You may have heard about HIV and
AIDS, but many people don't know the
basic facts about them.
HIV causes AIDS. HIV stands for human
immunodeficiency virus. It breaks down
the immune system — our body's
protection against disease. HIV causes
people to become sick with infections that
normally wouldn't affect them.
AIDS is short for acquired immune
deficiency syndrome. It is the most
advanced stage of HIV disease.
Origin of HIV
• Scientists believe HIV came
from a particular kind of
chimpanzeE in Western Africa.
• Humans probably came in
contact with HIV when they
hunted and ate infected
animals. Recent studies indicate
that HIV may have jumped from
monkeys to humans as far back
as the late 1800s.
• The earliest well documented case
of HIV in a human dates back to
1959 in the Congo.
majority of infections occurring
(including the U.S.) can be traced
back to a single unknown individual
who became infected with HIV
in Haiti and then brought the
infection to the United States
some time around 1969.
• The epidemic then rapidly spread
(initially, sexually promiscuous men
who have sex with men). By
1978, the prevalence of HIV-1
among gay male residents of New
York and San Francisco was
estimated at 5%, suggesting that
several thousand individuals in the
AIDS was first clinically observed
in 1981 in the United States. The
initial cases were a cluster of
homosexual men with no known
cause of impaired immunity who
carinii pneumonia (PCP), a rare
opportunistic infection that was
known to occur in people with
Soon thereafter, an unexpected
number of gay men developed a
previously rare skin cancer
sarcoma (KS). Many more cases
of PCP and KS emerged, alerting
U.S. Centres for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) and a CDC
task force was formed to monitor
Robert Gallo, co-discoverer of
HIV in the early eighties among
(from left to right) Sandra
Eva, Sandra Colombini, and
In the early days, the CDC did not have an
official name for the disease, at one
point, the CDC coined the phrase "the 4H
disease", since the syndrome seemed to
Haitians, homosexuals, haemophiliacs, and
In the general press, the term "GRID", which
stood for gay-related immune deficiency, had
been coined. However, after determining that
AIDS was not isolated to the gay
community, it was realized that the term
GRID was misleading and the term AIDS was
introduced at a meeting in July 1982. By
September 1982 the CDC started referring to
the disease as AIDS.
Each virion comprises a viral
envelope and associated matrix
enclosing acapsid, which itself
encloses two copies of the
single-stranded RNA genome
and several enzymes.
• HIV particles are much too small to be seen through an ordinary
• HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses.
• It is around 120 nm in diameter (around 60 times smaller than
a red blood cell) and roughly spherical.
• Like other viruses, HIV does not have a cell wall or a nucleus.
• The Structure of HIV is made up of a viral envelope and viral core.
•HIV particles surround themselves with a coat of fatty material known as the viral
envelope (or membrane).
• Projecting from this are around 72 little spikes, which are formed from the
proteins gp120 and gp41. Just below the viral envelope is a layer called
the matrix, which is made from the protein p17.
• The viral core (or capsid) is usually bullet-shaped and is made from the protein
p24. Inside the core are three enzymes required for HIV replication called reverse
transcriptase, integrase and protease.
• Also held within the core is HIV's genetic material, which consists of two
identical strands of RNA. At either end of each strand of RNA is a sequence called
the long terminal repeat, which helps to control HIV replication.
• HIV has just nine genes (compared to around
20,000-25,000 in a human).
• Three of the HIV genes, called gag, pol and
env, contain information needed to make
structural proteins for new virus particles.
• The other six genes, known as tat, rev, nef,
vif, vpr and vpu, code for proteins that control
the ability of HIV to infect a cell, produce new
copies of virus, or cause disease.
Host cells infected with HIV have a very short
HIV continuously uses new host cells to replicate
During the first 24 hours after exposure, the virus
attacks or is captured by dendritic cells (type of
phagocyte) in mucous membranes and skin.
Phases: binding and entry, reverse transcription,
replication, budding, and maturation
HIV (arrows) Infecting a Tlymphocyte
Common Side Effects of HIV
Nucleoside Reverse Common Side Effects
Have genetic testing done
prior to therapy
Epzicom (abacavir +
Bactrim or Septra may
increase blood levels; do
not take with stavudine
chills, dizziness, headaches,
Do not combine with
Videx, or Videx-EC
(didanosine or ddl)
Anemia, nausea, vomiting
Do not combine with
• ELISA Test :• ELISA, which stands for enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, is used
to detect HIV infection. If an ELISA
test is positive, the Western blot test
is usually administered to confirm the
diagnosis. If an ELISA test is
negative, but you think you may have
HIV, you should be tested again in
ELISA is quite sensitive in chronic
HIV infection, but because antibodies
aren't produced immediately upon
infection, you may test negative
during a window of a few weeks to a
few months after being infected. Even
though your test result may be
negative during this window, you may
have a high level of the virus and be
at risk of transmitting infection.
• Home Tests:• The
approved by the U.S. Food
and Drug Administration is
called the Home Access
Express Test, which is sold
• Saliva Tests:• A cotton pad is used to
obtain saliva from the inside
of your cheek. The pad is
submitted to a laboratory for
testing. Results are available
in three days. Positive
results should be confirmed
with a blood test.
• Western Blot:• This is a very sensitive blood
test used to confirm a
positive ELISA test result.
• PCR Test (Polymerase
chain reaction test):-
This test detects the genetic
material of HIV itself, and can
identify HIV in the blood within 2-3
Babies born to HIV-positive mothers
are tested with a special PCR
test, because their blood contains
their mother's HIV antibodies for
several months. This means they
standard antibody test—but a PCR
test can determine whether the
Blood supplies in most developed
countries are screened for HIV using
PCR tests. PCR tests are also used to
measure viral loads for people who
SIGNS AND SYMTOMS
OF HIV / AIDS
The first stage is called acute infection or seroconversion, it happens
within two to six weeks after becoming infected. This is when the
body's immune system puts up a fight against HIV.
The symptoms of acute infection look similar to those of other viral
The symptoms may last a week or two and then completely go away as
the virus goes into a non-symptomatic stage.
The initial symptoms of acute HIV may include:
2.Nausea and vomiting
3.Aching muscles throat
4.Red rash that doesn't itch
The asymptomatic latent phase
The second phase of HIV infection is the
asymptomatic latent or silent phase.
In this stage, an infected person displays no symptoms.
Infected individuals are often not even aware that they
are carrying the HI virus in this stage, and may therefore
unwittingly infect new sex partners.
A positive HIV antibody test is often the only indication
of HIV infection during this latent phase.
HIV-infected people can remain healthy for a long
time, show no symptoms and carry on with their work in a
normal way. Some people remain HIV positive for many
years without any manifestation of clinical disease while
others may deteriorate rapidly, develop Aids and die
In some cases the only symptom during this phase is
THE LAST STAGE :
The Aids patient is usually very thin and
emaciated due to continuous diarrhea, nausea and
vomiting which may last for weeks or even for
Conditions in the mouth (such as thrush and
sores) may become so painful that the patient is
no longer able to eat.
Women suffer from persistent, recurrent
vaginal infections and cervical cancer.
Severe skin infections, warts and ringworm.
Respiratory infections, persistent cough, chest
pain and fever.
Nervous system problems - often complain of
Neurological abnormalities with symptoms such
as memory loss, poor concentration, tremor,
In the final stage of Aids, the
symptoms of HIV disease
become more acute, patients
become infected by relatively
rare and unusual organisms that
do not respond to
antibiotics, the immune system
deteriorates, and more
persistent and untreatable
opportunistic conditions and
cancers begin to manifest.
While people with Aids (the
last phase of HIV disease)
usually die within two
years, anti-retroviral therapy
and the prevention and
treatment of opportunistic
infections may prolong this
Why is there stigma related to HIV and AIDS?
Factors that contribute to HIV/AIDS-related stigma
HIV/AIDS is a life-threatening disease, and therefore people react
to it in strong ways.
HIV infection is associated with behaviours (such as
homosexuality, drug addiction, prostitution or promiscuity) that are
already stigmatised in many societies.
Most people become infected with HIV through sex, which often
carries moral baggage.
There is a lot of inaccurate information about how HIV is
transmitted, creating irrational behaviour and misperceptions of
HIV infection is often thought to be the result of personal
Religious or moral beliefs lead some people to believe that being
infected with HIV is the result of moral fault (such as promiscuity or
'deviant sex') that deserves to be punished.
The effects of antiretroviral therapy on people’s physical
General effects of
•Loss of income/livelihood
•Loss of marriage & childbearing
•Poor care within the health
•Withdrawal of care giving in the
•Loss of hope & feelings of
•Loss of reputation
• THE MOST FREQUENT MODE
• 80% OF TRANSMISSION IS
THROUGH SEXUAL EXCAHANGE OF
• BY GETTING IN CONTACT WITH
PARTNER’S BODY FLUIDS.
The rectum is a fragile tissue prone
to tears when penetration occurs.
It involves the removal of the
natural lubrication in the vaginal
tract, increasing risk of tearing.
Risk increases during a woman’s
menstrual cycle, and also with the
presence of sexually transmitted
Risk may be increased through
poor oral hygiene, which includes
the presence of bleeding gums and
Providing the condom is of good
quality and is placed over the penis
correctly, or the femidom inserted
into the vagina correctly.
• Via blood and blood products.
• Blood-borne transmission can be through needlesharing during intravenous drug use, needle stick
injury, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood
product, or medical injections with unsterilised
• Injecting drugs.
• Healthcare workers have the greatest risk for this
type of HIV transmission.
• Blood transfusion with infected blood or an organ
This type of transmission is very rare.
These transmissions are believed to
have resulted from contact between
skin or mucous membranes and
To prevent even such rare
occurrences, precautions, should be
taken in all settings
From the onset of the HIV epidemic, there has been concern
about transmission of the virus by biting and bloodsucking
studies have shown no evidence of HIV transmission through
insects--even in areas where there are many cases of AIDS and
large populations of insects such as mosquitoes. Lack of such
outbreaks, despite intense efforts to detect them, supports the
conclusion that HIV is not transmitted by insects
HIV lives for only a short time inside an insect and, unlike
organisms that are transmitted via insect bites, HIV does not
Consistent condom use reduces the risk
of heterosexual HIV transmission by approximately
80% over the long-term. Where one partner of a
couple is infected, consistent condom use results in
rates of HIV infection for the uninfected person of
below 1% per year.
The risk of HIV transmission through the throat,
gums or any other oral membranes has a lower risk
then receiving it from the vaginal or anal area.
Prevention method primarily involves the
use of a combination of antiviral
medications during pregnancy and after
birth in the infant and potentially
includes bottle feeding rather
As of now there is no
effective vaccine for HIV or AIDS. A
single trial of the vaccine RV
144 published in 2009 found a partial
reduction in the risk of transmission of
roughly 30%, stimulating some hope in
the research community of developing a
truly effective vaccine. Further trials of
the RV 144 vaccine are on-going.
• Personal articles like toothbrush and
razors should not be shared with other
• When donating or getting blood, make
sure get those only in hospitals/clinics
that use disposable syringes and
conduct HIV testing are some ways to
make sure that you don’t contract HIV.
Also if you want to get tattoos get them
from hygienic places which follow basic
• Gloves should be worn when handling
blood specimens & other body
secretions as well as
surfaces, materials and objects
exposed to them.
• Avoid accidental pricks from sharp
instruments contaminated with
potentially infectious materials from AIDS
Treatment For HIV
drugs are medicines used
to treat but not cure HIV
These drugs are sometimes
referred to as “anteroviral
drugs”, work by reducing the
replication of the virus.
There is ACTUALLY no cure for AIDS .
1. Antiretroviral therapy
- reduce the presence of the virus in the body, but can
not eliminate it.
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase inhibitors
Non-Nucleoside Transcriptase inhibitors
Protease inhibitor (Ritonavir)
Taking two or more antiretroviral drugs at a time is
called combination therapy. If only one drug was
taken, HIV would quickly become resistant to it.
2. Opportunistic Infection Treatment
Used in an event where antiretroviral drugs are not
2 groups of Anteroviral drugs
which is needed to are needed for
information for the the assembly of
virus to replicate.
What is needed now are increased
efforts to promote youth
participation and commitment;
more services aimed at youth;
more parental involvement; more
education and information, using
schools and other sites; more
protection for girls, orphaned
children and young women; and
more partnerships with people
with HIV and AIDS!!