Ob 2


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Ob 2

  1. 1. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Responding to Globalisation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Globalization can be described as a process by which the people of the world are unified into a single society. This process is a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural and political forces. </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Managing work-force diversity: </li></ul><ul><li>The organisations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, age, national origin and other diverse groups. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Managing work-force Diversity: </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity, if positively managed, can increase creativity and innovation and also improve decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>If not managed properly, then there is a potential for higher turn-over, difficult communication and interpersonal conflicts. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Improving Quality & Productivity: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Management is the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of organisational processes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Improving Quality & Productivity: </li></ul><ul><li>Process re-engineering : reconsidering how work would be done and an organisation structured if it were starting over. </li></ul><ul><li>The success of any effort to improve quality and productivity must include their employees. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Responding to the coming labour shortage: </li></ul><ul><li>In times of labour shortage, managers will need sophisticated recruitment and retention strategies. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Improving Customer Service: </li></ul><ul><li>OB can contribute to improving an organization's performance by showing managers how employee attitudes and behaviours are associated with customer satisfaction. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Improving People Skills: </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to explain and predict the behaviour of people at work is important for managerial effectiveness. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Empowering People: </li></ul><ul><li>Putting employees in charge of what they do. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Stimulating Innovation & Change: An organisation’s employees can be the impetus for innovation and change or they can be a major stumbling block.The challenge for managers is to stimulate their employees creativity and tolerance for change. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Coping with Temporariness: </li></ul><ul><li>Workers need to update their knowledge and skills continually to perform new job requirements. Managers must learn to live with flexibility, spontaneity and unpredictability. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Working in net-worked organisations: </li></ul><ul><li>The manager’s job is different in a net-worked organisation, especially when it comes to managing people. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Helping Employees balance Work/Life Conflicts: </li></ul><ul><li>Recent studies suggest that employees want jobs that give them flexibility in their work schedules so they can better manage work / life conflicts. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Challenges and Opportunities for OB <ul><li>Improving Ethical Behaviour: </li></ul><ul><li>Situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct. </li></ul>
  15. 15. OB Model <ul><li>Model: An abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real world phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent Variable: A response that is affected by an independent variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Variable: The presumed cause of some changes in the DV. </li></ul>
  16. 16. OB Model <ul><li>Dependent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity: A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: Achievement of goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency: The ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. OB Model <ul><li>Dependent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absenteeism: The failure to report to work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover: The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. OB Model <ul><li>Dependent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (CSB): Discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements, but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organisation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Satisfaction: A collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. OB Model <ul><li>The Independent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual-level variables: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biographical Characteristics, Ability, Values, attitudes, personality, emotions, perception, individual decision making, learning and motivation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. OB Model <ul><li>The Independent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group-level variables: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamics of group behaviour; how individuals in groups are influenced by the patterns of behaviour they are expected to exhibit, what the group considers to be acceptable standards of behaviour and the degree to which group members are attracted to each other. Design of effective work teams, how communication patterns , leadership, power and politics, levels of conflict affect group behaviour. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. OB Model <ul><li>The Independent Variable: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation-level variables: Design of the formal organisation; the organisation’s internal culture; and the organisation’s HR policies and practices etc. all have impact on the DV. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. OB Model <ul><li>Contingency Variables: Situational Factors: Variables that moderate the relationship between two or more other variables. </li></ul>