CONTENTS1. Meaning and Definitions2. Communication Process Model3. Characteristics4. Purpose or Objectives5. Principles of Communication4. Scope of Communication5. Limitations6. Evaluation of Communication Effectiveness7. Barriers to Effective Communication
• Communication- Definition and Meaning Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons. Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another, it is essentially a bridge of meaning between people. By using the bridge of meaning a person can safely cross the river of misunderstanding.”
2. A COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL Feedback Transmission ofThought Encoding Reception Decoding Understanding Message Receiver Sender Noise
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL Sender Communication begins with a thought/idea that a sender has. Encoding refers to putting the thought/idea in a form, which can be understood by receiver. Channel to transmit the message: Channel Links the sender and the receiver. Forms may be oral, written, a letter, a computer, a telegram, a fax, Television or radio. Two or more channels may be used at the same time.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL (Contd.)Receiver of the message: Reception being ready for the message. Decoding refers to conversion of the message into thoughts. Understanding refers to interpreting the message i.e. attaching meaning. Accurate communication can occur only when sender and receiver attach same or similar meaning to the message. Noise: Is anything, which hinders communication. It may in the sender, the transmission or the receiver.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL (Contd.) Examples of noise: Encoding Faulty due to use of ambiguous symbols. Transmission Faulty telephone connection. Reception Inaccurate attention. Decoding Faulty due to wrong meaning attached. Understanding Can be obstructed by prejudices. Gestures and posture.
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL (Contd.) Feedback To check effectiveness of communication, a person must have feedback. One can never be sure that the message has been encoded, transmitted and decoded properly unless it is confirmed by feedback. Situational and Organizational Factors in Communication Situational Factors External Factors- educational, sociological, legal-political, economic. Geographical distance. Organizational Factors Organization structure, managerial and non-managerial processes and technology.
3. CHARACTERISTICS(i) A two-way traffic It is a two-way traffic – upward and downward. Messages, directives, opinions are communicated downward. Likewise grievances, complaints, opinions, feelings, are communicated upward along the line.(ii) Continuous Process It is continuous process. It is repeated to achieve the desired results. It is not a one time shot.(iii) A short-lived process: It is complete as soon as the message is received and understood by the receiver in the right perspective.(iv) Needs proper understanding: There may be numerous media of communication but the main purpose of conveying the message is a proper understanding of the message by the other party. For this purpose, it should be clearly and concisely worded.
3. CHARACTERISTICS (Contd.)(v) Leads achievement of the organizational objective: Effective communication does this by creating the sense of object orientation in the organization.(vi) Dispels misunderstanding: It provides clear understanding between persons and thus builds a bridge of camaraderie among people.
4. Purpose or Objectives of Communication The main objectives are:l Conveying the right message: The main objective of communication is to convey the right message to the right person, i.e., to the person for whom it is meant. The message conveyed should be well understood and accepted by the receiver in the right perspective.(ii) Coordination of effort: It is an effective tool for coordinating the activities of different persons engaged in running a business. Coordination without communication is a remote possibility. The individuals or groups come to know what others are doing and what is expected from them only through communication.
4. Purpose or Objectives of Communication (Contd.)(iv) Good Industrial relations: Communication develops good industrial relations as it conveys the feelings, ideas, opinions and viewpoints of one party to the other party. The two parties-the management and the subordinates come closer through communication. They understand each other and dispel any misunderstanding. Thus, it promotes cooperation and good industrial relations.(v) Development of managerial skills: Communication helps managers to understand human behavior at work. Communication of facts, ideas, opinions, information, feelings etc. add value to the knowledge of managers about various happenings, in the organization and behavior of people. Thus, communication is a process of learning.
4. Purpose or Objectives of Communication (Contd.)(vi) Effectiveness of policies: The organization formulates policies and programmes to guide the workforce. These should be conveyed properly to those who are really responsible for the execution of work to achieve the organizational objectives. Only effective communication can translate the policies into action. Effectiveness of the policies can be judged from the success which surely depends upon an effective communication system.
5. Principles of Communication The following principles can be followed to make the communication system more effective:(i) Principle of clarity: The idea or the message to be transmitted should be clearly worded so that it may be interpreted by the receiver in the same sense in which it is communicated.(ii) Principle of integrity: Communication should be aimed at motivating people to take action as agreed upon.(iii) Principle of informality: Formal communication system is cornerstone of a formal organization, it leads transmittal of messages. But, sometimes, formal communications prove ineffective in evoking the needed response from the subordinates. In such cases, the superiors should adopt the strategy of making use of informal channels of communication: they may contact, if necessary, the subordinates personally or through someone else to persuade them to translate their orders into action. Informal communication at times proves far more effective than formal communication.
5. Principles of Communication (Contd.)(iv) Principle of attention:In order to make the message effective, the recipients attention should bedrawn to the message communicated. Each one is different in behavior,sentiments, and emotions, which determine the degree of attention. Forthis purpose, the superior must note that he himself should not expect from hissubordinates what he himself does not practice. So, a manger cannot enforcepunctuality if he himself is not punctual.(v) Principle of consistency:This principle implies that communication should always be consistent withthe policies, plans, programmes and objectives of the organization, andnot in conflict with them.(vi) Principle of adequacy:The information should be adequate and complete in all respects. Inadequateand incomplete information may delay action and destroy understandingand create confusion.Inadequate information also affects the efficiency of the sender and the receiverof the communication.
Principles of Communication (Contd.)(vii) Principle of timeliness:All messages should be transmitted at the proper time. Any delay incommunicating message serves no purpose except to make themmerely historical document as it loses its importance after sometime.(viii) Principle of feedback:One of the most important principles of communications is the principleof feedback. The communicator must have feedback information fromthe recipient to know whether the recipient has understood themessage in the same sense in which the sender has meant it, orwhether the subordinates agree or disagree with the contents of themessage. It also helps in understanding attitude of the people.
Principles of Communication (Contd.)(ix) Principle of communications network:Communications network means the routes through which thecommunication travels to its destination, i.e., the person for whom it ismeant. A number of such networks may exist in an organization at agiven point of time; but the management should consider theeffectiveness of the communications network in the given situation, andits effects on the behavior of the recipient before it finally chooses thenetwork.
Clarity of expression: Use simple words Use single words for long phrases Avoid double entry Use verbs for nouns Use concrete expressions
Prefer active construction Avoid excessive use of the infinitive Avoid jargons Avoid ambiguity Use short sentences
Completeness While answering ensure you have answered all the points Check for “five W” questions
Conciseness Include only relevant facts Avoid repetition Avoid trite and wordy expressions Organize your message well
Consideration Adopt the you – attitude Avoid gender bias Emphasize positive, pleasant facts Impart integrity to your message
6. Scope of Communication The scope of communication includes:(i) Information Sharing: To transmit information from a source to target individuals or groups. Information can be: - policies and rules - changes and development in the organization - Special rewards and awards - Settlements with the union - major changes in the organization(ii) Feedback: Give feedback to employees on their achievements - To the departments on their performance - Higher management on the fulfillment of goals(iii) Control: Information is transmitted to ensure that plans are being carried out according to the original design. Communication helps to ensuring such control.
6. Scope of Communication (Contd.) The scope of communication includes:(iv) Influence: Information is power. One purpose of communication is to influence people.(v) Problem-solving: In many cases communication helps to solving problems. Many meetings are held between the management and the unions on some issues to find solution. Alternative solutions may be held to solve a problem and evolve a consensus.(iii) Decision-making: For arriving at a decision several kinds of communication are needed.
6. Scope of Communication (Contd.) The scope of communication includes:(vii) Facilitating change: Change can be brought about effectively by communication.(viii) Group Building: Communication helps in building relationships. If communication breaks down the group may breakdown.(ix) Gate Keeping: Communication helps to build linkages of the organization with the outside world.
7. Limitations of Communication The distortion of communication is its main limitation. The distortion of communication may have the following consequences:l The message received is not very close to the message sent.l The non-verbal messages are not congruent with the verbal message.l The message may not result in the desired response.l The communication can at times create confusion.l Communication at times is costly and can be delayed.
8. Evaluation of Communication Effectivenessl Fidelity of communication The distortion free quality of a message is called fidelity. An effective person gets the message across to others with minimal of misunderstanding.(ii) Economy In an effective communication a minimum of energy, time, symbols and cues are used to encode message without losing its fidelity and impact.(iii) Congruence An effective communication integrates both verbal and non-verbal cues.(vii) Influence The influence the communicator is able to exercise over the receiver of the communication.(ix) Relationship building To contribute to the building of trust and a better relationship between the source and the target.
9. Barriers to Effective Communication(i) External Barriers(ii) Organizational Barriers(iii) Personal Barriersl External Barriers These may be A. Semantic Barriers – relate to different understanding and interpretations of words we use to communicate B. Emotional or Psychological Barriers - Premature evaluation - Loss in transmission and retention - Distrust of communicator - Failure to communicate - Undue reliance on the written word. - Inattention
9. Barriers to Effective Communication (Contd.)(ii) Organizational Barriers These may be A. Organizational Policy B. Organizational rules and regulations C. Status Relationship D. Complexity in organizational structure E. Organizational facilities
9. Barriers to Effective Communication (Contd.)(iii) Personal Barriers These may be A. Barriers in superiors - Attitude of superiors - Fear of challenge to authority - Insistence on proper channel - Lack of confidence in subordinates - Ignoring communication B. Barriers regarding subordinates - Unwillingness to communicate - Lack of proper incentive