Introduction to Citation
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Introduction to Citation



A brief Introduction to why we Cite our sources and the Harvard Method of Citation.

A brief Introduction to why we Cite our sources and the Harvard Method of Citation.



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  • Over the coming years you can expect to have to write academically. You will not be expected to ground break and produce original thought until your PhD. For now, what your tutors need to see is that you have read widely, understood what you have read and built on it. Citation is your proof.
  • A "citation" is the way you tell your readers that certain material in your work came from another source. A Reference gives your readers the information necessary to find that source again, including:
  • When you write a paper or create a project, you will use and build upon information that other people have researched and compiled and ideas that others have developed. If you incorporate or refer to others' theories, words, ideas or concepts in your paper, you must document each one using a citation. In addition, you must likewise acknowledge the use of facts and statistics that another has compiled. To not do this, whether intentionally (copying) or unintentionally (forgetting) means you are Plagiarising.
  • Sometimes it can be difficult to be sure what counts as common knowledge, especially when writing in a discipline that's new to you. A good rule of thumb is to ask yourself if a knowledgeable reader would be familiar with the information in question. If he or she would have to look it up to confirm it, you should usually document it. If you're not sure, document it to play it safe.
  • When you write papers, you might be tempted to try to cover up the fact that almost all of your paper came directly from sources or that you relied heavily on the internet for your research. Your tutors will not be fooled by this tactic, though, and part of your job as a researcher and writer is to To organize, assimilate, and recast your information in your own form. Do not fall back on the flimsy excuse that you might as well just copy it exactly as it appeared because you “like the way it was written.”
  • There are several methods or styles of citation: OSCOLA (legal),MLA,American Sociological Association (ASA), American Psychological Association (APA) the one requested by the AQA for EPQ (and incidentally the one most used for under-graduate courses,is the Harvard Method and I’ll show you some basic examples now. These are replicated on the back of the Library 6th form guide.
  • The in-text reference would look the same as for the book
  • The list of other types of information sources gives you an idea of what you might use in your academic essays. Each has a specific way of being referenced. Examples of these can be found on the University of Anglia Ruskin website. (URL on leaflet)
  • The beauty of e-resources is that they come ready referenced in a variety of styles and can be saved to a bibliography immediately with one click. I will talk about E-Resources in at a later date.

Introduction to Citation Introduction to Citation Presentation Transcript

  • Citation
    And Why We Cite our Sources
  • “If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants”.
    Isaac Newton, Letter to Robert Hooke, February 5, 1675
  • A Citation is a passage or phrase quoted within your text which is supported with evidence of its source. A Reference is a detailed description of the source.
    information about the author
    the title of the work
    the name and location of the company that published your copy of the source
    the date your copy was published
    the page numbers of the material you are borrowing
    What is Citation?
    View slide
  • Why we cite sources (1)
    Copying or forgetting to cite
    = Plagiarism
    View slide
  • Direct quotes, both entire sentences and phrases
    Paraphrases (rephrased or summarized material)
    Words or terminology specific to or unique to the author's research, theories, or ideas
    Use of an author's argument or line of thinking
    Historical, statistical, or scientific facts
    Graphs, drawings, or other such aggregations of information or data
    Articles or studies you refer to within your text
    You need to document……
  • Proverbs, axioms, and sayings ("A stitch in time saves nine.")
    Well-known quotations ("Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few.")
    Common knowledge (Thomas Edison invented the phonograph; "Starry Night" was painted by Vincent Van Gogh; Oxygen has the atomic number 8)
    You do not need to document:
  • It makes you work better!
    The process of citation requires you to assess the quality of the resources you use.
    Use sources to simplify and summarize information and weave it into the pattern of your own ideas, and your pattern of ideas will develop as you write and do your research.
    To organize, assimilate, and recast your information in your own form makes you a thinking writer.
    Using sources well in your essay is not a matter of mere mechanics; it is the art of blending source material within the context of a focused argument as you write.
    It enables a good learning process.
    Why We Cite Sources (2)
  • What’s the difference between a references page and a bibliography?
    A references page contains only those references that were directly cited in the text.
    A bibliography page is more of a reading list—it contains references referred to in the text plus the chief publications that you consulted in a general way.
    You should provide both.
  • Citing from A BOOK
    Authors surname, initials., Year. Full title, with subtitle if any, in italics. Edition if not 1st Edition. Place of publication: Publisher's name.
    Crawford, William.,1979. The Keepers of Light. A History & Working Guide to Early Photographic Processes. 3rd Ed.New York: Morgan & Morgan.
    Harvard Method of Citation.
  • An in-text reference for use of this book would read:
    Chemical properties have been known to differ (Crawford, 1979) where …..
    Crawford(1979) asserted that chemical properties…...
  • Authors name in reverse. Year. Title of Article. Full title of journal in italics, Volume/issue/part number, page numbers.
    Winwood, I., 2007. J Rocks! Japanese Cult Runs Riot in the Land of the Setting Sun.Kerrang! , Aug 2007,
    Magazine or Journal Article
  • Authorship or Source, Year, Title of web document or webpage,(type of medium)(date of update if available)Available at: website address /URL(Accessed date)
    Anglia University, 2011, Harvard System of Referencing (Online)(12 May 2010)Available at (25 August 2011.
  • An in-text reference for this webpage article would look like this:
    Research shows that Harvard referencing is generally preferred (Anglia University, 2010) when citing for the extended project qualification or for under-graduate work …..
  • Articles by more than one author
    Newspaper Articles
    Internet Images
    Personal Communication (conversation)
    Other Sources
  • E-Resources
  • from the very beginning
    Create a Bibliography as you go along.
    Record everything.
    Keep dates of visits to websites
    Using a variety of sources creates the basis for a strong piece of analysis.
  • Grytr, 2003. Newton by Eduardo Paolozzi.[photograph] Available at:[Accessed o5 September 2011].
    ‘Newton, Isaac (1642–1727)’ 2009, in The Hutchinson Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Helicon, Abington, United Kingdom, viewed 15 September 2011, <from>
    Anglia University, 2011, Harvard System of Referencing (Online)(12 May 2010)Available at (25 August 2011).
    Grateful thanks to: