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MICROBIOLOGY                               WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION Chapter 26 Applied and Environmental M...
Food Microbiology    • Microorganisms involved in producing many foods and beverages    • Fermentation produces characteri...
Food Microbiology   • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production      – Fermentation (in food microbiology terms)     ...
Food Microbiology   • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production      – Starter cultures used in commercial food and b...
The cheese-making processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.1
Food Microbiology   • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production      – Products of alcoholic fermentation          – ...
The wine-making processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.2
The beer-brewing processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.3
Food Microbiology   • The Causes of Food Spoilage           – Food spoilage results from intrinsic or extrinsic factors   ...
Food Microbiology    • The Causes of Food Spoilage       – Classifying foods in terms of potential for spoilage           ...
Food Microbiology   • The Causes of Food Spoilage      – The prevention of food spoilage          – Food-processing method...
Industrial canningCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.4
Food Microbiology   • The Causes of Food Spoilage      – The prevention of food spoilage               – Use of preservati...
Food Microbiology   • The Causes of Food Spoilage      – The prevention of food spoilage          – Attention to temperatu...
Food Microbiology   • Foodborne Illnesses      – Due to consumption of spoiled foods or foods containg harmful        micr...
Industrial Microbiology   • Important field within the microbiological sciences   • Industrial microbiology used in variou...
Industrial Microbiology   • The Roles of Microbes in Industrial Fermentations           – Industrial fermentations        ...
Industrial Microbiology   • The Roles of Microbes in Industrial Fermentations      – Primary metabolites          – Produc...
Fermentation vatsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.5
Industrial Microbiology   • Industrial Products of Microorganisms           – Microorganisms produce array of industrially...
Industrial Microbiology   • Industrial Products of Microorganisms           – Enzymes and other industrial products       ...
Burning methane gas released from a landfillCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.        Figure 26.6
Industrial Microbiology   • Industrial Products of Microorganisms       – Pesticides and agricultural products          – ...
Environmental Microbiology  • Water Treatment     – Water pollution         – Water pollution can occur three ways        ...
Environmental Microbiology  • Water Treatment     – Waterborne illnesses         – Consuming contaminated water can cause ...
Environmental Microbiology   • Water Treatment           – Treatment of drinking water                  – Potable water is...
The treatment of drinking waterCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.7
Environmental Microbiology      • Water Treatment         – Water quality testing             – Majority of waterborne ill...
Two water quality testsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.8
Environmental Microbiology  • Water Treatment         – Treatment of wastewater                 – Wastewater (sewage)     ...
Traditional sewage treatmentCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.9
A home septic systemCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.10
Wastewater treatment in an artificial wetlandCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.         Figure 26.11
Environmental Microbiology   • Studies the microorganisms as they occur in their natural habitats   • Microbes flourish in...
Environmental Microbiology   • Microbial Ecology           – Study of the interrelationships among microorganisms and the ...
Relationship among microorganisms and the environmentCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.         Figure 26.12
Environmental Microbiology   • Microbial Ecology           – Role of adaptation in microbial survival                  – M...
Environmental Microbiology   • Microbial Ecology           – Role of adaptation in microbial survival                  – B...
Environmental Microbiology   • Bioremediation           – Uses organisms to clean up toxic, hazardous, or recalcitrant    ...
Environmental Microbiology   • Two Types of Bioremediation      – Natural bioremediation          – Microbes “encouraged” ...
Environmental Microbiology    • The Problem of Acid Mine Drainage            – Drainage results from exposure of certain m...
The effects of acid mine drainageCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.13
An acid-loving microbeCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.14
Environmental Microbiology   • Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycles           – Biogeochemical cycles          ...
Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycles       – Biogeochemical cycling entails three p...
Simplified carbon cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.15
Simplified nitrogen cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.16
Simplified sulfur cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Figure 26.17
Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycle       – Phosphorus cycle              – Phospho...
Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycle       – The cycling of metals              – Me...
Environmental Microbiology   • Soil Microbiology           – Examines the roles played by organisms living in soil        ...
The distribution of microorganisms and nutrients in soilCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.              Figure 26.18
Environmental Microbiology    • Soil Microbiology            – Environmental factors affecting microbial abundance in soil...
Environmental Microbiology   • Soil Microbiology           – Environmental factors affecting microbial abundance in soils ...
Environmental Microbiology   • Soil Microbiology      – Microbial populations in soils           – Microbial populations p...
Selected soilborne diseases of humans and plantsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.            Table 26.7
Environmental Microbiology    • Aquatic Microbiology       – Study of microbes living in freshwater and marine environment...
Environmental Microbiology    • Aquatic Microbiology       – Types of aquatic habitats          – Freshwater systems      ...
Vertical zonation in deep bodies of waterCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.     Figure 26.19
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism   • Microbes can be fashioned into biological weapons   • Bioterrorism           – Use...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism  • Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or    Terror      – Not all...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism  • Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or    Terror         – Crit...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism• Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror       – Criteria fo...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism• Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror       – Criteria fo...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism   • Known Microbial Threats           – Various microorganisms currently considered th...
Bioterrorist threats to humansCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.   Table 26.8
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism   • Known Microbial Threats         – Animal pathogens               – Divided into ca...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism   • Known Microbial Threats           – Plant pathogens                  – Most potent...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism   • Defense Against Bioterrorism           – Much can be done to limit impact of an at...
One aspect of the response to a bioterrorist attackCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.               Figure 26.20
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism   • Defense Against Bioterrorism           – Agroterrorism                  – There is...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism   • The Roles of Recombinant Genetic Technology in Bioterrorism           – Could use ...
Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism   • The Roles of Recombinant Genetic Technology in Bioterrorism           – Could be u...
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Applications of microbiology

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  1. 1. MICROBIOLOGY WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION Chapter 26 Applied and Environmental Microbiology Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, KnoxvilleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  2. 2. Food Microbiology • Microorganisms involved in producing many foods and beverages • Fermentation produces characteristic flavors, aromas, and consistencies of various foods • Microbial metabolism has other functions – Acts as a preservative – Destroys many pathogenic microbes and toxins – Can add nutritional value in form of vitamins or other nutrients • Microbes are used in food production • Microbes can control activity that would result in food spoilageCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  3. 3. Food Microbiology • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production – Fermentation (in food microbiology terms) – Any desirable change that occurs to a food or beverage as a result of microbial growth – Spoilage is unwanted change to a food due to various reasons – Undesirable metabolic reactions – Growth of pathogens – Presence of unwanted microorganisms in the foodCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  4. 4. Food Microbiology • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production – Starter cultures used in commercial food and beverage production – Composed of known microorganisms that consistently perform specific fermentations – Many common products result from fermentation of vegetables, meats, and dairy productsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  5. 5. The cheese-making processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.1
  6. 6. Food Microbiology • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production – Products of alcoholic fermentation – Alcoholic fermentation – Process by which various microorganisms convert simple sugars into alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide (CO2) – Specific starter cultures used in the large-scale commercial applications of alcohol fermentation – Various alcoholic products made through fermentationCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  7. 7. The wine-making processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.2
  8. 8. The beer-brewing processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.3
  9. 9. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – Food spoilage results from intrinsic or extrinsic factors – Intrinsic factors – Inherent properties of the food itself – Extrinsic factors – Involved with the processing or handling of foodCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  10. 10. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – Classifying foods in terms of potential for spoilage – Three categories based on likelihood of spoilage – Perishable – Nutrient rich, moist, and unprotected by coverings – Semi-perishable – Can store sealed for months without spoiling – Many fermented foods are semi-perishable – Nonperishable – Dry or canned foods that can be stored indefinitely – Often nutrient poor, dried, fermented, or preservedCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  11. 11. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – The prevention of food spoilage – Food-processing methods – Industrial canning – Eliminates mesophilic bacteria and endospores – Pasteurization – Lowers microbe numbers but some microbes survive – Lyophilization – A vacuum draws off ice crystals from frozen foods – Gamma radiation – Can achieve complete sterilizationCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  12. 12. Industrial canningCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.4
  13. 13. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – The prevention of food spoilage – Use of preservatives – Salt and sugar remove water from the food – Garlic contains allicin, which inhibits enzyme function – Benzoic acid interferes with enzymatic function – Certain spices and herbs interfere with the functions of membranes of microorganisms – Chemical preservatives can be purposely added to foodsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  14. 14. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – The prevention of food spoilage – Attention to temperature during processing and storage – High temperatures desirable to prevent food spoilage – Proteins and enzymes become denatured – Low temperatures are desirable for food storage – Cold slows metabolism and retards microbial growth – Listeria monocytogenes can grow in cold storage – Found in certain dairy productsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  15. 15. Food Microbiology • Foodborne Illnesses – Due to consumption of spoiled foods or foods containg harmful microbes or their products – Two categories of food poisoning – Food infections – Consumption of living microorganisms – Food intoxications – Consumption of microbial toxins rather than the microbe – Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, and muscle crampsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  16. 16. Industrial Microbiology • Important field within the microbiological sciences • Industrial microbiology used in various applications – Microbes in fermentation – Microbes in the production of several industrial products – Treatment of water and wastewaters – Disposal and cleanup of biological wastes – Treatment of mine drainageCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  17. 17. Industrial Microbiology • The Roles of Microbes in Industrial Fermentations – Industrial fermentations – Large-scale growth of particular microbes for producing beneficial compounds – Examples include amino acids and vitaminsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  18. 18. Industrial Microbiology • The Roles of Microbes in Industrial Fermentations – Primary metabolites – Produced during active growth and metabolism – Required for reproduction or are by-products of metabolism – Secondary metabolites – Produced after the culture has entered stationary growth – Substances are not immediately needed for growthCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  19. 19. Fermentation vatsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.5
  20. 20. Industrial Microbiology • Industrial Products of Microorganisms – Microorganisms produce array of industrially useful chemicals – Recombinant organisms add to this diversity – Produce substances not normally manufactured by microbial cellsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  21. 21. Industrial Microbiology • Industrial Products of Microorganisms – Enzymes and other industrial products – Microbial products used as food additives and supplements – Include vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, dyes – Alternative fuels – Some microbes produce carbohydrates used as fuels – Other microbes convert biomass into renewable fuels – Pharmaceuticals – Includes antimicrobials, recombinant hormones, and other cell regulatorsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  22. 22. Burning methane gas released from a landfillCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.6
  23. 23. Industrial Microbiology • Industrial Products of Microorganisms – Pesticides and agricultural products – Microbes used to help crop management – Biosensors and bioreporters – Use of microorganisms to solve environmental problems – Biosensors – Bacteria or microbial products combined with electronic measuring devices – Bioreporters – Composed of microbes with innate signaling capabilitiesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  24. 24. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Water pollution – Water pollution can occur three ways – Physically – Presence of particulate matter – Chemically – Presence of inorganic or organic compounds – Biologically – Too many or non-native microorganisms – Polluted waters support a greater than normal microbial loadCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  25. 25. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Waterborne illnesses – Consuming contaminated water can cause various diseases – Diarrheal diseases occur worldwide – Waterborne diseases rare in the United States – Outbreaks are point-source infections – Water treatment removes most waterborne pathogensCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  26. 26. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Treatment of drinking water – Potable water is water considered safe to drink – Water is not devoid of microorganisms and chemicals – Levels are low enough that it is not a health concern – Presence of coliforms in water indicates fecal contamination – Increased likelihood disease-causing microbes present – Treatment of drinking water involves four stagesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  27. 27. The treatment of drinking waterCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.7
  28. 28. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Water quality testing – Majority of waterborne illnesses caused by fecally contaminated water – Indicator organisms signal possible presence of pathogens – E. coli or other coliforms used as indicator organisms – E. coli is a good indicator organism – Consistently found in human waste – Survives in water as long as most pathogens – Easily detected by simple testsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  29. 29. Two water quality testsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.8
  30. 30. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Treatment of wastewater – Wastewater (sewage) – Water that leaves homes or businesses after use – Wastewater contains a variety of contaminants – Treatment intended to remove or reduce contaminants – Processed to reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) – Oxygen needed by aerobic bacteria to metabolize wastes in water – Levels reduced so unable to support microbial growthCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  31. 31. Traditional sewage treatmentCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.9
  32. 32. A home septic systemCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.10
  33. 33. Wastewater treatment in an artificial wetlandCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.11
  34. 34. Environmental Microbiology • Studies the microorganisms as they occur in their natural habitats • Microbes flourish in every habitat on Earth • Microbes are important to the cycling of chemical elementsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  35. 35. Environmental Microbiology • Microbial Ecology – Study of the interrelationships among microorganisms and the environment – Two aspects to consider – Levels of microbial associations in the environment – Role of adaptation in microbial survivalCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  36. 36. Relationship among microorganisms and the environmentCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.12
  37. 37. Environmental Microbiology • Microbial Ecology – Role of adaptation in microbial survival – Most microorganisms live in harsh environments – Microbes must be specially adapted to survive – Microbes must adapt to constantly varying conditions – Extremophiles – Adapted to extremely harsh conditions – Can only survive in these habitatsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  38. 38. Environmental Microbiology • Microbial Ecology – Role of adaptation in microbial survival – Biodiversity held in balance by various checks – Competition – Best-adapted microorganisms have advantageous traits – Antagonism – One microbe actively inhibits the growth of another – Cooperation – One microbe makes environment favorable for othersCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  39. 39. Environmental Microbiology • Bioremediation – Uses organisms to clean up toxic, hazardous, or recalcitrant compounds by degrading them to harmless compounds – Most known application is use of bacteria to clean oil spillsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  40. 40. Environmental Microbiology • Two Types of Bioremediation – Natural bioremediation – Microbes “encouraged” to degrade toxic substances in soil or water – Addition of nutrients stimulate microbe growth – Artificial bioremediation – Genetically modified microbes specifically degrade certain pollutantsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  41. 41. Environmental Microbiology • The Problem of Acid Mine Drainage – Drainage results from exposure of certain metal ores to oxygen and microbial action – Resulting compounds are carried into streams and rivers – Causes decrease in pH – Can kill fish, plants, and other organisms – Acidic water unfit for human consumption – Some microbes flourish in these acidic conditionsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  42. 42. The effects of acid mine drainageCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.13
  43. 43. An acid-loving microbeCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.14
  44. 44. Environmental Microbiology • Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycles – Biogeochemical cycles – Processes by which organisms convert elements from one form to another – Elements often converted between oxidized and reduced forms – Involve the recycling of elements by organismsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  45. 45. Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycles – Biogeochemical cycling entails three processes – Production – Inorganic compounds converted into organic compounds – Consumption – Organisms feed on producers and other consumers – Decomposition – Conversion of organic compounds in dead organisms into inorganic compoundsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  46. 46. Simplified carbon cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.15
  47. 47. Simplified nitrogen cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.16
  48. 48. Simplified sulfur cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.17
  49. 49. Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycle – Phosphorus cycle – Phosphorus undergoes little change in oxidation state in the environment – Phosphorus converted from insoluble to soluble forms – Becomes available for uptake by organisms – Conversion of phosphorus from organic to inorganic forms – Occurs by pH–dependent processesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  50. 50. Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycle – The cycling of metals – Metal ions are important microbial nutrients – Primarily involves transition from insoluble to soluble forms – Allows trace metals to be be used by organismsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  51. 51. Environmental Microbiology • Soil Microbiology – Examines the roles played by organisms living in soil – Nature of soils – Soil arises from the weathering of rocks – Soil also produced through the actions of microorganismsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  52. 52. The distribution of microorganisms and nutrients in soilCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.18
  53. 53. Environmental Microbiology • Soil Microbiology – Environmental factors affecting microbial abundance in soils – Moisture content – Moist soils support microbial growth better than dry soils – Oxygen – Oxygen dissolves poorly in water – Moist soils are lower in oxygen than dry soils – pH – Highly acidic and highly basic soils favor fungiCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  54. 54. Environmental Microbiology • Soil Microbiology – Environmental factors affecting microbial abundance in soils – Temperature – Most soil organisms are mesophiles – Nutrient availability – Microbial community size determined by how much organic material is availableCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  55. 55. Environmental Microbiology • Soil Microbiology – Microbial populations in soils – Microbial populations present in the soil – Bacteria are numerous and diverse inhabitants of soil – Archaea present but are difficult to culture and study – Fungi are also populous group of microorganisms – Algae and protozoa are also present in the soil – Microbes perform a number of functions – Cycle elements and convert them to usable form – Degrade dead organisms – Produce compounds with potential human usesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  56. 56. Selected soilborne diseases of humans and plantsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Table 26.7
  57. 57. Environmental Microbiology • Aquatic Microbiology – Study of microbes living in freshwater and marine environments – Water ecosystems support fewer microbes than soil – Due to dilution of nutrients – Types of aquatic habitats – Freshwater systems – characterized by low salt content – Marine systems – characterized by a salt content of about 3.5% – Specialized aquatic systems – salt lakes, iron springs, and sulfur springsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  58. 58. Environmental Microbiology • Aquatic Microbiology – Types of aquatic habitats – Freshwater systems – Characterized by low salt content – Marine systems – Characterized by a salt content of about 3.5% – Specialized aquatic systems – Salt lakes, iron springs, and sulfur springsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  59. 59. Vertical zonation in deep bodies of waterCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.19
  60. 60. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Microbes can be fashioned into biological weapons • Bioterrorism – Uses microbes or their toxins to terrorize human populations • Agroterrorism – Uses microbes to terrorize human populations by destroying the food supplyCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  61. 61. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror – Not all organisms have potential as biological weapons – Governments have criteria to assess biological threats to humans – Established to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to be “weaponized” – Helps focus research and defense efforts where neededCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  62. 62. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror – Criteria for biological threats to humans based on: – Public health impact – Ability of hospitals and clinics to handle the casualties – Delivery potential – How easily agent can be introduced into the population – Public perception – Effect of public fear on ability to control an outbreak – Public health preparedness – Existing response measuresCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  63. 63. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism• Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror – Criteria for assessing biological threats to livestock and poultry – Criteria similar to those used to evaluate potential human threats – Include agricultural impact, delivery potential, and plausible deniabilityCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  64. 64. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism• Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror – Criteria for assessing biological threats to agriculture crops – Plant diseases generally not as contagious as animal or human diseases – Criteria based on several factors – Predicted extent of crop loss – Delivery and dissemination potential – Containment potentialCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  65. 65. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Known Microbial Threats – Various microorganisms currently considered threats as agents of bioterrorism – Three types – Human pathogens – Animal pathogens – Plant pathogensCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  66. 66. Bioterrorist threats to humansCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Table 26.8
  67. 67. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Known Microbial Threats – Animal pathogens – Divided into categories based on level of danger – Some agents could potentially amplify an outbreak – Infect wild animal populations in addition to livestock – Foot-and-mouth disease is most dangerous of the agents – It affects all wild and domestic cloven-hoofed animalsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  68. 68. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Known Microbial Threats – Plant pathogens – Most potential agents are fungi – Dissemination could easily result in contamination of soils – All agents are naturally present – Detecting difference between a natural outbreak and an intentional attack would be difficultCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  69. 69. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Defense Against Bioterrorism – Much can be done to limit impact of an attack – Key is coupling surveillance with effective response protocolsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  70. 70. One aspect of the response to a bioterrorist attackCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.20
  71. 71. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Defense Against Bioterrorism – Agroterrorism – There is little security protecting nation’s agricultural enterprises – Livestock and poultry often moved around the country without being tested for disease – Many agricultural facilities are open to the public – Methods to help defend against agroterrorism – Screening of animals – Restricting public access to agricultural facilitiesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  72. 72. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • The Roles of Recombinant Genetic Technology in Bioterrorism – Could use to create new or modify biological threats – Traits of various agents could be combined to create novel agents – No immunity would exist in the population – Terrorists theoretically could make their own microbesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  73. 73. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • The Roles of Recombinant Genetic Technology in Bioterrorism – Could be used to thwart bioterrorism – Scientists can identify unique genetic sequences – May aid in tracking biological agents and determining their source – Genetic techniques could help develop vaccines, treatments, and pathogen-resistant cropsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
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