Life sciences & Environmental Issues
Oxford University
Museum of
Natural History
Biodiversity is
Short for
Biological
Diversity
The presence of
air and water
makes life
possible on
the earth.
How do we Define Biodiversity?
Biodiversity includes all organisms, species,
and populations; the genetic variation among
...
Biodiversity
is studied in three
different levels :
Genetic
SpeciesSpecies
Ecological
Genetic diversity
It is the
variation in
Genes in a
particular
Species.
This difference
has given us
beautiful
Butterflies...
Species diversity
It refers to
the variety of
living
organisms on
the Earth
Ecosystem diversity
This refers to
the variety
of habitats
which
includesincludes
climate,
vegetation
and
geography of
a r...
Genetic diversity is all the different genes
contained in all individual plants, animals,
fungi, and microorganisms.
Speci...
Just how many species
do we really
have?
Global Biodiversity [All figures in thousands]
S.No. TAXA
Species
described
Estimate
[High]
Estimate
[Low]
Working
Figure
...
Global Biodiversity
Evolution & Biodiversity?
Natural Processes can put species at risk from Extinction
Logically the species evolve, and are ...
What are the Threats to Biodiversity?
The loss of biodiversity is a significant
issue for scientists and policy-makers and...
MAN-MADE CAUSES
FOR LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY
• Destruction of Habitat
• Pollution• Pollution
• Hunting
• Indiscriminate use of...
Threats to Biodiversity: Deforestation 1
Usually as a direct result of
human activity and population
growth, is a major fo...
Threats to Biodiversity 4
The over-exploitation
(over-hunting,
over-fishing, orover-fishing, or
over-collecting)
of a spec...
Threats to Biodiversity 5
Trade in wild life
Timber - 100,000 Billion $
Fisheries - 50,000 Billion $
Mammal Furs - 750 Mil...
Industrialisation
Anthropogenic
Threats to Biodiversity 6
Anthropogenic
pollution and
contamination can
affect all levels ...
Urbanisation
Developmental
activities Results
in to continued
UrbanizationUrbanization
causing adverse
affects on
Bio Dive...
Threats to Biodiversity 2
Alterations in ecosystem composition
such as the loss or decline of a
species, can lead to a los...
Threats to Biodiversity 3
The introduction of exotic (non-native)
species can disrupt entire ecosystems and
impact populat...
Genetic Erosion
Threats to Biodiversity 7
Global Warming induced
Climate change can alter
environmental conditions.
Species and population...
Rate of Extinction of Species
• 90 vertebrate species have become extinct in
every century.
• 1 species of higher plants h...
Some Endangered Birds & Animals
• Lesser florican
• Great Indian bustard
• Nilgiri tahr• Nilgiri tahr
• One horned rhino
•...
Lesser florican
Saras crain
Great Indian bustard
Nilgiri tahr
One horned rhino
Lion-tailed macaque
Asiatic lion
Tiger
Medicine
Ecosystem Services
Biotechnology
Environmental Monitoring
Food & Crop Security
Recreation & Aesthetics
Pets & Dom...
Biogeographic region that is both a
significant reservoir of Biodiversitysignificant reservoir of Biodiversity
and is thre...
One of the 12 Mega biodiversity country
Has 02 World’s Biodiversity Hot Spots
8% of World’s Biodiversity
81,000 Animal Spe...
Environmental Ethos & Concerns are inherent
to Indian Psyche
Our religious scriptures , our customs &
traditions, and code...
Biodiversity conservation Treaties
Ramsar Convention, 1971 [Wetlands] -146 countries
World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1972...
• Article 48 – A:
• Imposes constitutional obligation on state “ to protect &
improve the natural environment and to safeg...
1.Total Land mass - 2973,000 Km2
2.Total Cropland - 1694,610 Km2 [57% Area] Year2000
3.Total Pastures - 118,920 Km2 [04% A...
“ Provides for the protection of wild animals, Birds, and
plants connected therewith or ancillary or incidental
thereto wi...
87 National Parks - 4.06 Million ha.
485 Wildlife Sanctuaries - 11.54 million ha.
Total protected areas - 15.60 Million ha...
Just a Thought
Dinosaurs & Reptiles 1 year ago
Mammals 8 months ago
Humans evolved 4 hr. ago
This 1 minute is critical in ...
When will We Realize?
Till when last river is polluted
Till when last lake is dried-up
Till when last game is hunted down
...
What do we leave for our children?
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]
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Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]

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PPT deals with various issues related to Biodiversity and the conservation of Biodiversity

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Biodiversity conservation final [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Life sciences & Environmental Issues
  2. 2. Oxford University Museum of Natural History
  3. 3. Biodiversity is Short for Biological Diversity The presence of air and water makes life possible on the earth.
  4. 4. How do we Define Biodiversity? Biodiversity includes all organisms, species, and populations; the genetic variation among these; and all their complex assemblages of communities and ecosystems.communities and ecosystems. It also refers to the interrelatedness of genes, species, and ecosystems and their interactions with the environment. Usually three levels of biodiversity are discussed— Genetic, Species, and Ecosystem diversity
  5. 5. Biodiversity is studied in three different levels : Genetic SpeciesSpecies Ecological
  6. 6. Genetic diversity It is the variation in Genes in a particular Species. This difference has given us beautiful Butterflies, Roses etc.
  7. 7. Species diversity It refers to the variety of living organisms on the Earth
  8. 8. Ecosystem diversity This refers to the variety of habitats which includesincludes climate, vegetation and geography of a region.
  9. 9. Genetic diversity is all the different genes contained in all individual plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms. Species diversity is all the differences within and between populations of species, as well as between different species.as between different species. Ecosystem diversity is all the different habitats, biological communities, and ecological processes, as well as variation within individual ecosystems.
  10. 10. Just how many species do we really have?
  11. 11. Global Biodiversity [All figures in thousands] S.No. TAXA Species described Estimate [High] Estimate [Low] Working Figure 1 Viruses 4 1,000 50 400 2 Bacteria 4 3,000 50 1,000 3 Fungi 72 2,700 200 1,500 4 Protozoa & 80 1,200 210 6004 Protozoa & Algae 80 1,200 210 600 5 Plants 270 500 300 320 6 Nematodes 15 1,000 100 400 7 Insects 950 100,000 2,000 8,000 8 Mollusks 70 200 100 200 9 Chordates 45 55 50 500
  12. 12. Global Biodiversity
  13. 13. Evolution & Biodiversity? Natural Processes can put species at risk from Extinction Logically the species evolve, and are ultimately destined to die out to extinction. Species with small populations and with limited ranges are more vulnerable. Extinction of widespread species is caused followingExtinction of widespread species is caused following Environmental first strike and favored by stresses outside normal ranges. But the current rate of extinction of species is much higher than that existed in the past.
  14. 14. What are the Threats to Biodiversity? The loss of biodiversity is a significant issue for scientists and policy-makers and the topic is finding its way into living rooms and classrooms. Species arerooms and classrooms. Species are becoming extinct at the fastest rate known in geological history and most of these extinctions have been tied to human activity
  15. 15. MAN-MADE CAUSES FOR LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY • Destruction of Habitat • Pollution• Pollution • Hunting • Indiscriminate use of Toxic chemicals • Genetic Erosion
  16. 16. Threats to Biodiversity: Deforestation 1 Usually as a direct result of human activity and population growth, is a major force in the loss of species, populations, and Habitat loss and destruction: usually as a direct result of human activity and population growth, is a major force in the loss of species,loss of species, populations, and ecosystems. force in the loss of species, populations, and ecosystems.
  17. 17. Threats to Biodiversity 4 The over-exploitation (over-hunting, over-fishing, orover-fishing, or over-collecting) of a species or population can lead to its demise.
  18. 18. Threats to Biodiversity 5 Trade in wild life Timber - 100,000 Billion $ Fisheries - 50,000 Billion $ Mammal Furs - 750 Million $ Ornamental Plants-250Ornamental Plants-250 Mil. $ Edible snails - 460 Million $ Illegal Trade 5 to 8,000 Billion $/Y
  19. 19. Industrialisation Anthropogenic Threats to Biodiversity 6 Anthropogenic pollution and contamination can affect all levels of biodiversity.
  20. 20. Urbanisation Developmental activities Results in to continued UrbanizationUrbanization causing adverse affects on Bio Diversity
  21. 21. Threats to Biodiversity 2 Alterations in ecosystem composition such as the loss or decline of a species, can lead to a loss of biodiversity. Elimination of coyotes in theElimination of coyotes in the canyons of southern California are linked to decreases in song bird populations.
  22. 22. Threats to Biodiversity 3 The introduction of exotic (non-native) species can disrupt entire ecosystems and impact populations of native plants or animals. These invaders can adverselyanimals. These invaders can adversely affect native species by eating them, infecting them, competing with them, or mating with them.
  23. 23. Genetic Erosion
  24. 24. Threats to Biodiversity 7 Global Warming induced Climate change can alter environmental conditions. Species and populationsSpecies and populations may be lost if they are unable to adapt to new conditions or relocate.
  25. 25. Rate of Extinction of Species • 90 vertebrate species have become extinct in every century. • 1 species of higher plants has become extinct in every 27 years. • 75% of birds & mammals have become extinct in recent years were island dwellingextinct in recent years were island dwelling species. • It is estimated that ¼ th world’s biodiversity is under risk of extinction in next 20-30 years. • In last 40 yrs, 120 species of mammals & 225 of birds have become extinct in the world.
  26. 26. Some Endangered Birds & Animals • Lesser florican • Great Indian bustard • Nilgiri tahr• Nilgiri tahr • One horned rhino • Lion-tailed macaque • Asiatic lion • Tiger
  27. 27. Lesser florican Saras crain
  28. 28. Great Indian bustard
  29. 29. Nilgiri tahr
  30. 30. One horned rhino
  31. 31. Lion-tailed macaque
  32. 32. Asiatic lion
  33. 33. Tiger
  34. 34. Medicine Ecosystem Services Biotechnology Environmental Monitoring Food & Crop Security Recreation & Aesthetics Pets & Domestic animals Political & Social issues Ecosystem Security & Resilience
  35. 35. Biogeographic region that is both a significant reservoir of Biodiversitysignificant reservoir of Biodiversity and is threatened with destruction
  36. 36. One of the 12 Mega biodiversity country Has 02 World’s Biodiversity Hot Spots 8% of World’s Biodiversity 81,000 Animal Species81,000 Animal Species 45,000 Plant Species (6000 endemic) 50% of World’s Tigers 100% Asiatic Lions
  37. 37. Environmental Ethos & Concerns are inherent to Indian Psyche Our religious scriptures , our customs & traditions, and code of conduct [Dharma] are richly entwined with love, concern & compassion to all the fellow living beingscompassion to all the fellow living beings with whom we share this beautiful Planet
  38. 38. Biodiversity conservation Treaties Ramsar Convention, 1971 [Wetlands] -146 countries World Heritage Convention (WHC), 1972 [Cultural & Natural Heritage] -180 countries Convention on international Trade in endangered species of Wild flora & Fauna (CITES), 1973species of Wild flora & Fauna (CITES), 1973 [endangered species ] -166 countries Convention on conservation of Migratory species of wild animals (CCMS), 1979 & 2005 [Migratory species ] -90 countries Convention on Law of the Seas (UNCLOS),1971 [Marine Life] -146 countries
  39. 39. • Article 48 – A: • Imposes constitutional obligation on state “ to protect & improve the natural environment and to safeguard the forest & wild life of the country”. • Article 51 – A (g): • Enjoined a duty on the citizens of India “ to protect & improve the natural environment and to safeguard the forest, lakes, rivers & wild life & to have compassion for living creatures”.
  40. 40. 1.Total Land mass - 2973,000 Km2 2.Total Cropland - 1694,610 Km2 [57% Area] Year2000 3.Total Pastures - 118,920 Km2 [04% Area] 4.Total Forest Cover - 641,000 Km2[21% Area] per capita0.07 % 5.Dense Forest - 367,260 Km2 [57.3% Forest Area] Canopy<40% 26. Open Forest - 261,310 Km2 [40.7%Forest Area] Canopy10-40% 7. Mangrove - 4827 Km2 [0.75% Area] We had in 1947 about 34 % area under forest Major conflicts are logging for sake of timber and Pulp, and also the requirements of Fuel wood, Fodder and Agricultural land to support the deprived Local Tribal Communities which are often marginalised
  41. 41. “ Provides for the protection of wild animals, Birds, and plants connected therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto with a view to ensuring the Ecological & Environmental security of the Country” Restricts the killing of the Endangered Species, and Possession & Trade of the Trophies of Wild animals & Plants. Looks after the Zoo’s Management
  42. 42. 87 National Parks - 4.06 Million ha. 485 Wildlife Sanctuaries - 11.54 million ha. Total protected areas - 15.60 Million ha. 23 Tiger Reserves spread over - 3.3 million ha.23 Tiger Reserves spread over - 3.3 million ha. 12 Biosphere Reserves 780 Forest Divisions 63,618 JFM – 14.09 Million ha.
  43. 43. Just a Thought Dinosaurs & Reptiles 1 year ago Mammals 8 months ago Humans evolved 4 hr. ago This 1 minute is critical in extinction of 100’s of animals, mortality and morbidity, global warming and various environmental problems Humans evolved 4 hr. ago Agriculture 1 hr. ago Industrial revolution 1 min. ago
  44. 44. When will We Realize? Till when last river is polluted Till when last lake is dried-up Till when last game is hunted down Till when last tree is chopped off We will not realize thatWe will not realize that The money can’t be eaten
  45. 45. What do we leave for our children?
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