Unwritten agreement that exists between employees and their employer
        • Sets out mutual expectations
    • Role Conflict: A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.
  • 12. Norms
    • Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are adopted and shared by the group’s members
  • 13. The Hawthorne Studies
    • Series of studies at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works, Chicago
    • Examined the relation between the physical environment and productivity
    • Researchers’ findings contradicted their anticipated results
  • 14. The Hawthorne Studies
    • Concluded that a worker’s behavior and sentiments were closely related
    • Group influences were significant in affecting individual behavior.
  • 15. The Hawthorne Studies
    • Group standards were highly effective in establishing individual worker output.
    • Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
  • 16. Conformity and the Asch Studies
    • Adjusting one’s behaviour to align with the norms of the group.
      • Asch’s studies demonstrated that subjects conformed in about 35% of the trials
      • Members desire to be one of the group and avoid being visibly different
      • Members with differing opinions feel extensive pressure to align with others
  • 17. Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study X A B C
  • 18.
    • Status - a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others
  • 19. What Determines Status?
    • The power a person wields over others
    • A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals
    • An individual’s personal characteristics
  • 20. Cohesiveness
    • The degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group
  • 21. Relationship of Cohesiveness, Performance Norms and Productivity Cohesiveness Performance Norms High Low High Low Decrease in productivity No significant effect on productivity Strong increase in productivity Moderate increase in productivity
  • 22. How Can Managers Encourage Cohesiveness?
    • Make the group smaller
    • Encourage agreement on group goals
    • Increase the time spent together
    • Increase the status and perceived difficulty of group membership
  • 23. More Ways Managers Can Encourage Cohesiveness
    • Stimulate competition with other groups
    • Give rewards to the group rather than members
    • Physically isolate the group
  • 24. How Size Affects a Group
    • Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks
    • Large groups are consistently better at problem solving
    • Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance
  • 25.
    • Social loafing - tendency to exert less effort in a group than as an individual
  • 26. Composition
    • When a group is diverse, there is an increased probability that it will possess the needed characteristics to complete its tasks effectively.
  • 27. Composition
    • Diversity promotes conflict, which stimulates creativity, which leads to improved decision making
  • 28. Group Decision Making
    • Strengths:
      • More complete knowledge and information
      • Increased diversity of views
      • Higher quality decisions
      • Acceptance of a solution
  • 29. Group Decision Making
    • Weaknesses
      • Time Consuming
      • Conformity pressures in groups
      • Dominated by one or a few members
      • Ambiguous responsibility
  • 30. Individual versus Group Decision Making
    • Individual
    • More efficient
    • Speed
    • No meetings
    • No discussions
    • Clear accountability
    • Consistent values
    • Group
    • More effective
    • More information and knowledge
    • Diversity of views
    • Higher-quality decisions
    • Increased acceptance
  • 31. Symptoms of Groupthink
    • Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
      • Group members rationalize any resistance to their assumptions
      • Members pressure any doubters to support the alternative favored by the majority
  • 32. Symptoms of Groupthink
      • Doubters keep silent about misgivings and minimize their importance
      • Group interprets members’ silence as a “yes” vote for the majority
  • 33. Variables Influencing Groupthink
    • Group’s cohesiveness
    • Leader’s behavior
    • Time pressures
    • Failure to follow methodical decision-making procedures
  • 34. Groupshift
    • Decision of the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group’s discussion
  • 35. Groupshift
    • In discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold. In some situations caution dominates and there is a conservative shift. More often groups tend toward a risky shift.
  • 36. Selecting the Best Decision-Making Technique
    • Brainstorming
    • Nominal group technique
    • Electronic meetings