Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Applications of microbiology
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Applications of microbiology

14,458

Published on

0 Comments
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
14,458
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
501
Comments
0
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. MICROBIOLOGY WITH DISEASES BY TAXONOMY, THIRD EDITION Chapter 26 Applied and Environmental Microbiology Lecture prepared by Mindy Miller-Kittrell, University of Tennessee, KnoxvilleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 2. Food Microbiology • Microorganisms involved in producing many foods and beverages • Fermentation produces characteristic flavors, aromas, and consistencies of various foods • Microbial metabolism has other functions – Acts as a preservative – Destroys many pathogenic microbes and toxins – Can add nutritional value in form of vitamins or other nutrients • Microbes are used in food production • Microbes can control activity that would result in food spoilageCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 3. Food Microbiology • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production – Fermentation (in food microbiology terms) – Any desirable change that occurs to a food or beverage as a result of microbial growth – Spoilage is unwanted change to a food due to various reasons – Undesirable metabolic reactions – Growth of pathogens – Presence of unwanted microorganisms in the foodCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 4. Food Microbiology • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production – Starter cultures used in commercial food and beverage production – Composed of known microorganisms that consistently perform specific fermentations – Many common products result from fermentation of vegetables, meats, and dairy productsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 5. The cheese-making processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.1
  • 6. Food Microbiology • The Roles of Microorganisms in Food Production – Products of alcoholic fermentation – Alcoholic fermentation – Process by which various microorganisms convert simple sugars into alcohol (ethanol) and carbon dioxide (CO2) – Specific starter cultures used in the large-scale commercial applications of alcohol fermentation – Various alcoholic products made through fermentationCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 7. The wine-making processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.2
  • 8. The beer-brewing processCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.3
  • 9. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – Food spoilage results from intrinsic or extrinsic factors – Intrinsic factors – Inherent properties of the food itself – Extrinsic factors – Involved with the processing or handling of foodCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 10. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – Classifying foods in terms of potential for spoilage – Three categories based on likelihood of spoilage – Perishable – Nutrient rich, moist, and unprotected by coverings – Semi-perishable – Can store sealed for months without spoiling – Many fermented foods are semi-perishable – Nonperishable – Dry or canned foods that can be stored indefinitely – Often nutrient poor, dried, fermented, or preservedCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 11. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – The prevention of food spoilage – Food-processing methods – Industrial canning – Eliminates mesophilic bacteria and endospores – Pasteurization – Lowers microbe numbers but some microbes survive – Lyophilization – A vacuum draws off ice crystals from frozen foods – Gamma radiation – Can achieve complete sterilizationCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 12. Industrial canningCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.4
  • 13. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – The prevention of food spoilage – Use of preservatives – Salt and sugar remove water from the food – Garlic contains allicin, which inhibits enzyme function – Benzoic acid interferes with enzymatic function – Certain spices and herbs interfere with the functions of membranes of microorganisms – Chemical preservatives can be purposely added to foodsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 14. Food Microbiology • The Causes of Food Spoilage – The prevention of food spoilage – Attention to temperature during processing and storage – High temperatures desirable to prevent food spoilage – Proteins and enzymes become denatured – Low temperatures are desirable for food storage – Cold slows metabolism and retards microbial growth – Listeria monocytogenes can grow in cold storage – Found in certain dairy productsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 15. Food Microbiology • Foodborne Illnesses – Due to consumption of spoiled foods or foods containg harmful microbes or their products – Two categories of food poisoning – Food infections – Consumption of living microorganisms – Food intoxications – Consumption of microbial toxins rather than the microbe – Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, and muscle crampsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 16. Industrial Microbiology • Important field within the microbiological sciences • Industrial microbiology used in various applications – Microbes in fermentation – Microbes in the production of several industrial products – Treatment of water and wastewaters – Disposal and cleanup of biological wastes – Treatment of mine drainageCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 17. Industrial Microbiology • The Roles of Microbes in Industrial Fermentations – Industrial fermentations – Large-scale growth of particular microbes for producing beneficial compounds – Examples include amino acids and vitaminsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 18. Industrial Microbiology • The Roles of Microbes in Industrial Fermentations – Primary metabolites – Produced during active growth and metabolism – Required for reproduction or are by-products of metabolism – Secondary metabolites – Produced after the culture has entered stationary growth – Substances are not immediately needed for growthCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 19. Fermentation vatsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.5
  • 20. Industrial Microbiology • Industrial Products of Microorganisms – Microorganisms produce array of industrially useful chemicals – Recombinant organisms add to this diversity – Produce substances not normally manufactured by microbial cellsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 21. Industrial Microbiology • Industrial Products of Microorganisms – Enzymes and other industrial products – Microbial products used as food additives and supplements – Include vitamins, amino acids, organic acids, dyes – Alternative fuels – Some microbes produce carbohydrates used as fuels – Other microbes convert biomass into renewable fuels – Pharmaceuticals – Includes antimicrobials, recombinant hormones, and other cell regulatorsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 22. Burning methane gas released from a landfillCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.6
  • 23. Industrial Microbiology • Industrial Products of Microorganisms – Pesticides and agricultural products – Microbes used to help crop management – Biosensors and bioreporters – Use of microorganisms to solve environmental problems – Biosensors – Bacteria or microbial products combined with electronic measuring devices – Bioreporters – Composed of microbes with innate signaling capabilitiesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 24. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Water pollution – Water pollution can occur three ways – Physically – Presence of particulate matter – Chemically – Presence of inorganic or organic compounds – Biologically – Too many or non-native microorganisms – Polluted waters support a greater than normal microbial loadCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 25. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Waterborne illnesses – Consuming contaminated water can cause various diseases – Diarrheal diseases occur worldwide – Waterborne diseases rare in the United States – Outbreaks are point-source infections – Water treatment removes most waterborne pathogensCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 26. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Treatment of drinking water – Potable water is water considered safe to drink – Water is not devoid of microorganisms and chemicals – Levels are low enough that it is not a health concern – Presence of coliforms in water indicates fecal contamination – Increased likelihood disease-causing microbes present – Treatment of drinking water involves four stagesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 27. The treatment of drinking waterCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.7
  • 28. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Water quality testing – Majority of waterborne illnesses caused by fecally contaminated water – Indicator organisms signal possible presence of pathogens – E. coli or other coliforms used as indicator organisms – E. coli is a good indicator organism – Consistently found in human waste – Survives in water as long as most pathogens – Easily detected by simple testsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 29. Two water quality testsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.8
  • 30. Environmental Microbiology • Water Treatment – Treatment of wastewater – Wastewater (sewage) – Water that leaves homes or businesses after use – Wastewater contains a variety of contaminants – Treatment intended to remove or reduce contaminants – Processed to reduce the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) – Oxygen needed by aerobic bacteria to metabolize wastes in water – Levels reduced so unable to support microbial growthCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 31. Traditional sewage treatmentCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.9
  • 32. A home septic systemCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.10
  • 33. Wastewater treatment in an artificial wetlandCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.11
  • 34. Environmental Microbiology • Studies the microorganisms as they occur in their natural habitats • Microbes flourish in every habitat on Earth • Microbes are important to the cycling of chemical elementsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 35. Environmental Microbiology • Microbial Ecology – Study of the interrelationships among microorganisms and the environment – Two aspects to consider – Levels of microbial associations in the environment – Role of adaptation in microbial survivalCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 36. Relationship among microorganisms and the environmentCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.12
  • 37. Environmental Microbiology • Microbial Ecology – Role of adaptation in microbial survival – Most microorganisms live in harsh environments – Microbes must be specially adapted to survive – Microbes must adapt to constantly varying conditions – Extremophiles – Adapted to extremely harsh conditions – Can only survive in these habitatsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 38. Environmental Microbiology • Microbial Ecology – Role of adaptation in microbial survival – Biodiversity held in balance by various checks – Competition – Best-adapted microorganisms have advantageous traits – Antagonism – One microbe actively inhibits the growth of another – Cooperation – One microbe makes environment favorable for othersCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 39. Environmental Microbiology • Bioremediation – Uses organisms to clean up toxic, hazardous, or recalcitrant compounds by degrading them to harmless compounds – Most known application is use of bacteria to clean oil spillsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 40. Environmental Microbiology • Two Types of Bioremediation – Natural bioremediation – Microbes “encouraged” to degrade toxic substances in soil or water – Addition of nutrients stimulate microbe growth – Artificial bioremediation – Genetically modified microbes specifically degrade certain pollutantsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 41. Environmental Microbiology • The Problem of Acid Mine Drainage – Drainage results from exposure of certain metal ores to oxygen and microbial action – Resulting compounds are carried into streams and rivers – Causes decrease in pH – Can kill fish, plants, and other organisms – Acidic water unfit for human consumption – Some microbes flourish in these acidic conditionsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 42. The effects of acid mine drainageCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.13
  • 43. An acid-loving microbeCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.14
  • 44. Environmental Microbiology • Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycles – Biogeochemical cycles – Processes by which organisms convert elements from one form to another – Elements often converted between oxidized and reduced forms – Involve the recycling of elements by organismsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 45. Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycles – Biogeochemical cycling entails three processes – Production – Inorganic compounds converted into organic compounds – Consumption – Organisms feed on producers and other consumers – Decomposition – Conversion of organic compounds in dead organisms into inorganic compoundsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 46. Simplified carbon cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.15
  • 47. Simplified nitrogen cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.16
  • 48. Simplified sulfur cycleCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.17
  • 49. Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycle – Phosphorus cycle – Phosphorus undergoes little change in oxidation state in the environment – Phosphorus converted from insoluble to soluble forms – Becomes available for uptake by organisms – Conversion of phosphorus from organic to inorganic forms – Occurs by pH–dependent processesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 50. Environmental Microbiology• Role of Microorganisms in Biogeochemical Cycle – The cycling of metals – Metal ions are important microbial nutrients – Primarily involves transition from insoluble to soluble forms – Allows trace metals to be be used by organismsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 51. Environmental Microbiology • Soil Microbiology – Examines the roles played by organisms living in soil – Nature of soils – Soil arises from the weathering of rocks – Soil also produced through the actions of microorganismsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 52. The distribution of microorganisms and nutrients in soilCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.18
  • 53. Environmental Microbiology • Soil Microbiology – Environmental factors affecting microbial abundance in soils – Moisture content – Moist soils support microbial growth better than dry soils – Oxygen – Oxygen dissolves poorly in water – Moist soils are lower in oxygen than dry soils – pH – Highly acidic and highly basic soils favor fungiCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 54. Environmental Microbiology • Soil Microbiology – Environmental factors affecting microbial abundance in soils – Temperature – Most soil organisms are mesophiles – Nutrient availability – Microbial community size determined by how much organic material is availableCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 55. Environmental Microbiology • Soil Microbiology – Microbial populations in soils – Microbial populations present in the soil – Bacteria are numerous and diverse inhabitants of soil – Archaea present but are difficult to culture and study – Fungi are also populous group of microorganisms – Algae and protozoa are also present in the soil – Microbes perform a number of functions – Cycle elements and convert them to usable form – Degrade dead organisms – Produce compounds with potential human usesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 56. Selected soilborne diseases of humans and plantsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Table 26.7
  • 57. Environmental Microbiology • Aquatic Microbiology – Study of microbes living in freshwater and marine environments – Water ecosystems support fewer microbes than soil – Due to dilution of nutrients – Types of aquatic habitats – Freshwater systems – characterized by low salt content – Marine systems – characterized by a salt content of about 3.5% – Specialized aquatic systems – salt lakes, iron springs, and sulfur springsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 58. Environmental Microbiology • Aquatic Microbiology – Types of aquatic habitats – Freshwater systems – Characterized by low salt content – Marine systems – Characterized by a salt content of about 3.5% – Specialized aquatic systems – Salt lakes, iron springs, and sulfur springsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 59. Vertical zonation in deep bodies of waterCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.19
  • 60. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Microbes can be fashioned into biological weapons • Bioterrorism – Uses microbes or their toxins to terrorize human populations • Agroterrorism – Uses microbes to terrorize human populations by destroying the food supplyCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 61. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror – Not all organisms have potential as biological weapons – Governments have criteria to assess biological threats to humans – Established to evaluate the potential of microorganisms to be “weaponized” – Helps focus research and defense efforts where neededCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 62. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror – Criteria for biological threats to humans based on: – Public health impact – Ability of hospitals and clinics to handle the casualties – Delivery potential – How easily agent can be introduced into the population – Public perception – Effect of public fear on ability to control an outbreak – Public health preparedness – Existing response measuresCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 63. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism• Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror – Criteria for assessing biological threats to livestock and poultry – Criteria similar to those used to evaluate potential human threats – Include agricultural impact, delivery potential, and plausible deniabilityCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 64. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism• Assessing Microorganisms as Potential Agents of Warfare or Terror – Criteria for assessing biological threats to agriculture crops – Plant diseases generally not as contagious as animal or human diseases – Criteria based on several factors – Predicted extent of crop loss – Delivery and dissemination potential – Containment potentialCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 65. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Known Microbial Threats – Various microorganisms currently considered threats as agents of bioterrorism – Three types – Human pathogens – Animal pathogens – Plant pathogensCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 66. Bioterrorist threats to humansCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Table 26.8
  • 67. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Known Microbial Threats – Animal pathogens – Divided into categories based on level of danger – Some agents could potentially amplify an outbreak – Infect wild animal populations in addition to livestock – Foot-and-mouth disease is most dangerous of the agents – It affects all wild and domestic cloven-hoofed animalsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 68. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Known Microbial Threats – Plant pathogens – Most potential agents are fungi – Dissemination could easily result in contamination of soils – All agents are naturally present – Detecting difference between a natural outbreak and an intentional attack would be difficultCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 69. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Defense Against Bioterrorism – Much can be done to limit impact of an attack – Key is coupling surveillance with effective response protocolsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 70. One aspect of the response to a bioterrorist attackCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 26.20
  • 71. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • Defense Against Bioterrorism – Agroterrorism – There is little security protecting nation’s agricultural enterprises – Livestock and poultry often moved around the country without being tested for disease – Many agricultural facilities are open to the public – Methods to help defend against agroterrorism – Screening of animals – Restricting public access to agricultural facilitiesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 72. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • The Roles of Recombinant Genetic Technology in Bioterrorism – Could use to create new or modify biological threats – Traits of various agents could be combined to create novel agents – No immunity would exist in the population – Terrorists theoretically could make their own microbesCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.
  • 73. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism • The Roles of Recombinant Genetic Technology in Bioterrorism – Could be used to thwart bioterrorism – Scientists can identify unique genetic sequences – May aid in tracking biological agents and determining their source – Genetic techniques could help develop vaccines, treatments, and pathogen-resistant cropsCopyright © 2011 Pearson Education Inc.

×