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Foundations of Group Behavior
Groups <ul><li>Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives...
Defining and  Classifying Groups Formal Command Groups Tasks Groups Interest Groups Friendship Groups Informal
Types of Groups <ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A designated work group defined by the organisation’s structure. </li...
Types of Groups <ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group that is neither formally structures nor organisationally de...
Stages of Group Development <ul><li>The Five Stage Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming  stage characterised by much uncert...
Why People Join Groups
Basic Group Concepts <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></...
Roles <ul><li>To engage in a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a soci...
Roles <ul><li>Role Identity:  Certain attitudes and behaviour consistent with a role. </li></ul><ul><li>Role Perception:  ...
Roles <ul><li>Role Expectations:  How others believe a person should act in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psych...
Norms <ul><li>Acceptable standards of behavior within a group  that are adopted  and shared by  the group’s  members </li>...
The Hawthorne Studies  <ul><li>Series of studies at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works, Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>...
The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Concluded that a worker’s behavior and sentiments were closely related </li></ul><ul><li>Gro...
The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Group standards were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. </li></ul><u...
Conformity and the Asch Studies <ul><li>Adjusting one’s behaviour to align with the norms of the group. </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Examples of Cards Used  in Asch Study X A B C
<ul><li>Status  - a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others   </li></ul>
What Determines Status? <ul><li>The power a person wields over others </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s ability to contribute t...
Cohesiveness <ul><li>The degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the gro...
Relationship of Cohesiveness, Performance Norms and Productivity Cohesiveness Performance Norms High Low High Low Decrease...
How Can Managers  Encourage Cohesiveness? <ul><li>Make the group smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage agreement on  group g...
More Ways Managers Can Encourage Cohesiveness <ul><li>Stimulate competition with other groups </li></ul><ul><li>Give rewar...
How Size Affects a Group <ul><li>Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups are consiste...
<ul><li>Social loafing  -  tendency to exert less effort in a group than as an individual </li></ul>
Composition <ul><li>When a group is diverse, there is an increased probability that it will possess the needed characteris...
Composition <ul><li>Diversity promotes conflict, which stimulates creativity, which leads to improved decision making   </...
Group Decision Making <ul><li>Strengths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More complete knowledge and information </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Group Decision Making <ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity pressu...
Individual versus Group Decision Making <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li><...
Symptoms of Groupthink <ul><li>Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative...
Symptoms of Groupthink <ul><ul><li>Doubters keep silent about misgivings and minimize their importance </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Variables Influencing Groupthink <ul><li>Group’s cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Leader’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Time p...
Groupshift <ul><li>Decision of the group reflects  the dominant  decision-making  norm that develops  during the group’s  ...
Groupshift <ul><li>In discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate ...
Selecting the Best Decision-Making Technique <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal group technique </li></ul><ul...
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Ob 9

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Transcript of "Ob 9"

  1. 1. Foundations of Group Behavior
  2. 2. Groups <ul><li>Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Formal or informal </li></ul>
  3. 3. Defining and Classifying Groups Formal Command Groups Tasks Groups Interest Groups Friendship Groups Informal
  4. 4. Types of Groups <ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A designated work group defined by the organisation’s structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those working together to complete a job task. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Groups <ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group that is neither formally structures nor organisationally determined. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Stages of Group Development <ul><li>The Five Stage Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming stage characterised by much uncertainty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storming stage characterised by intragroup conflict. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Norming stage characterised by close relationships and cohesiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing stage, when the group is fully functional. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjourning stage (for temporary gruops) characterised by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Why People Join Groups
  8. 8. Basic Group Concepts <ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><li>Status </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul>
  9. 9. Roles <ul><li>To engage in a set of expected behavior patterns that are attributed to occupying a given position in a social unit </li></ul>
  10. 10. Roles <ul><li>Role Identity: Certain attitudes and behaviour consistent with a role. </li></ul><ul><li>Role Perception: An individual’s view of how he or she is suppose to act in a given situation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Roles <ul><li>Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unwritten agreement that exists between employees and their employer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sets out mutual expectations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Role Conflict: A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Norms <ul><li>Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are adopted and shared by the group’s members </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Series of studies at Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works, Chicago </li></ul><ul><li>Examined the relation between the physical environment and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers’ findings contradicted their anticipated results </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Concluded that a worker’s behavior and sentiments were closely related </li></ul><ul><li>Group influences were significant in affecting individual behavior. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Group standards were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. </li></ul><ul><li>Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conformity and the Asch Studies <ul><li>Adjusting one’s behaviour to align with the norms of the group. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asch’s studies demonstrated that subjects conformed in about 35% of the trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members desire to be one of the group and avoid being visibly different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members with differing opinions feel extensive pressure to align with others </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study X A B C
  18. 18. <ul><li>Status - a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others </li></ul>
  19. 19. What Determines Status? <ul><li>The power a person wields over others </li></ul><ul><li>A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals </li></ul><ul><li>An individual’s personal characteristics </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cohesiveness <ul><li>The degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group </li></ul>
  21. 21. Relationship of Cohesiveness, Performance Norms and Productivity Cohesiveness Performance Norms High Low High Low Decrease in productivity No significant effect on productivity Strong increase in productivity Moderate increase in productivity
  22. 22. How Can Managers Encourage Cohesiveness? <ul><li>Make the group smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage agreement on group goals </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the time spent together </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the status and perceived difficulty of group membership </li></ul>
  23. 23. More Ways Managers Can Encourage Cohesiveness <ul><li>Stimulate competition with other groups </li></ul><ul><li>Give rewards to the group rather than members </li></ul><ul><li>Physically isolate the group </li></ul>
  24. 24. How Size Affects a Group <ul><li>Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups are consistently better at problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Social loafing - tendency to exert less effort in a group than as an individual </li></ul>
  26. 26. Composition <ul><li>When a group is diverse, there is an increased probability that it will possess the needed characteristics to complete its tasks effectively. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Composition <ul><li>Diversity promotes conflict, which stimulates creativity, which leads to improved decision making </li></ul>
  28. 28. Group Decision Making <ul><li>Strengths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More complete knowledge and information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased diversity of views </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher quality decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance of a solution </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Group Decision Making <ul><li>Weaknesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time Consuming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conformity pressures in groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dominated by one or a few members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ambiguous responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Individual versus Group Decision Making <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Speed </li></ul><ul><li>No meetings </li></ul><ul><li>No discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Clear accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent values </li></ul><ul><li>Group </li></ul><ul><li>More effective </li></ul><ul><li>More information and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of views </li></ul><ul><li>Higher-quality decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Increased acceptance </li></ul>
  31. 31. Symptoms of Groupthink <ul><li>Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group members rationalize any resistance to their assumptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members pressure any doubters to support the alternative favored by the majority </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Symptoms of Groupthink <ul><ul><li>Doubters keep silent about misgivings and minimize their importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group interprets members’ silence as a “yes” vote for the majority </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Variables Influencing Groupthink <ul><li>Group’s cohesiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Leader’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Time pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to follow methodical decision-making procedures </li></ul>
  34. 34. Groupshift <ul><li>Decision of the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group’s discussion </li></ul>
  35. 35. Groupshift <ul><li>In discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they hold. In some situations caution dominates and there is a conservative shift. More often groups tend toward a risky shift. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Selecting the Best Decision-Making Technique <ul><li>Brainstorming </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal group technique </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic meetings </li></ul>
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