Ob 4


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Ob 4

  1. 1. Values <ul><li>Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Value Attributes <ul><li>Values have both content and intensity attributes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The content attribute says that a mode of conduct is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The intensity attribute specifies how important it is. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Value System <ul><li>Values are considered subjective and vary across people and cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>Value System can be defined as a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rokeach Value Survey <ul><li>Milton Rokeach created the RVS. </li></ul><ul><li>RVS consists of two sets of values, with each set containing 18 individual value items. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rokeach Value Survey <ul><li>Terminal Values refer to desirable end states. These are the goals that a person would like to achieve during his / her life time. </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumental Values refer to preferable modes of behaviour or means of achieving the terminal values. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Values Across Cultures <ul><li>Hofstede’s Framework for assessing cultures: </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede surveyed more than 1,16,000 IBM employees in 40 countries about their work related values. </li></ul><ul><li>He found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Values Across Cultures <ul><li>Power Distance: The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organisations is distributed unequally. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Values Across Cultures <ul><li>Individualism vs. Collectivism: The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Describing a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Values Across Cultures <ul><li>Achievement vs. Nurturing: The extent to which societal values are characterised by assertiveness and materialism. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on relationship and concern for others. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Values Across Cultures <ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance: The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Values Across Cultures <ul><li>Long-term vs. short-term orientation: Emphasis on future and persistence. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on past and present, respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The GLOBE Framework for assessing cultures <ul><li>Global Leadership & Organisational Behaviour Effectiveness (GLOBE) Research Programme is an ongoing cross-cultural investigation of leadership and national culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Using data from 825 organisations in 62 countries, the GLOBE team identified nine dimentions on which national cultures differ. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The GLOBE Framework for assessing cultures <ul><li>Assertiveness: The extent to which a society encourages people to be tough and competetitive vs modest and tender. </li></ul><ul><li>Future Orientation: The extent to which a society encourages and rewards future oriented behaviours such as planning, investing in the future etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The GLOBE Framework for assessing cultures <ul><li>Gender Differentiation: The extent to which a society maximizes gender role differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance: Society’s reliance on social norms an procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future events. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The GLOBE Framework for assessing cultures <ul><li>Power Distance: The degree to which members of a society expect power to be unequally shared. </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism / Collectivism: The degree to which individuals are encouraged by societal institutions to be integrated into groups within organisations and society. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The GLOBE Framework for assessing cultures <ul><li>In-group collectivism: The extent to which members of a society take pride in membership in small groups such as their family and circle of close friends and the organisations in which they are employed. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The GLOBE Framework for assessing cultures <ul><li>Performance Orientation: The degree to which a society encourages and rewards group members for performance improvement and excellence. </li></ul><ul><li>Humane Orientation: The degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair, generous, caring and kind to others. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Attitudes <ul><li>Attitudes are positive, negative or neutral views of an &quot;attitude object&quot;: i.e. a person, behaviour or event. They reflect how one feels about something. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Components of Attitude <ul><li>Cognitive: The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Affective: The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural: The action component of an attitude. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Attitude <ul><li>Work related attitudes: positive or negative evaluations that employees hold about aspects of their work environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction: Refers to a collection of feelings that an individual holds towards his / her job. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Types of Attitude <ul><li>Job Involvement: Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies with his / her job, actively participates in it and considers his / her performance important to self worth. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Types of Attitude <ul><li>Organisational Commitment: Defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organisation and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organisation. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Attitude & Consistency <ul><li>People seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behaviour. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>Leon Festinger </li></ul><ul><li>Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behaviour and attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between two or more of their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behaviour. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>Dissonance Reduction: </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude or Behaviour Change </li></ul><ul><li>Adding new information </li></ul><ul><li>Trivialisation: downplaying the importance of the inconsistent attitudes or behaviour </li></ul>
  26. 26. Cognitive Dissonance Theory <ul><li>Desire to reduce dissonance depends on the following factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the elements creating the dissonance. </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of influence the individual believes he / she has over the elements </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards that may be involved in dissonance. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Measuring Attitude-Behaviour Relationship <ul><li>Attitudes significantly predict future behaviour and relationship can be enhanced by taking moderating variables into account. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderating Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Importance: Attitudes that individuals consider important tend to show a strong relationship to behaviour. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Measuring Attitude-Behaviour Relationship <ul><li>Specificity: The more specific the attitude and the more specific the behaviour, the stronger the link between the two. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility: Attitudes that are easily remembered are more likely to predict behaviour than attitudes that are not accessible in memory. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Measuring Attitude-Behaviour Relationship <ul><li>Social Pressures: Discrepancies between attitudes and behaviour are more likely to occur when social pressures to behave in certain ways hold exceptional power. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Measuring Attitude-Behaviour Relationship <ul><li>Direct Experience: A-B relationship is likely to be much stronger if an attitude refers to something with which the individual has direct personal experience. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Measuring Attitude-Behaviour Relationship <ul><li>Self Perception Theory: Self-perception theory is developed by psychologist, Daryl Bem. It asserts that we develop our attitudes by observing our own behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused them. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Attitude Surveys <ul><li>Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaire about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors and the organisation. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Measurement of Job Satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single Global Rating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summation Score </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance <ul><li>Satisfaction & Productivity: </li></ul><ul><li>Happy workers are not necessarily productive workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Productive workers are likely to be happy workers. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance <ul><li>Satisfaction and Absenteeism: </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction is negatively correlated with absenteeism. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction and Turnover: Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance <ul><li>Satisfaction & OCB: </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction influences OCB but through perceptions of fairness. </li></ul><ul><li>When you perceive organisational processes and outcomes to be fair, trust is developed. When you trust your employer, you are more willing to voluntarily engage in behaviours that go beyond your formal job requirements. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction <ul><li>Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Employee Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Exit: Behaviour directed toward leaving the organisation, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. </li></ul><ul><li>(Active / Destructive) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Employee Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Voice: Attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(Active / Constructive) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Employee Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Loyalty: Optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, including speaking up for the organisation in the face of external critismand trusting the organisation and its management to do the right thing. </li></ul><ul><li>(Passive / Constructive) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Employee Dissatisfaction <ul><li>Neglect: Passively allowing conditions to worsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced efforts and increased error rate. </li></ul><ul><li>(Passive / Destructive) </li></ul>