Horizontal Leadership – Mastering Change and Complexity • Important Business Challenges -‐ more and more oBen found between rather than in the organizaFonal boxes? How to lead horizontally across• organizational boundaries without a formal authority and mandate? Gunnar Westling, Ph D, Center for Advanced Studies in Leadership at the Stockholm School of Economics
The Challenge Overall, research and 2000 years of change experience suggests: 70 % of all change initiatives fail Michael Beer and Nitin Nohria 2000
The Challenge Johns HopkinsRule of Change:90%of all terminally illpatients will notmakelifestyle changesnecessary to savetheir life.
By necessity, horizontal interac;on and interdependencies creates interpersonal mush Interpersonal Mush -‐ an interac;on by two or more people based on stories they have made up about each other that they haven’t checked out
By necessity, horizontal collaborations creates interpersoHow to create value out of mush? Help each other to create interpersonal clarity = Know what my experience is, know what your experience is, and know the diﬀerence between them
Experience Cube Observa;ons Thoughts • The informaFon you get from your • What happens in your mind senses. • Thoughts, interpretaFons, • What you see and hear, mainly. fantasies... • No interpretaFons, thoughts or • Share by describing your view, no feelings. truths • SelecFve percepFon -‐ check -‐receipt. • SelecFve percepFon -‐ check -‐ receipt. • You own your reﬂecFons. Will/wants Feelings • The needs you get in contact with • What happens in your body • What you wish • Feelings, sensaFons, reacFons • What you want to do • Share by describing your view, no • What acFons you want to take truths • SelecFve percepFon -‐ check -‐ receipt. • You own your feelings.
Challenges during the ”Good ol’ Fmes” ”I believe that this na;on should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth” Eight years later… President John F. Kennedys A Special Address to Congress On The Importance of Space May 25, 1961
InternaFonal space staFon – cooperaFon between 15 naFons “In some ways it was easier to go to the moon, because we had total control,” Cabana (Astronaut) said. “We didn’t have to ask, ’What is your opinion on this? How do you want to do it? You know, we just dictated to ourselves how we are going to do it.’ But those days are gone. (O’Brien, M. “Earthly Woes Mount for InternaFonal Space StaFon” CNN.com, May 29, 2000.) In the new era of exploring space, the biggest challenge is on ground rather than in space.
“Ver;cal leadership” Manage a group, unit, or funcFon Deﬁned responsibility -‐ authorizaFon Allocated resources Rou$nes + processes + problem solving “Horizontal leadership” Manage tasks laterally across the organizaFon OBen challenges of great importance – unclear who is responsible Resource allocaFon based on negoFaFon/consent of others Sencemaking+ network + prototypes
CooperaFon and leadership across organizaFonal barriers. Is it a good idea? • Overall, research recommends: ”Don’t do it, unless you have to” (Huxham och Vangen, 2005)
More ”wicked” problems? Type of problem • The problem itself appears as fragmented • The problem cannot be understood before soluFons are tried out in pracFce • SoluFons oBen create new problems ”Wicked” • The problem can not reach its ﬁnal soluFon, There is not “stop rule” • Diﬀerent stakeholder have diﬀerent views and ways to understand the problem ”Tame” • Sound soluFons can be worked out through analysis • Couse-‐eﬀect relaFonships hang together • It is possible to organize ways to solve the problem • Act fast and bring more resources Crisis Extraordinary situa$on
Linear ”tame” problem solving Working on ”wicked” problems Gather data Problem Analyze data Formulate solu;on Solu;on Implement solu;on Time
AdopFon curve Number of ”supporters” Typically expected Typically experienced (S-‐kurva) Time Source: Bresman, INSEAD
The ant perspecFve When we’re totally absorbed by the challenge
Conclusion -‐ The leadership challenge Challenges faced by organizaFons are foremost found in hinterland between units and organizaFons (rather the than falling neatly into boxes in the organizaFon ready to deal with them) It is thus as important, or more important, to understand and manage the social complexity of a problem as it is to solve the problem operaFvely/technically
Conclusion: How to lead horizontally?1. Big enough idea or vision and yet focused enough to create action2. Understand links between the challenge and the organization’s mission and competitiveness3. Carefully map stakeholders and their interests4. Find a sponsor (insurance in bad times)5. To be influenced is the best method to influence others.6. Variation, innovation and “language games”7. Respectful collaboration in small groups (create a “fellowship”8. Early, hands-on prototypes!9. Dare to confront10. Endurance (”S-curve”)