What is Communication ? Communication is an exchange of facts , ideas, opinions ,or emotions by two or more persons. Communication transmits information not only about tangible facts and determinable ideas and opinions but also about emotions. Here facial expressions are an important part of communication. Feedback is an essential aspect of communication.
It involves the communication of ideas. The idea should be accurately replicated in the receiver’s mind . The transmitter is assured of the accurate replication of the ideas by feedback . It is suggested that communication is a two way process including transmission of feedback.
The communication situation is said to exist when There is a person(sender) desirous of passing on some information. There is another person (receiver) to whom the information is to be passed on. The receiver partly or wholly understand the message passed on to him; The receiver responds to the message , i.e., there is some kind of feedback.
The transmission of the sender’s ideas to the receiver and the receiver’s feedback or reaction to the sender constitute the communication cycle .2. Input : the message or ideas the sender wants to give3. Channel : letter , fax , phone , electronic mail , etc.4. Message: the actual message that is sent
4. Output : the information the receiver gets2. Feedback : the receiver’s response to the message3. Brain drain : the possibility of understanding at any costThe breakdown may be due to one or more of the following:e. Improper formulation of the message in the mind of the sender,f. Improper statement of the information in the message,g. Improper statement of the message by the receiver.
Internal communication : it is the communication within the organisation. It is important because it promotes understanding and cooperation among members. External communication : it includes communication with the government agencies and departments on the one hand and distributors ,retailers ,individual customers and general public on the other .
For communication to be effective ,the communicator has to be very careful and judicious in the choice of media, which will depend on various factors like urgency of the message ,the time available ,expenditure involved and the intellectual and emotional level of the receivers. All the media available can be broadly classified into five groups:(iii)Written communication.(iv)Oral communication.(v)Audio-visual communication.(vi)Computer-based communication.sss
1. Written communication includes Letters , circulars , memos , telegrams , reports ,minutes , forms and questionnaires , manuals , etc.2. Oral communication includes face to face communication ,conversation over the telephone , radio broadcast ,interviews , group discussions , meetings ,conferences ,seminars and speeches.3. Visual communication encompasses gestures and facial expressions , tables and charts , graphs , diagrams , posters ,slides ,film strips ,etc .
Audio-visual communication includes television and cinema films that combine the visual impact with narration .Written communication: merits It is accurate and precise . It can be repeatedly referred to . It is a permanent record . It is a legal document . It facilitates the assignation of responsibility . It has a wide access.
It is time consuming: a letter may take two or even three to four days to reach its destination , where as in oral communication message is instantly transmitted . It is costly
Oral communication is not possible if the communicator and the receiver are far removed from each other and no mechanical devices are available to connect them. Lengthy messages are not suitable for oral transmission Oral messages cannot be retained for long time Oral messages do not have any legal validity unless they are taped and made a part of permanent record . Although oral communication offer greater opportunity for clarification ,there are also inherent in them greater chances of misunderstanding.
Clear pronunciation. Brevity . Precision. Conviction. Logical sequence. Appropriate word choice Avoiding hackneyed phrases and clichés. Natural voice Finding the right register.
Facial expressions and gestures help to communicate better. It reinforced with the help of tone ,pitch and intensity of the speaker ‘s voice . The message being communicated gets assistance of facial expressions and gestures.Particularly suitable for discussion. There is a immediate feedback from the total personality of the listener . It provides the speaker with a much better opportunity for adjustment.
Difficult to practice in a large –sized organisations Not effective in large gathering Ineffective if the listener is not attentive
Visual communication alone is not enough .it can be effective only in combination with other media. It can be used to transmit very elementary and simple ideas ,orders ,warnings. As we can easily interpolate the message given by a poster including two pieces of bone put in a cross- wise fashion and a skull placed in between.
It is a combination of sight and sound. Make use of written record also. It facilitate interpretations and ensure that message is driven home. Information transmitted through audio- visual retained much longer than any other means. It is found most suitable for mass publicity ,mass propaganda and mass education.
Within the organisation ,the workers can be educated by suitable demonstrations on the close-circuit televisions screen. It is necessary to make the films and slides attractive and interesting. The narration should be clear ,precise ,lucid and easily understandable. It is also advisable to keep the films short and to screen them at an appropriate time.
Advantages of computer technology The quickest means of communication Space no longer a barrier to communication Video conferencing can replace personal meetings Better means of keeping permanent record of valuable and bulky data World –wide web as a publishing platform.
Uncertain legal validity Fear of undesirable leakage The virus malady
Communication is a necessary condition of human existence and social organization.• It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.• It is a necessary part of the process of change.• It is of vital importance to an organization both internally and externally.
Growing size of organizations, trade unions, human relations within the organization. Contact with public, technological advancement, and researches in behavioral sciences, are the main factors in the growing importance of communication.On the basis of above , we have- Purpose of Internal Communication. Purpose of External Communication.
Establishing and dissemination of the goals of an enterprise. Developing plans for their achievement. Organizing human and other resources in the most effective and efficient way. Selecting, developing and appraising members of the organization. Leading, directing, motivating and creating a climate in which people want to contribute their best Controlling performance.
Externally, communication relates an enterprise to the environment outside.It is through information exchange only ,managers become aware of- the needs of customers The availability of suppliers. The claims of stock –holders The regulation of governments And the concerns of a community
It cannot be forgotten that the customer , who is the most important entity for all business, exist outside a company. It is through the communication system that the needs of the customers are identified. Through the knowledge of customers needs, enables the company to provide products and services profitably. So it is through effective communication only, that the organization becomes aware of competition and other potential threats and constraining factors.After all, no enterprise can thrive in a vacuum.
7C’s of written communication Clarity Completeness Conciseness Consideration Courtesy Correctness concreteness
Conciseness Include only relevant fact. Avoid repetition Proper organization of message.Clarity of thoughts. The communicator must be clear about three points.6. What is the objective of communication?7. What is to be communicated?8. Which medium will prove to be the most suitable for this purpose?
CompletenessChecking for ‘5w’questions –who, what, where, whenand why.ConsiderationTo make your communication more effective ,you must avoid I’s and We’s and have as many you’s as possible.CourtesyYou are supposed to make your message courteous.Do not use any irritating /offensive expressions.Apologize sincerely for any omissions.Thank profusely for any favours.
Correctness Giving correct facts. At an appropriate time. In a suitable style.ConcretenessUse concrete expressions.Concrete expressions create visual images that are easy to register.Instead of vague ,generalised statements,give definite facts.
Anything that obstructs free flow of communication is called ‘noise’. or ‘barrier’ to communication.
FRAMES OF FILTERINGREFERENCESTRUCTURE INFORMATION OVERLOADSEMANTICS STATUS DIFFERENCES
LEARNING CULTURE EXPERIENCESIF PARTICIPANTS HAVE A IF FRAMES OF REFERENCE ARE COMMON FRAME DIFFERENT OF COMMUNICATION REFERENCE MAY BEEFFECTIVE DISTORTEDCOMMUNICATION
CAN BE INTENTIONAL OR UNINTENTIONAL ADMINISTRATORS WITHHOLD NEGATIVE INFORMATION ERRORS IN ENCODING AND DECODING DUE TO DIFFERENT FRAMES OF REFERENCE Employees manipulate information in order to avoid the appearance of having a problem
Many levels of authority messages often modified, shortened, amended and misinterpreted. Few levels between top and bottom tends to ignore the formal hierarchy problem: Superintendent may suffer from information overload.
Uncertainty due to external Turbulence: Increased specialization Learning disabilities Emotionally disturbedInformation Overload: Advances in communication technology Computers The internet More informationAdministrators select parts of information in order to make decisions, which result in bad decisions.
Different words have different meaning to different people. Sender cannot transmit understanding or meaning. Concrete words have little difference from sender to receiver. Abstract words may cause decoding problems
Created by: •Those with higher status have• Titles•Office Size more communication demands on•Furnishings them•Carpet styles •Necessitates limiting•Stationary•Private Secretary communication to those who have•Reserved Parking direct influence•salary
Send the same message over and over. Use multiple channels: Telephone, letter, memo, face to face. Using this method reduses chance of communication error. Example: Follow up face to face with a letter or memo. Letter or memo also serves as reminder or documentation if needed. Multiple channels express to the receiver the importance of the message.
A technique to understand the receivers frame of reference. Sender should put themselves in the receivers shoes, when composing the message. The greater the gap in learning, culture and experiences, the greater the effort must be.
Communication is only effective to the extent that the sender and receiver both have a high degree of understanding. Administrators must encode messages in words and symbols that are understandable to the receiver. Some research has shown that much of the communication sent to employees is beyond the level of their reading abilites.
Feedback is must to ensure that messages have been understood and received and helps the sender and receiver obtain mutual understanding. Studies show that schools that use downward communication need effective upward communication to have effective communication.
Two way communication takes more time butprovides more satisfaction and is recommended inall but the simplest and routine transmissions ofinformation. TO SOLICIT FEED BACK TRY THESE QUESTIONS: •How do you feel about my statement? •What do you think? •What did you hear me say? •Do you see any problems with what we have talked about?
Downward Upward Horizontal or lateral Diagonal or crosswise
Any organization has an inbuilt hierarchical system, and in that, in the first instances, communication invariably flows downwards. Written: e.g. memoranda ,letters, handbooks, pamphlets, policy statements. Oral: e.g. speeches, meetings, telephones etc.
Downward Communication•Used by most large schools that are hierarchical in nature.• Flows from Superintendent to Assistant Superintendent to principal to Assistant Principals to Faculty to students.• Necessary to clarify district’s goals, provide a sense of mission, assist in indoctrinating new employees. Inform employees about educational changes that impact the district and to provide subordinates with data regarding their performance.
Subordinates select and prioritize messages in accordance with their perception of their Boss’s character, personality, and motivation. Sender does not devote enough time to learn whether messages have been received and understood. Those at the Top may shut off this channel at certain times and on certain subjects or withhold information on a need to know basis. Downward communication tends to be dominate in mechanistic organizations, as opposed to organic systems which are more open and unidirectional in flows of information.
Adopt training sessions for administrators to help them learn better ways to communicate. Get out of the office and walk around talk to employees on the firing line. Conduct regular supervisory subordinate discussion sessions, which will help identify, analyze ,and solve problems in collaboration with subordinates.
The main functions of upward communication is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels. For example: suggestion systems, appeal and example grievance procedures, complaint system , counseling sessions , joint setting of objectives , the grapevine, group meetings. etc
Provides feedback to Administrators from Downward Communication. Helps monitor decision making effectiveness. Helps gauge organizational climate. Deals with problem areas quickly . Provides needed information to Administrators.
Subject to filtering and distortion because subordinates do not want superiors to gain information that could be damaging to the subordinates. Highly cohesive groups tend to withhold information that might be damaging to the group as a whole. Lower level subordinates show less openness to upward communication than those who are at higher levels in the organization.
Subject to filtering and distortion because subordinates do not want superiors to gain information that could be damaging to the subordinates. Highly cohesive groups tend to withhold information that might be damaging to the group as a whole. Lower level subordinate show less openness to upward communication than those who are at higher levels in the organization.
Employee Meetings Open Door PolicyEmployee Letters Social Groups
Meetings to probe job problems,and needs. Determine what administrative practices help or hinder subordinate job performance. Provide feedback to administrators and encourage subordinates to offer ideas. Help subordinates feel self worth and importance. Studies show these meetings reduce turnover and improve subordinates attitudes
Encourages subordinates to walk in and talk to administrators many levels up. They are encouraged to talk with immidiate supervisors first to eliminate resentment among administrators who are bypassed. Some barriers exist such as subordinates who do not want to be identified as having a problem.
Subordinates can submit letters to administrators or suggestions. All letters are anonymous. All submissions must be answered without delay. Replies can be delivered to the appropriate lower level administrator in cases where the communicator is anonymous.
Act as unplanned upward commnication . Examples are. Parties, Picnics, golf outings, cookouts, retreats, and other employer sponsored events. Main barrier can sometimes be a lack of attendance
ASSISTANT ASSISTANT PRINCIPAL PRINCIPAL FACULTY FACULTY MEMBER MEMBEROFTEN FACILLITATE ACHIEVED FURNISHESOVERLOOKED COORDINATI THROUGH CROSS- EMOTIONALAS ON FUNCTIONAL SUPPORTUNIMPORTANT BETWEEN COMMITTEES AMONGPEERS UNITS
When communication takes place between two or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person, or those who are working under the same person. e.g. this variety of communication mostly takes place during committee meetings or conferences,
Includes the horizontal flow of information. It is also among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships Oral e.g. Informal meetings, lunch hours meeting Written e.g. Magazines, Journals, Company newspapers This Kind of communication is used to speed information flow to improve understanding.
Used when employees feel the organizational forms of communication have failed. Exists in all organizations. Nearly five out of six messages are carried this way rather than formal methods of communication. This form of communication is very rapid. It has both positive and negative features. Positive features include.
Keeps subordinates informed about important organizational matters. Gives administrators insight about subordinates attitudes. Provides subordinates a relief valve to vent emotions. Provides a test of subordinates feelings about a new procedure or Policy without making formal commitments. Helps build moral by passing positive comments regarding the organisation. Rumor is the one item that gives the grapevine its bad reputation.
Communication is an important skill because we spend over 70% of their time communicating. The process involves six steps: Ideating, Encoding, Transmitting, Receiving, Decoding, and Acting. Non-verbal communication involves encoding and decoding body language. Vocal cues, use of time, and spatial relationships help us to understand vocal messages.
Communication organizations flow in four directions: Downward, Upward, Horizontal and Diagonal. The major informal information flow is called the Grapevine. The Grapevine carries both accurate information and rumors. The barriers to effective communication include : Differing frames of reference, structure, information overload, semantics, and status differences. Techniques for overcoming barriers to communication include: Repetition, empathy, understanding, feedback, and listening.