HOMER
Themes in the Iliad.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Aims:
To introduce important themes in the Iliad.
Objectives:

1. To identify the 5 most important the...
CAN YOU IDENTIFY THIS HERO?

Achilles binds Patroclos’ wounds. Red
Figure Pot 500 BC

Achilles fights Hector Red Figure Po...
1. HEROIC VALUES
Kleos:
• Translates as ‘glory’ or ‘what others say about you’
• Heros constantly try to gain Kleos throug...
• Modern
statue of
the
Fates.
2. FATE
• Various figures are ruled by a fate that they are aware of.
• Famously Achilles can choose between long life or ...
• Red figure
vase of a
Symposium
by the
Nicias
painter. 4th
Century BC
3. LITERARY TECHNIQUES
• Structure. Is the Iliad chronological? Why does it move around?
• Characterisation. How does Home...
• Black figure
pot of
Neoptolemus
killing Priam.
520 BC
4. HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS
• Marriage – The role of women as tragic figures. Helen of Troy.
• Old men – Their wisdom and suffe...
Red Figure Pot
showing Apollo C5
BC

The kidnapping of Thetis Red
Figure Pot C5 BC
Zeus of Smyrna
5. THE GODS
• The Gods have human characteristics. Drinking, cheating and
squabbling.

• Divine intervention. The gods int...
SOME ESSAY QUESTIONS
• ‘Mortal women are always in the background in Homer.’ To what extent
do you agree with this stateme...
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
Aims:
To introduce important themes in the Iliad.
Objectives:

1. To identify the 5 most important the...
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Homeric themes

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Homeric themes

  1. 1. HOMER Themes in the Iliad.
  2. 2. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Aims: To introduce important themes in the Iliad. Objectives: 1. To identify the 5 most important themes in the Iliad. 2. To discuss the 5 themes and associated terms. 3. To evaluate the relevance of these themes by looking at exam questions.
  3. 3. CAN YOU IDENTIFY THIS HERO? Achilles binds Patroclos’ wounds. Red Figure Pot 500 BC Achilles fights Hector Red Figure Pot 490 BC
  4. 4. 1. HEROIC VALUES Kleos: • Translates as ‘glory’ or ‘what others say about you’ • Heros constantly try to gain Kleos through fighting. Time: • Translates as ‘honour’ or ‘esteem’. • Heros are always after recognition of their greatness. • They are grossly offended when not correctly acknowledged.
  5. 5. • Modern statue of the Fates.
  6. 6. 2. FATE • Various figures are ruled by a fate that they are aware of. • Famously Achilles can choose between long life or eternal glory. • Hector is also aware of his eventual fate. • Fate is enforced by the gods. Is it the same as the will of Zeus? • However Homer is not consistent. Fate can change. • Death is fixed by fate but the manner of it is your own choosing.
  7. 7. • Red figure vase of a Symposium by the Nicias painter. 4th Century BC
  8. 8. 3. LITERARY TECHNIQUES • Structure. Is the Iliad chronological? Why does it move around? • Characterisation. How does Homer portray a hero’s personality? • Speeches. A chance for the poet to speak in character? • Repetition. A memory technique. • Heroic similes and metaphors. Purpose and meaning. • Symbolism, Imagery, Allegory. Is the whole book allegorical?
  9. 9. • Black figure pot of Neoptolemus killing Priam. 520 BC
  10. 10. 4. HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS • Marriage – The role of women as tragic figures. Helen of Troy. • Old men – Their wisdom and suffering. King Priam and Achilles. • Leadership and Status – Agamemnon and Achilles quarrel. • Platonic Love? – Achilles and Patroclos. • Traditional interactions - Guest Friendship (Xenia) Diomedes and Glaucos.
  11. 11. Red Figure Pot showing Apollo C5 BC The kidnapping of Thetis Red Figure Pot C5 BC Zeus of Smyrna
  12. 12. 5. THE GODS • The Gods have human characteristics. Drinking, cheating and squabbling. • Divine intervention. The gods intervene to help their favourites. • The relationship with humans. Playthings? Aphrodite and Helen. • Divine morality. Some argue that the gods are portrayed as spoilt children and worthy of fear but not respect or trust. • Does immortality rob the gods of honour and bravery?
  13. 13. SOME ESSAY QUESTIONS • ‘Mortal women are always in the background in Homer.’ To what extent do you agree with this statement. • How important are old men in the Iliad? • Do think the Iliad would be weakened if the immortals were removed from the story? • In the Iliad fate makes all the actions of mortal and immortal characters pointless. Discuss.
  14. 14. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Aims: To introduce important themes in the Iliad. Objectives: 1. To identify the 5 most important themes in the Iliad. 2. To discuss the 5 themes and associated terms. 3. To evaluate the relevance of these themes by looking at exam questions.
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